Wabun code

The Wabun code (和文モールス符号 wabun mōrusu fugō, Japanese text in Morse code) is a form of Morse code used to send Japanese text. Unlike International Morse Code, which represents letters of the Latin script, in Wabun each symbol represents a Japanese kana. For this reason, Wabun code is also sometimes called Kana code.

When Wabun Code is intermixed with International Morse code, the prosign DO (▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄) is used to announce the beginning of Wabun, and the prosign SN (▄▄▄▄▄) is used to return to International Code.

Wabun code
Language(s)Japanese (basic support)
Classificationnon-Latin Morse code for Katakana
Succeeded byJIS X 0201

Chart

Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Mora Code Punctuation Code
a ア ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ka カ ▄▄▄▄▄ sa サ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ta タ ▄▄▄▄▄ na ナ ▄▄▄▄▄ ha ハ ▄▄▄▄▄ ma マ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ya ヤ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ra ラ ▄▄ wa ワ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ Dakuten ◌゛ ▄▄
i イ ▄▄▄▄▄ ki キ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ shiシ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ chiチ ▄▄▄▄▄ ni ニ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ hi ヒ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ mi ミ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ri リ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ (wi ヰ) ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ Handakuten ◌゜ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
u ウ ▄▄▄▄▄ ku ク ▄▄▄▄▄ su ス ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ tsuツ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ nu ヌ ▄▄ fu フ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ mu ム ▄▄▄▄▄ yu ユ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ru ル ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ n ン ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ Long vowel ◌̄ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
e エ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ke ケ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ se セ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ te テ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ne ネ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ he ヘ ▄▄ me メ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ re レ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ (we ヱ) ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ Comma 、 ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
o オ ▄▄▄▄▄ ko コ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ so ソ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ to ト ▄▄▄▄▄ no ノ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ho ホ ▄▄▄▄▄ mo モ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ yo ヨ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ro ロ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ wo ヲ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ Full stop 。 ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

Expanded katakana Wabun chart

Katakana syllabograms
Monographs (gojūon) Digraphs (yōon)
a i u e o ya yu yo

a
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

i
▄▄▄▄▄

u
▄▄▄▄▄

e
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

o
▄▄▄▄▄
K
ka
▄▄▄▄▄

ki
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ku
▄▄▄▄▄

ke
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ko
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
キャ
kya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
キュ
kyu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
キョ
kyo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
S
sa
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

shi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

su
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

se
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

so
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
シャ
sha
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
シュ
shu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ショ
sho
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
T
ta
▄▄▄▄▄

chi
▄▄▄▄▄

tsu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

te
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

to
▄▄▄▄▄
チャ
cha
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
チュ
chu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
チョ
cho
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
N
na
▄▄▄▄▄

ni
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

nu
▄▄

ne
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

no
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ニャ
nya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ニュ
nyu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ニョ
nyo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
H
ha
▄▄▄▄▄

hi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

fu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

he
▄▄

ho
▄▄▄▄▄
ヒャ
hya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ヒュ
hyu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ヒョ
hyo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
M
ma
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

mi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

mu
▄▄▄▄▄

me
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

mo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ミャ
mya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ミュ
myu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ミョ
myo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Y
ya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

yu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

yo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
R
ra
▄▄

ri
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ru
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

re
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ro
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
リャ
rya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
リュ
ryu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
リョ
ryo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
W
wa
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

(wi)
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

(we)
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

wo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
*
n
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

Comma
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

Full stop
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Dakuten ◌゛
Diacritic
▄▄
Handakuten ◌゜
Diacritic
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Chōonpu
Long Vowel
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Diacritics (gojūon with dakuten) Digraphs with diacritics (yōon with dakuten)
a i u e o ya yu yo
G
(K)

ga
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

gi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

gu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ge
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

go
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ギャ
gya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ギュ
gyu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ギョ
gyo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Z
(S)

za
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ji
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

zu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ze
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

zo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ジャ
ja
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ジュ
ju
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ジョ
jo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
D
(T)

da
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

ji
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

zu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

de
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

do
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ヂャ
ja
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ヂュ
ju
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ヂョ
jo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
B
(H)

ba
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

bi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

bu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

be
▄▄▄▄

bo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ビャ
bya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ビュ
byu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ビョ
byo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
Diacritics (gojūon with handakuten) Digraphs with diacritics (yōon with handakuten)
a i u e o ya yu yo
P
(H)

pa
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

pi
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

pu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

pe
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

po
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ピャ
pya
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ピュ
pyu
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
ピョ
pyo
▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄

See also

External links

A (kana)

あ in hiragana or ア in katakana (romanised a) is one of the Japanese kana that each represent one mora. あ is based on the sōsho style of kanji 安, and ア is from the radical of kanji 阿. In the modern Japanese system of alphabetical order, it occupies the first position of the alphabet, before い. Additionally, it is the 36th letter in Iroha, after て, before さ. Its hiragana resembles the kana no combined with a cross. The Unicode for あ is U+3042, and the Unicode for ア is U+30A2.

The characters represent [a].

Code page 1287

Code page 1287, also known as CP1287, DEC Greek (8-bit) and EL8DEC, is one of the code pages implemented for the VT220 terminals. It supports the Greek language.

Code page 1288

Code page 1288, also known as CP1288, DEC Turkish (8-bit) and TR8DEC, is one of the code pages implemented for the VT220 terminals. It supports the Turkish language.

Ga (kana)

が, in hiragana, or ガ in katakana (が ), is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ɡa].

Gi (kana)

ぎ, in hiragana, or ギ in katakana (pronunciation ), is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ɡi].

ISO/IEC 8859-12

ISO/IEC 8859-12 would have been part 12 of the ISO/IEC 8859 character encoding standard series.

ISO 8859-12 was originally proposed to support the Celtic languages. ISO 8859-12 was later slated for Latin/Devanagari, but this was abandoned in 1997, during the 12th meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 in Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 4 to 7 July 1997. The Celtic proposal was changed to ISO 8859-14.

ISO/IEC 8859-16

ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 16: Latin alphabet No. 10, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin-10 or South-Eastern European. It was designed to cover Albanian, Croatian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian and Slovenian, but also French, German, Italian and Irish Gaelic (new orthography).

ISO-8859-16 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429.

Microsoft has assigned code page 28606 a.k.a. Windows-28606 to ISO-8859-16.

ISO/IEC 8859-3

ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin-3 or South European. It was designed to cover Turkish, Maltese and Esperanto, though the introduction of ISO/IEC 8859-9 superseded it for Turkish. The encoding remains popular with users of Esperanto, though use is waning as application support for Unicode becomes more common.

ISO-8859-3 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Microsoft has assigned code page 28593 a.k.a. Windows-28593 to ISO-8859-3 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 913 to ISO 8859-3.

ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language, designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet:

ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016.Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9.

Ka (kana)

か, in hiragana, or カ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ka]. The shapes of these kana both originate from 加.

The character can be combined with a dakuten, to form が in hiragana, ガ in katakana, and ga in Hepburn romanization. The phonetic value of the modified character is [ɡa] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋa] and [ɣa] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ka in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋa].

か is the most commonly used interrogatory particle. It is also sometimes used to delimit choices.

が is used to denote the focus of attention in a sentence, especially to the grammatical subject.

Historical usage in Yōon くゎ Current usage in か .

Ke (kana)

け, in hiragana, or ケ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. Both represent [ke]. The shape of these kana come from the kanji 計 and 介, respectively.

A dakuten may be added to this character; this changes it to げ in hiragana, ゲ in katakana, ge in Hepburn romanization, and the pronunciation shifts to [ɡe] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋe] and [ɣe] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ke in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋe].

Ki (kana)

き, in hiragana, キ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ki] and are derived from a simplification of the 幾 kanji. The hiragana character き, like さ, is drawn with the lower line either connected or disconnected.

A dakuten may be added to the character; this transforms it into ぎ in hiragana, ギ in katakana, and gi in Hepburn romanization. The phonetic value also changes, to [ɡi] in initial, and varying between [ŋi] and [ɣi] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ki in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋi].

Ko (kana)

こ, in hiragana, or コ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. Both represent IPA: [ko]. The shape of these kana comes from the kanji 己.

This character may be supplemented by a dakuten; it becomes ご in hiragana, ゴ in katakana, and go in Hepburn romanization. Also, the pronunciation is affected, transforming into [ɡo] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋo] and [ɣo] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ko in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋo].

Ku (kana)

く, in hiragana, or ク in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ku͍], and their shapes come from the kanji 久.

This kana may have a dakuten added, transforming it into ぐ in hiragana, グ in katakana, and gu in Hepburn romanization. The dakuten's addition also changes the sound of the syllable represented, to [ɡu͍] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋu͍] and [ɣu͍] in the middle of words. A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ku in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋu͍].

In the Ainu language, the katakana ク can be written as small ㇰ, representing a final k sound as in アイヌイタㇰ Ainu itak (Ainu language). This was developed along with other extended katakana to represent sounds in Ainu that are not found in standard Japanese katakana.

Morse code for non-Latin alphabets

This is a summary of the use of Morse code to represent alphabets other than Latin.

OP-20-G

OP-20-G or "Office of Chief Of Naval Operations (OPNAV), 20th Division of the Office of Naval Communications, G Section / Communications Security", was the U.S. Navy's signals intelligence and cryptanalysis group during World War II. Its mission was to intercept, decrypt, and analyze naval communications from Japanese, German, and Italian navies. In addition OP-20-G also copied diplomatic messages of many foreign governments. The majority of the sections effort was directed towards Japan and included breaking the early Japanese "Blue" book fleet code. This was made possible by intercept and High Frequency Direction Finder (HFDF) sites in the Pacific, Atlantic, and continental U.S., as well as a Japanese telegraphic code school for radio operators in Washington, D.C.

On-off keying

On-off keying (OOK) denotes the simplest form of amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation that represents digital data at the presence or absence of a carrier wave. In its simplest form, the presence of a carrier for a specific duration represents a binary one, while its absence for the same duration represents a binary zero. Some more sophisticated schemes vary these durations to convey additional information. It is analogous to unipolar encoding line code.

On-off keying is most commonly used to transmit Morse code over radio frequencies (referred to as CW (continuous wave) operation), although in principle any digital encoding scheme may be used. OOK has been used in the ISM bands to transfer data between computers, for example.

OOK is more spectrally efficient than frequency-shift keying, but more sensitive to noise when using a regenerative receiver or a poorly implemented superheterodyne receiver.

For a given data rate, the bandwidth of a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift keying) signal and the bandwidth of OOK signal are equal.

In addition to RF carrier waves, OOK is also used in optical communication systems (e.g. IrDA).

In aviation, some possibly unmanned airports have equipment that let pilots key their VHF radio a number of times in order to request an Automatic Terminal Information Service broadcast, or turn on runway lights.

Prosigns for Morse code

Procedure signs or prosigns are shorthand signals used in radio telegraphy procedures, for the purpose of simplifying and standardizing communications related to radio operating issues among two or more radio operators. They are distinct from general Morse code abbreviations, which consist mainly of brevity codes that convey messages to other parties with greater speed and accuracy.

There are also specialized variations used in radio nets to manage transmission and formatting of messages. In this usage, Morse prosigns play a role similar to the role played by the nonprinting control characters of teleprinter and computer character set codes such as Baudot or ASCII.

The development of prosigns began in the 1860s for wired telegraphy. They are distinguished from common Morse abbreviations. Since Morse code communication preceded voice communications by several decades, many of the much older Morse prosigns have exact equivalent procedure words for use in the more recent radio telephony (voice).

Prosigns may be represented in printed material either by a sequence of dots and dashes, or by a sequence of letters, which, if sent without the normal inter-character spacing (concatenated), correspond to the prosign symbol.

Transmission methods
Notable signals
Other writing systems
in Morse code

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