Waaq (also Waq or Waaqa) is the name of God in the traditional religion of many Cushitic people in the Horn of Africa.[1]


In Oromo culture, Waaq or Waaqo denotes the single god of the early monotheistic faith believed to have been adhered to by Cushitic groups. This belief system still somewhat exists in some Oromo societies.[1]

With regard to the Muslim Somalis, since no indigenous spiritual group has survived, no ancient deities and spirits are known. Early beliefs can therefore only be hypothesized from certain customs and words, such as waaq (sky-god), an archaic Somali term for god.

Also in Somalia there are many clans and places called Waaq; such as Ceel Waaq, which mean "the well of God" and Caabud Waaq, which mean "where God is worshiped". Some Somalis of the Darod clans still have Waaq names like the Jid Waaq clan, the Ogaden Tagaal Waaq sub-clan and the Majeerteen Siwaaqroon sub-clan. Also there are many Somali language uses of Waaq name, like BarWaaqo, which mean "when the land is filled with grass and water".[1][2]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Publishing Group: 2001), p.65.
  2. ^ Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society, I.M Lewis, p.137

Ali Illahism (Persian: علی‌اللّهی‎) is a syncretic religion which has been practiced in parts of Iranian Luristan which combines elements of Shia Islam with older religions. It centers on the belief that there have been successive incarnations of the Deity throughout history, and Ali Ilahees reserve particular reverence for Ali, the son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who is considered one such incarnation. Various rites have been attributed as Ali Ilahian, similarly to the Yezidis, Ansaris, and all sects whose doctrine is unknown to the surrounding Muslim and Christian population. Observers have described it as an agglomeration of the customs and rites of several earlier religions, including Zoroastrianism, historically because travelogues were "evident that there is no definite code which can be described as Ali Illahism".Sometimes Ali-Illahism is used as a general term for the several denominations that venerate or deify Ali, like the Kaysanites, the Alawis or the Ahl-e Haqq/Yarsanis, others to mean the Ahl-e Haqq.

Barentu Oromo people

Barentu people, also called Barentoo or Baraytuma, are one of the two main groups of the Oromo people in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. They historically expanded towards east, southeast and northeast Ethiopia, while the other moiety named Borana Oromo people expanded west, northwest and southwards.

Borana Oromo people

The Borana Oromo people, also called the Boran, are a subethnic section of the Oromo people who live in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya. They speak a dialect of the Oromo language that is distinct enough that it is difficult for other Oromo speakers to understand. The Borana people are notable for their historic gadaa political system. They follow their traditional religions or (Ethiopian Orthodox) Christianity and Islam.

Comparative religion

Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions. In general the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics, metaphysics, and the nature and forms of salvation. Studying such material is meant to give one a broadened and more sophisticated understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred, numinous, spiritual, and divine.In the field of comparative religion, a common geographical classification of the main world religions includes Middle Eastern religions (including Iranian religions), Indian religions, East Asian religions, African religions, American religions, Oceanic religions, and

classical Hellenistic religions.

Cushitic peoples

The Cushitic peoples are peoples primarily indigenous to Northeast Africa and speak or historically spoke Cushitic languages, which constitute a sub-groups of the larger Afroasiatic languages. Cushitic languages are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan and Egypt), and parts of the African Great Lakes region (Tanzania and Kenya). Some examples of these people include Afar, Beja, Oromo, Somali, and Sidama.

Many populations in Southeastern Africa are believed to have Southern Cushitic ancestry from an ancient, now mostly locally assimilated population— a succession of societies collectively known as the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic along with Elmenteitan culture. These early herders introduced pastoralism to East Africa and to the populations of Southern Africa, a lifestyle that still predominates in these areas, such as, for example, the Maasai and Khoikhoi peoples of East and Southern Africa respectively.

Historical linguistic analysis and archaeogenetics indicate that the languages spoken in the ancient Kerma culture of what is now Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan were Cushitic languages. Accordingly, a 4th-century victory stela belonging to King Ezana of the Kingdom of Aksum contains inscriptions describing two distinct population groups dwelling in ancient Nubia: a "red" Kasu population, who are believed to have been Cushitic speakers related to the neighbouring ancient Egyptians and Kermans, and a "black" Eastern Sudanic-speaking population that was instead related to Nilotes. The existence of two such distinct population groups in Nubia has also been confirmed through genetic analysis (see Nubian genetics).

Ethnological research into Cushitic populations began in the early 19th century by colonial regimes who included Cushites into a larger grouping called hamites, an African equivalent to the Asiatic semites of the Afroasiatic language family. Today the so-called Hamitic hypothesis has been largely discarded and deemed a product of scientific racism aimed at denigrating other Sub-Saharan Africans. Recent breakthroughs in genetics however has proven many previous assertions thought false such as the "Nilo-Hamites", largely correct.

Cushitic populations constitute the majority of the population in the Horn of Africa; an area that is believed to be the original point of dispersal of Cushitic speakers across most of East Africa. The Cushitic peoples primarily adhere to Sunni Islam and Orthodox Christianity with a small minority still practicing traditional beliefs and Judaism. The Somali language is the sole Cushitic language recognized as an official language while Oromo & Afar are recognized as a regional working languages in Ethiopia.

El Molo people

The El Molo, also known as Elmolo, Dehes, Fura-Pawa and Ldes, are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the northern Eastern Province of Kenya. They historically spoke the El Molo language as a mother tongue, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Cushitic branch, and now most El Molo speak Samburu.

El Wak, Somalia

"Ceelwaaq" is a divided city on the Somalia-Kenya border. The Somali portion is located in the southwestern Gedo region, where it is the seat of one of the region's seven districts.

El Wak District

El Wak District (Somali: Degmada Ceel Waaq) is a district in the southwestern Gedo region of Somalia. Its capital lies at El Wak.


Gedo (Somali: Gedo, Arabic: جيذو‎, Italian: Ghedo or Ghedu) is an administrative region (gobol), formerly part of the historic Upper Juba Region in southern Somalia. Its regional capital is Garbahaarreey. Gedo is a region created in 1980s and is bordered by the Ogaden in Ethiopia, the North Eastern Province in Kenya, and the Somali regions of Bakool, Bay, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Juba), and Jubbada Hoose (Lower Juba) further down east. The southern parts of Gedo, west of the Jubba River, used to be part of the old British Transjuba region during half of the seventy years of colonial era in Africa from 1890 to 1960. The British and Italians fought over twice in this area of Horn of Africa. The first democratically elected governor of the administrative region occurred in a grassroots effort with Hussein Farey's admission into office in 2008.

Konso people

The Konso, also known as the Xonsita, are a Lowland East Cushitic-speaking ethnic group primarily inhabiting south-central Ethiopia.

List of religions and spiritual traditions

While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a

[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic."

A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.

Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.

Rendille people

The Rendille (also known as Rendille, Reendile, Rendili, Randali, Randile, and Randille) are a Cushitic-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the northern Eastern Province of Kenya.

Somali mythology

Somali mythology covers the beliefs, myths, legends and folk tales circulating in Somali society that were passed down to new generations in a timeline spanning several millennia. Many of the things that constitute Somali mythology today are traditions whose accuracy have faded away with time or have transformed considerably with the coming of Islam to the Horn of Africa.

The culture of venerating saints and the survival of several religious offices in modern Somalia show that old traditions of the region's ancient past had a significant impact on Islam and Somali literature in later centuries. Similarly, practitioners of traditional Somali medicine and astronomy also adhere to remnants of an old cultural belief system that once flourished in Somalia and the wider Horn region.


WAQQ (88.3 FM) was a radio station that broadcast an adult standards format. Licensed to Onsted, Michigan, United States, the station was owned by Great Lakes Community Broadcasting, Inc., and operated by the Society for Accurate Information Distribution (SAID) Foundation.

The station was assigned these call letters by the Federal Communications Commission since November 10, 2005.On June 13, 2012, the Federal Communications Commission announced that all licenses associated with Great Lakes Community Broadcasting, including WAQQ, had been cancelled, due to false claims that the group had built a series of stations and repeaters. With this cancellation order, the FCC ordered Great Lakes Community Broadcasting to cease operations of all its stations immediately.


WIAB (88.5 FM) is a radio station in Mackinaw City, Michigan. The station is owned by Interlochen Center for the Arts, and is an affiliate of the Interlochen Public Radio's "Classical IPR" network, consisting of classical music.


WYBR (102.3 FM, "Today's Hit Music, Y102") is a radio station in Big Rapids, Michigan, broadcasting a hot adult contemporary format. Its signal can be heard as far south as Rockford, Michigan, as far north as Cadillac, Michigan and as far east as Mount Pleasant, Michigan.

The station began broadcasting in 1981 as WAAQ, "The Music Machine, Q102", with an adult contemporary format. In 1992 WAAQ was sold and became WPZX, a CHR/Top 40 station known as "Power 102". In 1994, the station was sold again and WPZX became "Y102", originally employing a Hot AC format from ABC Radio Networks known as "The Best Hits, The Best Variety" (now "Today's Hit Music"). The station dropped the ABC satellite format in 2000 and continues as a Hot AC station to this day.

Specialty programming includes "The Retro Lunch Hour" weekdays at noon, "The Commercial Free Drive at Five" weekdays at 5 p.m and The Zach Sang Show weekday nights. Weekend specialty shows include both the 1980s and 1990s versions of Back Trax USA with Kid Kelly, the Hot AC version of Rick Dees' Weekly Top 40, Saturday and Sunday nights feature The Open House Party with Kannon, and SonRise (contemporary Christian music) on Sunday mornings.


Wak or WAK may refer to:

Waaq, the name of God in the traditional religion of many Cushitic people in the Horn of Africa

Wartburgkreis, code used on German vehicle registration plates

WAK (Kevin A Williams) (born 1965), Chicago artist

Wak Chanil Ajaw, Maya princess circa 682 AD


Waq may refer to:

Waaq, the name of God in the traditional religion of Cushitic peoples

Uwaq, or Waq, a clan of the Kazakh Zhuz

WWHB-CA, formerly known as WAQ, television channel from Florida, US

Antsalova Airport, IATA code: WAQ, an airport in Madagascar

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