The Vytegra (Russian: Вытегра) is a river in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It nominally flows out of Lake Matkozero and is a tributary of Lake Onega. It is 64-kilometer (40 mi) long, and the area of its basin 1,670 square kilometers (640 sq mi). The principal tributary is the Tagazhma River (left).
The river is a part of the Volga-Baltic Waterway. When the canal was under construction, Lake Matkozero was used to deposit the soil, and it does not exist anymore. The Vytegra is connected with the valley of the Kovzha River by Novomariinsky Canal in the south. Close to the mouth, the Onega Canal branches off west to bypass Lake Onega and to connect the Vytegra with the Svir River. Upstream of the town of Vytegra, the Vytegorsky Reservoir was filled.
The whole river basin of the Vychegda is located in the central part of Vytegorsky District.
The valley of the Vytegra is populated, in particular, the town of Vytegra is located on both banks of the river. The names of both Vytegra and Vytegorsky District originates from the name of the river.
|- location||Lake Matkozero|
|33 m (108 ft)|
|Length||64 km (40 mi)|
|Basin size||1,670 km2 (640 sq mi)|
|- average||11 m3/s (390 cu ft/s)|
The Belozersky Bypass Canal (Russian: Белозерский канал, Белозерский обводной канал) is a canal around the south-western part of Lake Beloye in Belozersky District of Vologda Oblast in north-western Russia. It connects Kovzha River to Sheksna River, and is part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway. The length of the canal is 66.8 kilometres (41.5 mi). The canal passes the town of Belozersk.
The first plans to dig a canal connecting the basins of the Neva and the Volga were developed in 1710 during the reign of Tsar Peter the Great. In the beginning of the 19th century, the system was actually constructed. It was open in 1810 and got the name of the Mariinsky Canal System. In particular, the waterway followed the Sheksna River, Lake Beloye, the Kovzha River, and the canal connected to the Vytegra River. However, Lake Beloye was an inconvenient piece due to frequent dangerous storms, and also because it was too shallow in the area close to the source of the Sheksna. These conditions often caused shipwrecks.A number of proposals were submitted which aimed at resolving the problems. In particular, construction of artificial islands was suggested. Mercant Stolbikov from Belozersk obtained a concession to tow the boats over the lake in bad weather. These means, however, proved to be inefficient, and Belozersk merchants asked Tsar Alexander I for a permission to build a bypass canal. The permission was obtained and the works started but were never completed.In 1830s, merchants asked for permission again, and the construction started in 1843. The level of the canal was 13 feet (4.0 m) higher than the level of the Sheksna entrance and 6 feet (1.8 m) higher than the level of the Kovzha entrance. The construction was completed in 1846.
The eastern entrance to the canal was several kilometers downstream of the village of Krokhino, and thus Krokhino, which was previously one of the main navigation hubs, suddenly was left off the waterway. The population of Belozersk also suffered losses from the opening of the canal, since the boatsman skills and knowledge of the bottom of Lake Beloye were not needed anymore.Generally, however, the construction of the canal was a great economic success, and by 1870 70% of the total amount of water goods transportation was along the Mariinsky Canal System. The canal was reconstructed in the 20th century.Kovzha River
The Kovzha (Russian: Ковжа) is a river in Vytegorsky, Belozersky, and Vashkinsky Districts of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It originates from Lake Kovzhskoye and is a tributary of Lake Beloye. It is 82 kilometres (51 mi) long, and the area of its basin 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi). The Kovzha River is a part of the Volga-Baltic Waterway. The main tributaries are the Tumba and the Shola (both right).
The source of the Kovzha is in the western bay of Lake Kovzhskoye. The river follows about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) its natural course and then joins the Volga-Baltic Waterway and turns south. In the lower course, the Kovzha forms the border between Belozersky and Vashkinsky Districts. The lowest course of the river is a water reservoir. Here the Kovzha accepts the Shola, its main tributary, from the right.
The river basin of the Kovzha comprises the central part of Vytegorsky District, the western part of Vashkinsky District, and the northern part of Belozersky District. It is limited in the east by the river basin of the Kema River, in the north and the west by the river basins of tributaries of Lake Onega, most notably the Vytegra River, and in the south by the basin of the Megra River, another tributary of lake Beloye.
Between 1927 and 1959 the selo of Annensky Most, in the middle stream of the Kovzha, was the administrative center of Kovzhinsky District. The name of the district originated from the name of the river. In 1959, the district was abolished, and its area was split between Vashkinsky and Vytegorsky Districts.Lake Onega
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Russian: Оне́жское о́зеро, tr. Onezhskoe ozero, IPA: [ɐˈnʲɛʂskəɪ ˈozʲɪrə]; Finnish: Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Karelian: Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Veps: Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is fed by about 50 rivers and is drained by the Svir River.
There are about 1,650 islands on the lake. They include Kizhi, which hosts a historical complex of 89 orthodox wooden churches and other wooden constructions of the 15th–20th centuries. The complex includes a UNESCO World Heritage site, Kizhi Pogost. Eastern shores of the lake contain about 1,200 petroglyphs (rock engravings) dated to the 4th–2nd millennia BC. The major cities on the lake are Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga and Medvezhyegorsk.Northwest Russia
Northwest Russia or Northern European Russia can be roughly defined as that part of European Russia bounded by Finland, the Arctic Ocean, the Ural Mountains and the east-flowing part of the Volga River. Although it was never a political unit there is some reason for treating it as a distinct region.
The Volga marks the approximate northern limit of moderately dense settlement. The area to the north was valued mainly as a source of fur. The western side was the main source of squirrel, for which there was a large demand during the Middle Ages. Luxury fur, especially sable, came mostly from the northeast.Onega Canal
The Onega Canal (Russian: Онежский канал) is a canal that runs along the southern banks of Lake Onega in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast and Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. It was built 1818 - 1820 and 1845 - 1852 as a part of Mariinsk Canal System, to allow small riverboats to avoid Lake Onega, where storms are frequent and where many boats had perished through the centuries. The canal is 69 kilometres (43 mi) long and runs between the Vytegra River in the east and Svir River in the west. It is around 50 metres (160 ft) wide, and lies between 10 metres (33 ft) and 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the shores of the lake. At the mouth of the canal, in the selo of Voznesenye, a memorial obelisk has been erected.
The canal lost its significance after Mariinsk Canal System was reconstructed and became Volga-Baltic Waterway. Onezhsky Canal was not reconstructed and became too shallow for larger boats. It is still navigable, but not used for regular navigation.
Two rivers, Vozheroksa and Oshta, tributaries of Lake Onega, cross the canal. 38 kilometres (24 mi) from the Vytegra, the canal crosses Lake Megrskoye, a large freshwater lake. There is weak current in the canal in the direction of the Svir.Svir River
The Svir (Russian: Свирь, Veps: Süvär', Karelian/Finnish: Syväri) is a river in Podporozhsky, Lodeynopolsky, and Volkhovsky districts in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It flows westwards from Lake Onega to Lake Ladoga, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe. It is the largest river flowing into Lake Ladoga. The length of the Svir is 224 kilometres (139 mi), whereas the area of its drainage basin is 84,400 square kilometres (32,600 sq mi). The towns of Podporozhye and Lodeynoye Pole, as well as urban-type settlements Voznesenye, Nikolsky, Vazhiny, and Svirstroy are located at the banks of the Svir.
After Peter the Great connected the Svir with the Neva River by the Ladoga Canal in the 18th century, the river has been part of the Mariinsky Water System, currently the Volga–Baltic Waterway. The Onega Canal is a bypass of Lake Onega from the south, which connects the Svir with the Vytegra River. The Svir is heavily used for navigation, with both cargo traffic and cruise ships. There are two dams with hydroelectric power plants on the river. The Lower Svir Hydroelectric Station, in Svirstroy, sits 81 kilometres (50 mi) from the river's mouth while the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station, located in Podporozhye, is 128 kilometres (80 mi) away. Above the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station, the Svir is built as the Ivinsky Razliv Reservoir. Locks are built around both dams.
Since the Svir flows out of Lake Onega, its drainage basin occupies a vast area, spanning the south of the Republic of Karelia, the north and the east of Leningrad Oblast, the northwest of Vologda Oblast, and also includes minor areas in Arkhangelsk Oblast (the basin of the Ileksa River). The main tributaries of Svir proper are the Vazhinka River (right), the Oyat River (left), and the Pasha River (left). The main rivers in the basin of the Svir are the Suna River (the longest in the Svir basin), the Shuya River, the Vodla River, and the Vytegra River. The basin of the Svir also includes an enormous amount of freshwater lakes, the biggest of which, behind Lake Onega, are Lake Vodlozero, Lake Syamozero, Lake Gimolskoye, Lake Lizhmozero, and Lake Shotozero. The city of Petrozavodsk and the towns of Suoyarvi, Kondopoga, Medvezhyegorsk, Pudozh, Vytegra, Podporozhye, and Lodeynoye Pole, as well as a number of urban-type settlements, are located within the catchment area of the Svir.
The river flows past the Alexander-Svirsky Monastery, which used to house Svirlag (one of the most infamous gulags). The area around the river saw heavy fighting during the Continuation War 1941–1944.
The right bank of the lower Svir is occupied by the Nizhnesvirsky Nature Reserve, established in 1980.Volga–Baltic Waterway
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River. Volga–Baltic Waterway connects the biggest lake on Earth, the Caspian Sea to the World Ocean. Its overall length between Cherepovets and Lake Onega is 368 kilometres (229 mi).
Originally constructed in the early 19th century, the system was rebuilt for larger vessels in the 1960s, becoming a part of the Unified Deep Water System of European Russia.
The original name "Mariinsky" is the credit to Empress Maria Feodorovna, the second wife of Emperor Paul I of Russia.Vologda Oblast
Vologda Oblast (Russian: Вологодская область, tr. Vologodskaya oblast, IPA: [vəlɐˈɡotskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is Vologda. Population: 1,202,444 (2010 Census). The largest city is Cherepovets, the home of the Severstal metallurgical plant, the largest industrial enterprise in the oblast.
Vologda Oblast is rich in historic monuments, such as the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, Ferapontov Monastery (a World Heritage Site) with the frescoes of Dionisius, medieval towns of Velikiy Ustyug and Belozersk, and baroque churches of Totma and Ustyuzhna.
Large reserves of wood and fresh water are the main natural resources.Voznesenye
Voznesenye (Russian: Вознесенье) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Svir River at the place if flow out of Lake Onega. Municipally, it is incorporated as Voznesenskoye Urban Settlement, one of the four urban settlements in the district. Population: 2,425 (2010 Census); 2,817 (2002 Census); 3,123 (1989 Census).Vytegorsky District
Vytegorsky District (Russian: Вытего́рский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Kargopolsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in the east, Kirillovsky, Vashkinsky, and Belozersky Districts in the southeast, Vologodsky District in the southeast, Babayevsky District in the southwest, and with Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the west. The area of the district is 13,100 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi), making it the largest district in Vologda Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Vytegra. Population: 27,139 (2010 Census); 31,757 (2002 Census); 37,792 (1989 Census). The population of Vytegra accounts for 38.6% of the district's total population.Vytegra
Vytegra (Russian: Вы́тегра) is a town and the administrative center of Vytegorsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located along the shores of the Vytegra River on Volga–Baltic Waterway, 315 kilometers (196 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,488 (2010 Census); 11,400 (2002 Census); 12,905 (1989 Census).Vytegra (disambiguation)
Vytegra may refer to:
Vytegra, a town in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast, Russia
Vytegra Urban Settlement, a municipal formation into which the town of district significance of Vytegra in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast, Russia is incorporated
Vytegra River, a river in Vologda Oblast, Russia