Vytegra (Russian: Вы́тегра) is a town and the administrative center of Vytegorsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located along the shores of the Vytegra River on Volga–Baltic Waterway, 315 kilometers (196 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,488 (2010 Census); 11,400 (2002 Census); 12,905 (1989 Census).
View of Vytegra
Coat of arms
Location of Vytegra
Location of Vytegra
Vytegra (Vologda Oblast)
|Federal subject||Vologda Oblast|
|Administrative district||Vytegorsky District|
|Town of district significance||Vytegra|
|Town status since||1773|
|• Total||16 km2 (6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||50 m (160 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||660/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Capital of||Vytegorsky District, town of district significance of Vytegra|
|• Municipal district||Vytegorsky Municipal District|
|• Urban settlement||Vytegra Urban Settlement|
|• Capital of||Vytegorsky Municipal District, Vytegra Urban Settlement|
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Vyangi was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known from 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1715, a shipyard was founded on the Vytegra River upstream from Vyangi, which remained in operation until 1847.
In 1773, Vyangi was chartered and renamed Vytegra and in 1776 Vytegorsky Uyezd was established as one of the uyezds of Olonets Province in the newly established Novgorod Viceroyalty. A sequence of administrative reforms followed. In 1781, Olonets Oblast was transferred to Saint Petersburg Governorate, and in 1784, it was transformed into an independent administrative unit, Olonets Viceroyalty. In 1785, Vytegorsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Pudozhsky Uyezd. In 1799, Olonets Viveroyalty was abolished and divided between Novgorod and Arkhangelsk Governorates. Vytegorsky Uyezd returned to Novgorod Governorate. In 1801, Olonets Governorate was established, and Vytegorsky Uyezd became one of its several uyezds.
In 1922, Olonets Governorate was abolished and Vytegra was transferred to Petrograd Governorate (later Leningrad Oblast). On August 1, 1927, the uyezds in Leningrad Oblast were abolished and Vytegorsky District with the administrative center in Vytegra was established as a part of Lodeynoye Pole Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On September 23, 1937, it was transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast.
During World War II, Finnish troops occupied the western part of Oshtinsky District and in October 1941, prepared an advance to Vytegra. The Finnish advance was stopped by the Red Army, but the occupation continued until June 1944. Vytegra was under threat for these two and a half years, but was never occupied.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vytegra serves as the administrative center of Vytegorsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Vytegorsky District as the town of district significance of Vytegra. As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Vytegra is incorporated within Vytegorsky Municipal District as Vytegra Urban Settlement.
Located at the crossing of a waterway connecting central Russia with Lake Onega and a road connecting St. Petersburg with Arkhangelsk, Vytegra was an important transit point for cargo. The idea to build a canal connecting the drainage basins of the Neva and the Volga Rivers was already discussed by Peter the Great, but the canal, formerly the Mariinsky System, was only built in 1810. In the 20th century, it was reconstructed and renamed the Volga–Baltic Waterway. The waterway passes through the town, following the course of the Vytegra River. The passenger navigation on Lake Onega, connecting Vytegra with Petrozavodsk, has been discontinued.
Vytegra is a road junction where a partially paved road connecting to Podporozhye in Leningrad Oblast branches off from the highway connecting Vologda with Medvezhyegorsk in the Republic of Karelia via Lipin Bor and Pudozh. There is bus traffic originating from Vytegra.
The Vytegra Airport in 2011 was not served by regular passenger flights.
Vytegra contains three objects classified as cultural and historical heritage by Russian Federal law and additionally sixty-six objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance. The cultural heritage monuments of the federal significance are the remains of the Mariinsky Waterway from the early 19th century.
The Andoma (Russian: Андома) is a river in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It flows out of Lake Groptozero and is a tributary of Lake Onega. It is 156 kilometres (97 mi) long, and the area of its basin 2,570 square kilometres (990 sq mi). The main tributary of the Andoma is the Samina River (right).
The river basin of the Andoma occupies much of the northern part of Vytegorsky District. The river flows through the Andoma Hills, and the basin contains many lakes of glacial origin. The biggest lake in the Andoma Basin is Lake Aynozero.
The source of the Andoma is in the system of lakes in the northern part of Vytegorsky District. The river flows in the general direction south, turns west, and eventually northwest. The lower course of the Andoma is populated. In the village of Sorokopolye the Andoma accepts the Samina from the right, and downstream from this place it forms a delta as it flows into Lake Onega.
A short stretch of a highway connecting Vologda and Medvezhyegorsk via Vytegra and Pudozh runs along the Andoma, crossing it over a bridge in the village of Sorokopolye.
Between 1927 and 1957 Andomsky District with the center in the selo of Andomsky Pogost existed, first in Leningrad Oblast, from 1937 on in Vologda Oblast. In 1957, the district was abolished and merged into Vytegorsky District. Both the selo, located upstream from Sorokopolye, and the district were named after the Andoma.Belozersky Canal
The Belozersky Bypass Canal (Russian: Белозерский канал, Белозерский обводной канал) is a canal around the south-western part of Lake Beloye in Belozersky District of Vologda Oblast in north-western Russia. It connects Kovzha River to Sheksna River, and is part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway. The length of the canal is 66.8 kilometres (41.5 mi). The canal passes the town of Belozersk.
The first plans to dig a canal connecting the basins of the Neva and the Volga were developed in 1710 during the reign of Tsar Peter the Great. In the beginning of the 19th century, the system was actually constructed. It was open in 1810 and got the name of the Mariinsky Canal System. In particular, the waterway followed the Sheksna River, Lake Beloye, the Kovzha River, and the canal connected to the Vytegra River. However, Lake Beloye was an inconvenient piece due to frequent dangerous storms, and also because it was too shallow in the area close to the source of the Sheksna. These conditions often caused shipwrecks.A number of proposals were submitted which aimed at resolving the problems. In particular, construction of artificial islands was suggested. Mercant Stolbikov from Belozersk obtained a concession to tow the boats over the lake in bad weather. These means, however, proved to be inefficient, and Belozersk merchants asked Tsar Alexander I for a permission to build a bypass canal. The permission was obtained and the works started but were never completed.In 1830s, merchants asked for permission again, and the construction started in 1843. The level of the canal was 13 feet (4.0 m) higher than the level of the Sheksna entrance and 6 feet (1.8 m) higher than the level of the Kovzha entrance. The construction was completed in 1846.
The eastern entrance to the canal was several kilometers downstream of the village of Krokhino, and thus Krokhino, which was previously one of the main navigation hubs, suddenly was left off the waterway. The population of Belozersk also suffered losses from the opening of the canal, since the boatsman skills and knowledge of the bottom of Lake Beloye were not needed anymore.Generally, however, the construction of the canal was a great economic success, and by 1870 70% of the total amount of water goods transportation was along the Mariinsky Canal System. The canal was reconstructed in the 20th century.Kovzha River
The Kovzha (Russian: Ковжа) is a river in Vytegorsky, Belozersky, and Vashkinsky Districts of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It originates from Lake Kovzhskoye and is a tributary of Lake Beloye. It is 82 kilometres (51 mi) long, and the area of its basin 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi). The Kovzha River is a part of the Volga-Baltic Waterway. The main tributaries are the Tumba and the Shola (both right).
The source of the Kovzha is in the western bay of Lake Kovzhskoye. The river follows about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) its natural course and then joins the Volga-Baltic Waterway and turns south. In the lower course, the Kovzha forms the border between Belozersky and Vashkinsky Districts. The lowest course of the river is a water reservoir. Here the Kovzha accepts the Shola, its main tributary, from the right.
The river basin of the Kovzha comprises the central part of Vytegorsky District, the western part of Vashkinsky District, and the northern part of Belozersky District. It is limited in the east by the river basin of the Kema River, in the north and the west by the river basins of tributaries of Lake Onega, most notably the Vytegra River, and in the south by the basin of the Megra River, another tributary of lake Beloye.
Between 1927 and 1959 the selo of Annensky Most, in the middle stream of the Kovzha, was the administrative center of Kovzhinsky District. The name of the district originated from the name of the river. In 1959, the district was abolished, and its area was split between Vashkinsky and Vytegorsky Districts.Lake Kovzhskoye
Lake Kovzhskoye (Russian: Ковжское озеро) is a freshwater lake, located in the center of Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It is one of the biggest lakes in Vologda Oblast and the second biggest one in Vytegorsky District behind Lake Onega. The area of the lake is 65 square kilometres (25 sq mi), and the area of its basin is 438 square kilometres (169 sq mi). The main tributary of the lake is the Iles River. Lake Kovzhskoye is the source of Kovzha River, one of the principal tributaries of Lake Beloye. The lake belongs to the basins of the Volga and the Caspian Sea.
The lake has a complex shape, with one bay in the south and one more bay (Lake Lozskoye, where the source of the Kovzha is located) in the southwest. From the north, Lake Kuzhozero is adjacent to Lake Kovzhskoye.
The catchment area of Lake Kovzhskoye is relatively small, since the lake is located in the Andoma Hills. To the east of the lake, there is river basin of the Kema River, another tributary of Lake Beloye, and the areas to the north and to the west drain into Lake Onega.
Two villages, Loza and Yakshino, are located on the southern shore of the lake. Both are on the highway connecting Vologda with Medvezhyegorsk via Vytegra and Pudozh.Lake Onega
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Russian: Оне́жское о́зеро, tr. Onezhskoe ozero, IPA: [ɐˈnʲɛʂskəɪ ˈozʲɪrə]; Finnish: Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Karelian: Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Veps: Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is fed by about 50 rivers and is drained by the Svir River.
There are about 1,650 islands on the lake. They include Kizhi, which hosts a historical complex of 89 orthodox wooden churches and other wooden constructions of the 15th–20th centuries. The complex includes a UNESCO World Heritage site, Kizhi Pogost. Eastern shores of the lake contain about 1,200 petroglyphs (rock engravings) dated to the 4th–2nd millennia BC. The major cities on the lake are Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga and Medvezhyegorsk.List of rivers of Russia
Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part. The dividing line is generally considered to be the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea. The European part is drained into the Arctic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Asian part is drained into the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina.
In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenisey, the Angara, the Lena, the Amur, the Yana, the Indigirka, and the Kolyma.
In the list below, the rivers are grouped by the seas or oceans into which they flow. Rivers that flow into other rivers are ordered by the proximity of their point of confluence to the mouth of the main river, i.e., the lower in the list, the more upstream.
There is an alphabetical list of rivers at the end of this article.Nikolai Klyuev
Nikolai Alekseevich Klyuev Russian: Николай Алексеевич Клюев (occasionally transliterated from the Cyrillic alphabet as Kliuev, Kluev, Klyuyev, or Kluyev) (10 October 1884 - 23 October 1937), was a notable Russian poet. He was influenced by the symbolist movement, intense nationalism, and a love of Russian folklore.
Born in the village of Koshtugi in Olonets Governorate (now Vologda Oblast) near the town of Vytegra, Kluyev rose to prominence in the early twentieth century as the leader of the so-called "peasant poets". Kluyev was a close friend and mentor of Sergei Yesenin. Arrested in 1933 for contradicting Soviet ideology, he was shot in 1937 and rehabilitated posthumously in 1957.Novgorod Governorate
Novgorod Governorate (Russian: Новгоро́дская губе́рния, Novgorodskaya guberniya, Government of Novgorod), was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire and the Russian SFSR, which existed from 1727 to 1776 and from 1796 to 1927. Its administrative center was in the city of Novgorod. The governorate was located in the northwest of the European part of the Russian Empire.Olonets Governorate
The Olonets Governorate or Government of Olonets was a guberniya (governorate) of north-western Imperial Russia, extending from Lake Ladoga almost to the White Sea, bounded west by Finland, north and east by Arkhangelsk and Vologda, and south by Novgorod and Saint Petersburg. The area was 57,422 m², of which 6,794 m² were covered by lakes.Olonets electoral district (Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917)
The Olonets electoral district (Russian: Олонецкий избирательный округ) was a constituency created for the Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917. The electoral district covered the Olonets Governorate. Olonets had special electoral system, electing 2 deputies and with each voter having 2 votes.Onega Canal
The Onega Canal (Russian: Онежский канал) is a canal that runs along the southern banks of Lake Onega in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast and Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. It was built 1818 - 1820 and 1845 - 1852 as a part of Mariinsk Canal System, to allow small riverboats to avoid Lake Onega, where storms are frequent and where many boats had perished through the centuries. The canal is 69 kilometres (43 mi) long and runs between the Vytegra River in the east and Svir River in the west. It is around 50 metres (160 ft) wide, and lies between 10 metres (33 ft) and 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the shores of the lake. At the mouth of the canal, in the selo of Voznesenye, a memorial obelisk has been erected.
The canal lost its significance after Mariinsk Canal System was reconstructed and became Volga-Baltic Waterway. Onezhsky Canal was not reconstructed and became too shallow for larger boats. It is still navigable, but not used for regular navigation.
Two rivers, Vozheroksa and Oshta, tributaries of Lake Onega, cross the canal. 38 kilometres (24 mi) from the Vytegra, the canal crosses Lake Megrskoye, a large freshwater lake. There is weak current in the canal in the direction of the Svir.Pogost
Pogost (Russian: погост, from Old East Slavic: погостъ) is a historical term with several meanings in the Russian language. It has also been borrowed into Latgalian (pogosts), Finnish (pogosta) and Latvian (pagasts), with specific meanings.
The original usage applies to the coaching inn for princes and ecclesiastics with the word being similar to modern Russian gost' (гость), "guest". It is assumed that originally pogosts were rural communities on the periphery of the ancient Russian state, as well as trading centers (Old Russian: gost'ba, гостьба).In the end of the 10th century pogosts transformed into administrative and territorial districts. Pogosts varied in size, ranging from tens to hundreds of villages in 11th—14th centuries. As Christianity spread in Russia, churches were built in pogosts. In 1775 the last pogosts that served as administrative districts were destroyed. Since then they became known as city pogosts (погосто - место), functioning as parish centers.
In the central uyezds of 15th-16th centuries pogosts were small settlements with a church and a graveyard, like Kizhi Pogost or Kadnikov Pogost. In modern Russian, pogosts usually designate a combination of a rural church and a graveyard, situated at some distant place.Svir River
The Svir (Russian: Свирь, Veps: Süvär', Karelian/Finnish: Syväri) is a river in Podporozhsky, Lodeynopolsky, and Volkhovsky districts in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It flows westwards from Lake Onega to Lake Ladoga, thus connecting the two largest lakes of Europe. It is the largest river flowing into Lake Ladoga. The length of the Svir is 224 kilometres (139 mi), whereas the area of its drainage basin is 84,400 square kilometres (32,600 sq mi). The towns of Podporozhye and Lodeynoye Pole, as well as urban-type settlements Voznesenye, Nikolsky, Vazhiny, and Svirstroy are located at the banks of the Svir.
After Peter the Great connected the Svir with the Neva River by the Ladoga Canal in the 18th century, the river has been part of the Mariinsky Water System, currently the Volga–Baltic Waterway. The Onega Canal is a bypass of Lake Onega from the south, which connects the Svir with the Vytegra River. The Svir is heavily used for navigation, with both cargo traffic and cruise ships. There are two dams with hydroelectric power plants on the river. The Lower Svir Hydroelectric Station, in Svirstroy, sits 81 kilometres (50 mi) from the river's mouth while the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station, located in Podporozhye, is 128 kilometres (80 mi) away. Above the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station, the Svir is built as the Ivinsky Razliv Reservoir. Locks are built around both dams.
Since the Svir flows out of Lake Onega, its drainage basin occupies a vast area, spanning the south of the Republic of Karelia, the north and the east of Leningrad Oblast, the northwest of Vologda Oblast, and also includes minor areas in Arkhangelsk Oblast (the basin of the Ileksa River). The main tributaries of Svir proper are the Vazhinka River (right), the Oyat River (left), and the Pasha River (left). The main rivers in the basin of the Svir are the Suna River (the longest in the Svir basin), the Shuya River, the Vodla River, and the Vytegra River. The basin of the Svir also includes an enormous amount of freshwater lakes, the biggest of which, behind Lake Onega, are Lake Vodlozero, Lake Syamozero, Lake Gimolskoye, Lake Lizhmozero, and Lake Shotozero. The city of Petrozavodsk and the towns of Suoyarvi, Kondopoga, Medvezhyegorsk, Pudozh, Vytegra, Podporozhye, and Lodeynoye Pole, as well as a number of urban-type settlements, are located within the catchment area of the Svir.
The river flows past the Alexander-Svirsky Monastery, which used to house Svirlag (one of the most infamous gulags). The area around the river saw heavy fighting during the Continuation War 1941–1944.
The right bank of the lower Svir is occupied by the Nizhnesvirsky Nature Reserve, established in 1980.Volga–Baltic Waterway
The Volga–Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System (Russian: Мариинская водная система), is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea via the Neva River. Volga–Baltic Waterway connects the biggest lake on Earth, the Caspian Sea to the World Ocean. Its overall length between Cherepovets and Lake Onega is 368 kilometres (229 mi).
Originally constructed in the early 19th century, the system was rebuilt for larger vessels in the 1960s, becoming a part of the Unified Deep Water System of European Russia.
The original name "Mariinsky" is the credit to Empress Maria Feodorovna, the second wife of Emperor Paul I of Russia.Vologda Aviation Enterprise
Joint-Stock Company "Vologda Aviation Enterprise", doing business as Vologda Air Company (VAC, Вологодское авиапредприятие, Vologodskoje aviapredprijatije), is an airline with its head office on the property of Vologda Airport in Vologda, Russia. It operates scheduled domestic and regional passenger services. It was formerly the Aeroflot Vologda division, United Air Detachment of Northern Territorial Board of Civil Aviation (1952–1963), Vologda United Air Detachment (1963–1991) and Vologda Air Company (1991–present).
The airline also has branches located on the properties of the airports serving Belozersk, Kichmengsky Gorodok, Nikolsk, Nyuksenitsa, Totma, Veliky Ustyug, and Vytegra. These branches are not legal divisions of the company.At any one time they have an average of 1500 staff working there.Vologda Oblast
Vologda Oblast (Russian: Вологодская область, tr. Vologodskaya oblast, IPA: [vəlɐˈɡotskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is Vologda. Population: 1,202,444 (2010 Census). The largest city is Cherepovets, the home of the Severstal metallurgical plant, the largest industrial enterprise in the oblast.
Vologda Oblast is rich in historic monuments, such as the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, Ferapontov Monastery (a World Heritage Site) with the frescoes of Dionisius, medieval towns of Velikiy Ustyug and Belozersk, and baroque churches of Totma and Ustyuzhna.
Large reserves of wood and fresh water are the main natural resources.Vytegorsky District
Vytegorsky District (Russian: Вытего́рский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Kargopolsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in the east, Kirillovsky, Vashkinsky, and Belozersky Districts in the southeast, Vologodsky District in the southeast, Babayevsky District in the southwest, and with Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the west. The area of the district is 13,100 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi), making it the largest district in Vologda Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Vytegra. Population: 27,139 (2010 Census); 31,757 (2002 Census); 37,792 (1989 Census). The population of Vytegra accounts for 38.6% of the district's total population.Vytegra (disambiguation)
Vytegra may refer to:
Vytegra, a town in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast, Russia
Vytegra Urban Settlement, a municipal formation into which the town of district significance of Vytegra in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast, Russia is incorporated
Vytegra River, a river in Vologda Oblast, RussiaVytegra River
The Vytegra (Russian: Вытегра) is a river in Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It nominally flows out of Lake Matkozero and is a tributary of Lake Onega. It is 64-kilometer (40 mi) long, and the area of its basin 1,670 square kilometers (640 sq mi). The principal tributary is the Tagazhma River (left).
The river is a part of the Volga-Baltic Waterway. When the canal was under construction, Lake Matkozero was used to deposit the soil, and it does not exist anymore. The Vytegra is connected with the valley of the Kovzha River by Novomariinsky Canal in the south. Close to the mouth, the Onega Canal branches off west to bypass Lake Onega and to connect the Vytegra with the Svir River. Upstream of the town of Vytegra, the Vytegorsky Reservoir was filled.
The whole river basin of the Vychegda is located in the central part of Vytegorsky District.
The valley of the Vytegra is populated, in particular, the town of Vytegra is located on both banks of the river. The names of both Vytegra and Vytegorsky District originates from the name of the river.
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