Vulcano

Vulcano (Sicilian: Vurcanu) or "Vulcan" is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km (16 mi) north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands.[1] The island is 21 km2 (8 sq mi) in area, rises to 501 m (1,644 ft) above sea level, and it contains several volcanic caldera, including one of the four active volcanoes in Italy that are not submarine.

The word "volcano", and its equivalent in several European languages, derives from the name of this island, which in turn derives from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

Vulcano
Isola vulcano
Highest point
Elevation501 m (1,644 ft)
Prominence501 m (1,644 ft)
Coordinates38°23′58″N 14°57′50″E / 38.399434°N 14.963955°ECoordinates: 38°23′58″N 14°57′50″E / 38.399434°N 14.963955°E
Geography
Aeolian Islands map
Vulcano and the Aeolian Islands
LocationAeolian Islands, Italy
Geology
Mountain typeComplex stratovolcanoes
Last eruption1888 to 1890
Aeolian Islands (17)
The Gran Cratere

History

The Romans used the island mainly for raw materials, harvesting timber, and mining alum and sulfur. These were the principal activities on the island until the end of the nineteenth century.

After the Bourbon rule collapsed in 1860, the Scottish industrialist and philanthropist, James Stevenson, bought the northern part of the island. He then built a villa, reopened the local mines, and planted vineyards for making Malmsey wine. Stevenson lived on Vulcano until the last major eruption on the island happened in 1888. This eruption lasted the better part of two years, by which time Stevenson had sold all of his property to the local populace. He never returned to the island. His villa is still intact.

Geology

Fumarola, Vulcano, Sicilia, Italia, 2015
Alternating views of fumaroles

The volcanic activity in the region is largely the result of the northward-moving African Plate meeting the Eurasian Plate. There are three volcanic centres on the island:

  • At the southern end of the island are old stratovolcano cones, Monte Aria (501 m (1,644 ft)), Monte Saraceno (481 m (1,578 ft)), and Monte Luccia (188 m (617 ft)), which have partially collapsed into the Il Piano Caldera.
  • The most recently active centre is the Gran Cratere at the top of the Fossa cone, the cone having grown in the Lentia Caldera in the middle of the island, and has had at least nine major eruptions in the last 6,000 years.
  • At the north of the island is the islet, Vulcanello (123 m (404 ft)), connected to Vulcano by an isthmus that may be flooded in bad weather. It emerged from the sea during an eruption in 183 BCE, as a separate islet. Occasional eruptions from its three cones with both pyroclastic flow deposits and lavas occurred from then until 1550, with the last eruption creating a narrow isthmus connecting it to Vulcano.

Vulcano has been quiet since the eruption of the Fossa cone on 3 August 1888 to 1890, which deposited about 5 m (16 ft) of pyroclastic material on the summit. The style of eruption seen on the Fossa cone is called a Vulcanian eruption, being the explosive emission of pyroclastic fragments of viscous magmas caused by the high viscosity preventing gases from escaping easily. This eruption of Vulcano was carefully documented at the time by Giuseppe Mercalli. Mercalli described the eruptions as "...explosions sounding like a cannon at irregular intervals..." As a result, vulcanian eruptions are based on his description. A typical vulcanian eruption can hurl blocks of solid material several hundreds of metres from the vent. Mercalli reported that blocks from the 1888-1890 eruption fell into the sea between Vulcano and Lipari, and several that had fallen on the island of Vulcano were photographed by him or his assistants.

Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a multicomponent gas analyzer system, which detects degassing of rising magmas before an eruption, improving prediction of volcanic activity.[2]

A survey on local groundwater occurred during 1995–1997 showed temperatures up to 49–75°C, sodium sulfate-chloride chemical composition, and near neutral pH in the water wells closest to the slopes of the volcanic cone. This is mainly due to condensation onto the slopes of the volcanic cone and water-rock interaction buffering.[3][4]

View from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Sicily, Italy
View to the north from the crater on Vulcano, showing the isthmus connection to the islet of Vulcanello

Biology

Since Vulcano island has volcanic activity, it is a place where thermophiles and hyperthermophiles are likely to be found. In fact, the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus was described for the first time when it was isolated from sediments of this island by Gerhard Fiala and Karl Stetter.[5]

Mythology

The Ancient Greeks named this island Therasía (Θηρασία) and Thérmessa (Θέρμεσσα, source of heat). The island appeared in their myths as the private foundry of the Olympian god Hephaestus, the patron of blacksmiths. Their myths noted two more of his foundries, at Etna and Olympus. Strabo also mentions Thermessa as sacred place of Hephaestus (ἱερὰ Ἡφαίστου), but it is not certain whether this was a third name for the island, or merely an adjective.[6]

Similarly, the Romans believed that Vulcano was the chimney of their god Vulcan's workshop and, therefore, named the island after him. According to the Roman myths, the island had grown due to his periodic clearing of cinders and ashes from his forge. They also explained earthquakes that either preceded or accompanied the explosions of ash as being due to Vulcan making weapons for their god Mars for his armies to wage war.[7]

Isola vulcano
View from the island of Lipari of the northern profile of Vulcano on which the low Fossa cone is visible (center), the green islet in the foreground is Vulcanello and the isthmus connecting Vulcanello to Vulcan is barely visible

Appearances in contemporary culture

The motion picture Vulcano (released in the U.S. as, Volcano) was filmed on Vulcano and the nearby island of Salina between 1949 and 1950.

An asteroid is named for this island, 4464 Vulcano.[8]

The island of Vulcano is featured in the Battle Tendency story arc of the manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure by Hirohiko Araki, as the scene of the final clash between the protagonist Joseph Joestar and the antagonist Kars, leader of the Pillar Men.

The American attorney and writer, Richard Paul Roe, asserts that the play The Tempest by William Shakespeare is set on the island of Vulcano,[9] rather than the more authoritative interpretation that the setting was based on reports about Bermuda in the Americas and a hurricane encountered there.

See also

References

  1. ^ Distance Vulcan - Sicily - distance.to/Vulcan/Sicily. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  2. ^ Aiuppa, A.; Federico, C.; Giudice, G.; Gurrieri, S. (2005). "Chemical mapping of a fumarolic field: La Fossa Crater, Vulcano Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy)". Geophysical Research Letters. 32 (13): L13309. Bibcode:2005GeoRL..3213309A. doi:10.1029/2005GL023207.
  3. ^ Boschetti, Tiziano; Cortecci, Gianni; Bolognesi, Luca (2003). "Chemical and isotopic compositions of the shallow groundwater system of Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy: an update". GeoActa. 2: 1–34.
  4. ^ Cortecci, Gianni; Dinelli, Enrico; Bolognesi, Luca; Boschetti, Tiziano; Ferrara, Giorgio (2001). "Chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved sulfate from shallow wells on Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy". Geothermics. 30 (1): 69–91. doi:10.1016/s0375-6505(00)00037-7.
  5. ^ Fiala, G., & Stetter, K. O. (1986). Pyrococcus furiosus sp. nov. represents a novel genus of marine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing optimally at 100 °C (212 °F). Archives of Microbiology, 145, 56–61.
  6. ^ Strabo Geographica 1.2.10
  7. ^ "CVO Menu - Volcanoes in Historical and Popular Culture". Vulcan.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  8. ^ M.P.C. 26762 del 5 marzo 1996
  9. ^ Richard Paul Roe (2011). The Shakespeare Guide to Italy: Retracing the Bard's Unknown Travels. HarperCollins. p. 265–296. ISBN 978-0-06-207427-0.

Sources

External links

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20 successi di Mina

20 successi di Mina is a compilation album by Italian singer Mina, issued in 1964.

The songs of this album were all taken from the first six albums published between 1960 and 1963, except "Vulcano" that was published in 1963 only on a 45rpm record.

Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands () (Italian: Isole Eolie, pronounced [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje], Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli, Greek: Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually.

The largest island is Lipari and the islands are sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo.

Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan

Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan (Spanish: Apolo en la Fragua de Vulcano), sometimes referred to as Vulcan's Forge, is an oil painting by Diego de Velázquez completed after his first visit to Italy in 1629. Critics agree that the work should be dated to 1630, the same year as his companion painting Joseph's Tunic. It appears that neither of the two paintings were commissioned by the king, although both became part of the royal collections within a short time. The painting became part of the collection of the Museo del Prado, in Madrid, in 1819.Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan has been cited as one of the most important works from Velázquez's first trip to Italy and "one of his most successful compositions with regard to the unified, natural interaction of the figures."

Impractical Jokers

Impractical Jokers is an American hidden camera reality series that premiered on truTV on December 15, 2011, and is produced by NorthSouth Productions. It follows Joseph "Joe" Gatto, James "Murr" Murray, Brian "Q" Quinn, and Salvatore "Sal" Vulcano, the four members of the comedy troupe The Tenderloins, as they coerce one another into doing public pranks while being filmed by hidden cameras. The show differs from other prank television programs, focusing on witty humor, as compared to slapstick or crude comedy.

On March 7, 2018, truTV announced that the show would be renewed for an eighth season that will have 26 episodes, and on February 11, 2019, it was announced that the series would premiere on March 28, 2019. truTV also confirmed an Impractical Jokers feature-length movie is planned, which began filming in April 2018 and is expected to premiere sometime in 2019.

LSS, Logistic Support Ship

A5335 Vulcano is an auxiliary ship that will enter in service with the Marina Militare in 2020.

She is designed to support fleet operations with fuel and dry stores. Along with another future sister ship, she is expected to replace the AORs Stromboli (A5327) and Vesuvio (A5329).Vulcano was financed under the 2014 Naval Law, for Euro 346 millions, then increased to Euro 374,6 millions, when length was elevated by about 12 m.

As part of the planned alliance between France's Naval Group and Fincantieri, France will buy four derivatives of the Vulcano design under the FLOTLOG project, scheduled to be delivered in 2022, 2025, 2027 and (subject to ratification of the next procurement plan) 2029. France officially joined the program in October 2018.

List of tallest buildings in Switzerland

This is a list of tallest buildings in Switzerland. All buildings over 80 m (262 ft) are listed. Only habitable buildings are ranked, which excludes radio masts and towers, observation towers, steeples, chimneys and other tall architectural structures. For those, see List of tallest structures in Switzerland.

Malin Levanon

Malin Vulcano Levanon, also known as Malin Vulcano,(born 12 November 1977) is a Swedish actress.

She grew up in Gagnef in Dalarna, where she already at the age of eight made her acting debut in the annual summer plays that was made in her village. i She has studied Jerzy Grotowskis drama pedagogic, and has worked with Mike Leighs methods for films.Levanon was awarded a Guldbaggen award in the category Best female lead role for 2016, for her lead role as the character Minna in the film Tjuvheder. The film won a total of five Guldbaggen awards. The same year she also played the character Mamman in the film Flockan, which she won the Filmpublicisternas award for "Film couple of the Year" along with colleague Eva Melander. Levanon has also acted in the film Återträffen with Anna Odell, which won the Kritikerpristet and Best Debut film at the Venice film festival in 2013. The film also won a Guldbaggen award for "best film". Levanon in 2016 also won the Northern Lights "Lights Award" Casters Critiques Choice honour award in Berlin.Malin Levanon played the leading role as the singer in the Italian film Pornodrome - Una storia dal vivo. She has acted in the film I skuggan av värmen, where she played the character Mia.

In 2011 Levanon acted in the SVT TV series Anno 1970, and in the TV series The Bridge she played the character Filippa. In 2012 Levanon played the character Kia in the novel film Gläntan. She won the honour award at Stockholms filmfestival.In 2016 she acts in the TV series Black Widows opposite Cissi Forss and Peter Stormare. The series is broadcast on TV3.

OTO Melara 76 mm

The OTO Melara 76 mm gun is a naval gun built and designed by the Italian defence company Oto Melara. It is based on the Oto Melara 76/62C and evolved toward 76/62 SR and 76/62 Strales.

The system is compact enough to be installed on relatively small warships. Its high rate of fire and availability of range of ammunition make it capable for short-range anti-missile point defence, anti-aircraft, anti-surface, and ground support. Ammunition includes armour-piercing, incendiary, directed fragmentation effects, and a guided round marketed as capable of destroying manoeuvring anti-ship missiles. A stealth cupola is now offered.

The OTO Melara 76 mm has been widely exported and is in use by sixty navies. It has recently been favoured over the French 100mm naval gun for the joint French/Italian Horizon-class frigate project and FREMM frigate.

On 27 September 2006 Iran announced it has started mass production of a marine artillery gun, named the Fajr-27, which is a reverse-engineered Oto Melara 76 mm gun.

SMS Vulcano

SMS Vulcano (subsequently renamed to German Vulkan, also Vulcan) was a paddle steamer built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy in Venice and launched in 1843. Subsequently given the German name Vulkan, or Vulcan. Remained in service until 1872, and finally stricken in 1884 to become a coal hulk.In 1849 the Vulcano, serving as a balloon carrier (the precursor to the aircraft carrier), launched hot air balloon bombs at Venice, the first offensive use of air power in naval aviation.

The Tenderloins

The Tenderloins are an American comedy troupe composed of Joseph Gatto, James Murray, Brian Quinn, and Salvatore Vulcano. The group stars in the television series Impractical Jokers, which premiered on December 15, 2011. The program airs on truTV in the U.S. and on Comedy Central in the UK, Ireland, and India.

Volcano (1950 film)

Volcano (Italian title Vulcano) is a 1950 Italian drama film directed by William Dieterle and starring Anna Magnani, Rossano Brazzi, and Geraldine Brooks. "Vulcano" was filmed on location on Salina Island, in the Aeolian Islands, and in the city of Messina on Sicily.

Vulcano has been seen by some as a vehicle of revenge by Anna Magnani against her estranged lover at the time, the Italian film director Roberto Rossellini who had chosen Ingrid Bergman to star in his film series about marriage - instead of her. Rossellini made his film Stromboli

on the nearby volcanic island of Stromboli at the same time as Volcano was being made on Salina.

Both films were shot in similar locales in the Aeolian Islands only 40 kilometres apart; both actresses played independent-minded roles in a neorealist fashion; and both films were shot simultaneously. Life magazine wrote, "... in an atmosphere crackling with rivalry... Reporters were accredited, like war correspondents, to one or the other of the embattled camps.... Partisanship infected the Via Veneto (boulevard in Rome), where Magnaniacs and Bergmaniacs clashed frequently." However, Magnani still considered Rossellini the "greatest director she ever acted for".

Volcanology of Italy

Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The country's volcanism is due chiefly to the presence, a short distance to the south, of the boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate. The magma erupted by Italy's volcanoes is thought to result from the subduction and melting of one plate below another.

Three main clusters of volcanism exist: a line of volcanic centres running northwest along the central part of the Italian mainland (see: Campanian volcanic arc); a cluster in the northeast of Sicily; and another cluster around the Mediterranean island of Pantelleria.

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Vulcano is an extreme metal band from Santos, São Paulo, Brazil. Founded in 1981, it is one of the first Brazilian heavy metal bands of note; with reference to their influence on the Latin American black metal scene, Terrorizer reported that "many believe that Vulcano not only kick-started musical blasphemy in Brazil, but throughout the whole of Latin America". Vulcano is noted as an influence on Sepultura.

Vulcano (song)

"Vulcano" is a song performed by Italian singer Francesca Michielin. The song was released as a digital download on 21 July 2017 by Sony Music Entertainment. The song has peaked at number 44 on the Italian Singles Chart.

Vulcano Buono

Il Vulcano Buono (Italian: The Good Volcano) is a shopping mall and leisure center located in Nola, near the frazione of Polvica, Italy. Inaugurated on December 7, 2007, it was designed by renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano.

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