Vrindavan

Vrindavan (pronunciation ) is a historical city in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is one of the main locations in the Braj Bhoomi region, and is also where, according to Hinduism, Lord Krishna spent his childhood days. [2] The town is about 11 km away from Mathura, Krishna's birthplace on the Agra-Delhi highway (NH 2).[3][4] The town hosts many temples dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna and is considered sacred by Vaishnavism.[5]

Vrindavan
City
Iskon Temple, Vrindawan
Kusum Sarovar
Lovetemple
Top to bottom: Krishna Balaram Mandir, Kusum Sarovar, and Prem Mandir (Love temple) in Vrindavan
Vrindavan is located in Uttar Pradesh
Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Vrindavan is located in India
Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Vrindavan (India)
Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°ECoordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictMathura
Elevation
170 m (560 ft)
Population
(2011)[1]
 • Total63,005
Demonym(s)Vrindavan wasi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Sanskrit
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
PIN
281121
Telephone code0565
Vehicle registrationUP-85

Etymology

KesiGhat River
Kesi Ghat on banks of the Yamuna river

The ancient Sanskrit name of the city, Vṛndāvana, comes from its groves of vṛndā (holy basil Ocimum tenuiflorum) and vana (a grove or forest).[6]

Geography

Vrindavan is located at 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E.[7] It has an average elevation of 170 metres (557 feet).

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[8] Vrindavan had a population of 56,618. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Vrindavan has an average literacy rate of 65%, lower than the national average of 74.04%.[9] In Vrindavan, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. The number of females is 24,200 including 13% who are under 6 years of age.

Religious heritage

Swiatyniamadanmohan
The 17th century Madan Mohan Temple was built by Raja Gopal Singhji of Karauli dynasty
Vrindavan, India (20566547434)
Rangaji Temple of Vrindavan

Vrindavan is considered to be a holy place for Vaisnavism tradition of Hinduism. It is a center of Krishna worship and the area includes places like Govardhana and Gokul that are associated with Krishna. Millions of devotees of Radha Krishna visit these places of pilgrimage every year and participate in a number of festivals.[10]

History

Vrindavan has an ancient past, associated with Hindu culture and history, and is an important Hindu pilgrimage site since long.

Of the contemporary times, Vallabhacharya, aged eleven visited Vrindavan. Later on, he performed three pilgrimages of India, barefoot giving discourses on Bhagavad Gita at 84 places. These 84 places are known as Chaurāsi Baithak and since then are the places of pilgrimage. Yet, he stayed in Vrindavan for four months each year. Vrindavan thus heavily influenced his formation of Pushtimarg

The essence of Vrindavan was lost over time until the 16th century, when it was rediscovered by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In the year 1515, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu visited Vrindavana, with the purpose of locating the lost holy places associated with Lord Sri Krishna's transcendental pastimes. Chaitanya wandered through the different sacred forests of Vrindavan in a spiritual trance of divine love. It was believed that by His divine spiritual power, He was able to locate all the important places of Krishna's pastimes in and around Vrindavan.[11]

Mira Bai left the kingdom of Mewar and went on pilgrimages. In her last 14 years, Meera lived in a temple called Pracheen Meerabai in Vrindavan. Meera Bai is the most famous female Hindu spiritual poet, whose compositions are still popular throughout North India.

In the last 250 years, the extensive forests of Vrindavan have been subjected to urbanization, first by local Rajas and in recent decades by apartment developers. The forest cover has been whittled away to only a few remaining spots, and the local wildlife, including peacocks, cows, monkeys and a variety of bird species has been virtually eliminated. A few peacocks are left in the city but monkeys and cows can be seen almost everywhere.

Temples

Vrindavan, the land of Radha Rani, the City of Temples has more than 1000 temples to showcase the pastimes of Radha and Krishna.[12] Seven temples, Thakurs of Vrindavan, the gems of those that have survived to this day are[13] -

  • Sri Radha Madana Mohana Temple
  • Sri Radha Govinda Temple (Govind Dev Temple)
  • Sri Radha Damodar Temple
  • Sri Radha Shyamasundara Temple
  • Sri Radha Ramana Temple
  • Sri Radha Gokulananda Temple
  • Sri Radha Gopinatha Temple
  • Sri Radha Bankey Bihari Temple
  • Sri Radha Vallabh Temple
  • Sri Radha Vamshidhar Jaganmohan Temple
  • Sri Katyayani Temple
  • Ranganath Temple
  • Gopehswar Mahadev
  • ISKCON Vrindavan
  • Prem Mandir (Love Temple)
  • Jagannath Temple
  • Nidhivan
  • Shah Ji Temple
  • Radha Sneh Bihari Ji Temple
  • Sri Chamunda Devi


And Vrindavan continues to be a venue of numerous temples and ashrams that are being regularly built, some of which are architectural masterpieces.

  • Madan Mohan Temple, located near the Kali Ghat was built by Kapur Ram Das of Multan. One of the oldest temples in Vrindavan, it is closely associated with the Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The original deity of Lord Madan Gopal was shifted from the shrine to Karauli in Rajasthan for safekeeping during Aurangzeb's rule. Today, a replica of the original (deity) is worshipped at the temple
  • Govind Dev Temple (Sri Radha Govinda Temple) was a seven storeyed structure built by Raja Man Singh with red sandstone donated by Akbar in 1590.[14] It was destroyed by Mughal ruler Aurangzeb.[15]. See Also, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Jaipur city Palace complex
  • New Radha Govinda Temple was built by Sri Krishna Balaram Swamiji and was completed in 2004 is based on a historic temple built about 500 years ago by Srila Rupa Goswami, a direct Sanyasi disciple of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.[16]
  • Sri Radha Raman Mandir, constructed at the request of Gopala Bhatta Goswami and houses a saligram deity of Krishna as Radha Ramana, alongside Radha.[17]
  • Radha Damodar Mandir, located at Seva Kunj was established in 1542 by Six Gosvamis of Vrindavan. The main deities are Radha–Damodar.
  • Radha Vallabh Temple, set up by Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu has a crown of Radharani placed next to the Krishna in the sanctum.[18]
  • Shahji Temple, designed and built in 1876 by Shah Kundan Lal of Lucknow. Noted for its magnificent architecture and beautiful marble sculptures, the temple has twelve spiral columns each 15 feet high and a hall with Belgian glass chandeliers and paintings.
  • Meera Bai Temple, located at the southern side of Shahji temple near Nidhivan and is dedicated to Meera. Some hagiography state she miraculously disappeared by merging into a deity of Krishna at Dwarika in 1547.[19] While miracles are contested by scholars for the lack of historical evidence, it is widely acknowledged that Meera dedicated her life to Hindu deity Krishna, composing songs of devotion and was one of the most important poet-Sant of the Bhakti movement period.[20][21]
  • Banke Bihari Temple, built in 1862[22] after the image of Banke-Bihari was discovered in Nidhi Vana by Swami Haridas.
A Hindu temple Prem Mandir Love temple sights culture India
Prem Mandir (Love Temple) is dedicated to divine love.
  • Prem Mandir is a spiritual complex situated on a 54-acre site on the outskirts of Vrindavan dedicated to divine love. The temple structure was established by spiritual guru Kripalu Maharaj.[23] The main structure built in marble and figures of Krishna cover the main temple.[24]
  • Sri Krishna-Balarama Temple was built by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in Raman-Reti.[25] The principal deities of this temple are Krishna and Balaram, with Radha–Shyamasundar and Gaura-Nitai alongside. Adjoining the temple is the samadhi of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of ISKCON, built in pure white marble.
  • Rangaji Temple, built in 1851 is dedicated to Lord Ranganatha or Rangaji depicted as Lord Vishnu in his sheshashayi pose, resting on the coils of the sacred Sesha Naga. The temple built in the Dravidian style has a gopuram of six storeys and a gold-plated Dhwaja stambha, 50 feet high. The 'Brahmotsdav' celebration in March–April is marked by the pulling of the Temple car by the devotees from the temple to the adjoining gardens.
  • Sneh Bihari Mandir, Vrindavan - This temple located in the heart of Vrindavan is based on Haridasiya Sampradhay. About 250 years ago there existed a small temple established by Shri Snehi Lal Goswami, the 10th generation Goswami of Swami Shri Haridas. This complex was well expanded and renovated in 2003 by Bhagwat Mission under the leadership Guru Ji Goswami Shri Mridul Krishna ji Maharaj. Built across 1000 square yards, it is the result of the dedication of over 1500 workers. Made up of exclusive white and red marble, it is elegantly designed with traditional carvings. There are over 80 beautifully designed columns that give the temple a touch of royalty.[26]
  • Jaipur Temple, built by Sawai Madho Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur in 1917 dedicated to RadhaMadhava.[27]
  • Pagal Baba Temple, Liladham, Vrindavan - Temple is beautifully designed with white marble stone. There are seven temples, one on top of another. All temples have beautiful deities. Presently this is the tallest temple in Vrindavan. The temple is famous for its puppet exhibition. Liland Thakur was a Justice in the High court of Calcutta, and after resigning from the post he came to Vrindavan in search of truth and Lord Krishna. He was wandering here like a madman so people were calling him Pagal Baba only to later realise his powers.[28]
  • Neeb (Neem) Karori Baba Samadhi Temple, Gaushala Nagar - Maharajji's beautiful Vrindavan ashram is the likely the most propitious of the ashrams and temples of Maharajji Neem Karoli Baba who is renowned world over with ashrams and temples built in over one hundred places in his name. The first temple was inaugurated in 1967. It was in Vrindaban that Maharajji chose to leave His body in 1973. The temple at the cremation place of Maharajji's last known body is called Samadhi Sthal. This is the site of Maharaj Ji's Mahasamadhi Bhandara in September each year.[29]
  • Vrinda Kunja, Goda Vihar - this 200-year-old ashram and temple originally built by the queen of Manipur, renovated in 1989 by Paramadvaiti Swamiji is now a majestic building.[30]
  • Mandir Sri Dham Goda Vihar, Goda Vihar is located close to Vrinda kunja.[31]
  • Jagannatha Mandir, Goda Vihar, Vrindavana - Shri Haridas Ji Maharaj, a Vaishnav saint of Vrindavan brought idols of Shri Jagannath Ji, Shri Balram ji and Subhadra Devi from Puri Jagannath Mandir and installed here. The temple is one of the most famous and old temples of Vrindavan, built about five centuries ago.[32]
Vrindavan, India (21000860650)
Numerous temples dot Vrindavan landscape
  • Maa Katyayani Mandir is situated in Radha Bagh, near Rangnath mandir. This is one of suddh Shakti Peetha of Shakti, established in 1923 by a Kriya Yogi, Sri Yogiraj Swami Keshavananda Brahmachari.
  • Tekari Rani Temple, Goda Vihar - located close to Tekri Rani Ghat on the banks of River Yamuna along Mathura road, this vast Tekari Rani Temple built in Rajasthani architecture is one of the finest monuments in Vrindavan. About two hundred years ago the queen of Tekri while visiting Vrindavan was hounded by dacoits. Queen with her beloved deity of Lord Gopal managed to escape from them safely. Later on a temple complex was built here in. There is also a small palace built in this place.[33]
  • Bhuteshwar Mahadev Temple, a shrine believed to be a Shakti Peetha where ringlets of hair of Sati Devi is believed to have fallen.[34][35]
  • Garud Govind Temple is located on the turn of NH-2 to Vrindavan in Chhatikara village.[36]
  • Chintaharan Hanuman Mandir, temple of Lord Hanuman is situated near Atalvan
  • Radha Ras Bihari Ashta Sakhi Temple, dedicated to the divine couple Radha-Krishna and their Ashta Sakhis (eight companions).
  • Maa Vaishno Devi Dham, Chhatikara - this recently constructed Maa Vaishno Devi Dham near Vrindavan hosts an array of statues, articles, and abodes which are awe-inspiring. Maa Vaishno's Murti is the star attraction of the Dham. This statue is a colossal neoclassical sculpture measuring 141 ft tall from the ground level and weighing 1700 ton.[37]
  • Priyakantju Mandir, Allhepur - Vishwa Shanti Sewa Charitable Trust built this temple in 2009. This unique lotus shaped temple complex spreading over a land of 2.5 acres was built at around the cost of about 40 crores.[38]
  • Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandiris housed in a modern geodesic structure with a traditional gopuram based on khajuraho style of architecture. It is being built by one of the ISKCON factions based in Bangalore.[39] At cost of 300 crore (US$42 million) it will be the tallest temple in world on completion.
Keshighat Vrindavan
Yamuna river is considered sacred in Hinduism on the banks of which Vrindavan is situated
  • Bhajan kutir Ashram was established by Golokbasi 1008 Bhagawat Sharan Maharaj Ji who was originally from Nepal. This ashram has been a long lasting symbol of Nepal and India Friendship at peoples level. Several thousands of Nepalese devotees, students, saints has been part of this almost 150 yrs old ashrams and contributed for the Shri Vrindavandham's diverse heritage.[40]

Other sacred sites

Other places of interest include Sriji Temple, Jugal Kishore Temple, Lal Babu Temple, Kesi Ghat, Seva Kunj, Raj Ghat, Imli Tal, Kaliya Ghat, Raman Reti, Varaha Ghat, Chira Ghat, samadhi of Swami Haridas and samadhi of Devraha Baba

In honor of Swami Haridas, annual meeting is organized in which renowned musicians take part.

City of Widows

Vrindavan is also known as the "city of widows"[41] due to the large number of widows who move into the town and surrounding area after losing their husbands. There are an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 widows. The widows come from states of west Bengal, Assam and Odisha.[42][43] Many spend time singing bhajan hymns at bhajanashrams. An organization called Guild of Service was formed to assist these deprived women and children.[41][43] According to a survey report prepared by the government, several homes run by the government and different NGOs for widows.[44]

In India, equal inheritance rights are protected by law, but customs can override rights of widows.[45]

Transportation

Road

Vrindavan is well connected by roads and is connected to Delhi by National Highway (NH) 2 of the Golden Quadrilateral network.[3]

Rail

See also

References

  1. ^ Census of India
  2. ^ "UP gets first officially designated 'teerth sthals' in Vrindavan and Barsana". Times of India. 27 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b "NHAI". Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  4. ^ Keene, Henry George (1899). "Bindrabun". A Handbook for Visitors to Agra and Its Neighbourhood. Thacker, Spink & Co. pp. 98–106.
  5. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 176.
  6. ^ "Brindaban". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909.
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Vrindavan".
  8. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  9. ^ Jayant Pandurang Nayaka, Syed Nurullah (1974). A students' history of education in India (1800–1973) (6 ed.). Macmillan.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. p. 204. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4. The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna bhaktas visit these places every year and participate in the numerous festivals that re-enact divine scenes from Krishna's life on Earth, of which were spent in those very places Vrinda means Tulsi (A sacred species of flora) and van as forest, therefore Vrindavan is a holy forest of Tulsi. Vijaypal Baghel, known as GreenMan is promoting, planting and farming Tulsi in mass around the Vrindavan.
  11. ^ "Discovery of Vrindavan by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu".
  12. ^ http://news.vrindavantoday.org/2016/06/seven-main-temples-of-vrindavan
  13. ^ http://www.gopinatha.net/
  14. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Brindaban" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 571.
  15. ^ http://uptourism.gov.in/pages/top/explore/top-explore-mathura---vrindavan/govind-dev-temple
  16. ^ "Red Stone Temple".
  17. ^ "The history of Sri Radha Raman Temple".
  18. ^ "Radhavallabh Temple website".
  19. ^ Usha Nilsson (1997), Mira Bai, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126004119, pages 1-15
  20. ^ Usha Nilsson (1997), Mira bai, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126004119, pages 16-17
  21. ^ John S Hawley (2005), Three Bhakti Voices: Mirabai, Surdas and Kabir in Their Times and Ours, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195670851, pages 128-130
  22. ^ "Banke-Bihari Temple website".
  23. ^ "Prem Mandir".
  24. ^ "Kripaluji Maharaj's Prem Mandir will be inaugurated on 17 February". Aaj Ki Khabar. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  25. ^ http://www.iskconvrindavan.com
  26. ^ http://www.bhagwatmission.org
  27. ^ http://www.vrindavanonline.in/city-guide/jaipur-mandir-in-vrindavan
  28. ^ http://uptourism.gov.in/post/pagal-baba-temple
  29. ^ http://www.maharajji.com/Vrindavan/vrindavan-ashram.html
  30. ^ http://vrindakunja.org
  31. ^ http://godavihar.blogspot.in
  32. ^ http://srijagannathmandir.in/Vrindavan.php
  33. ^ http://www.vrindavanonline.in/city-guide/tekari-rani-temple-in-vrindavan
  34. ^ (Translator), F. Max Muller (1 June 2004). The Upanishads, Vol I. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4191-8641-8.
  35. ^ (Translator), F. Max Muller (26 July 2004). The Upanishads Part II: The Sacred Books of the East Part Fifteen. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4179-3016-0.
  36. ^ http://www.brajdarshan.in/garud-gobind
  37. ^ http://www.maavaishno.org
  38. ^ http://www.vssct.com
  39. ^ "ISKCON to build world's tallest temple at Mathura from today".
  40. ^ http://bhajankutirashram.se
  41. ^ a b "India's widows live out sentence of shame, poverty". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  42. ^ "Catalyst Magazine: Moksha: the widows of Vrindavan". Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  43. ^ a b "Shunned from society, widows flock to city to die". CNN. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
  44. ^ "Sulabh dons mantle".
  45. ^ Cynthia Gorney (February 2017). "Life after loss". National Geographic Society. Retrieved April 8, 2017.

External links

Vrindavan travel guide from Wikivoyage

Banke Bihari Temple

Shri Bankey Bihari Mandir is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Krishna, in the holy city of Vrindavan in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated near Shri RadhaVallabh Temple.This temple is among the 7 temples of Thakur of Vrindavan including Shri Radha Vallabh Ji, Shri Govind Dev Ji, Shri Radha Raman Ji, Shri Radha Madhav Ji, Shri Madan Mohan Ji and Shri Gopinath Ji. Bankey Bihari Ji was originally worshipped at Nidhivana. Bankey means "bent in three places" and Bihari means "supreme enjoyer." The image of Lord Krishna stands in the Tribhanga posture. Haridas Swami originally worshipped this devotional image under the name of Kunj-Bihari ("Enjoyer of Lakes").

'Bānke' means 'bent', and 'Bihāri' or 'Vihāri' means 'enjoyer'. This is how Kṛṣṇa, who is bent in three places, got the name "Bānke Bihāri". According to Śrī Brahmjaiasaḿhitā (verse 5.31), Brahma says the following about Kṛṣṇa:

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, round whose neck is swinging a garland of flowers beautified with the moon-locket, whose two hands are adorned with the flute and jewelled ornaments, who always revels in pastimes of love, whose graceful threefold-bending form of Śyāmasundara is eternally manifest."

Braj

Braj (Devanagari: ब्रज), also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan. Brij, though never a clearly defined political region in India, is very well demarcated culturally. The area stretches from Mathura, Jalesar, Agra, Hathras and Aligarh right up to Etah, Auraiya and Farrukhabad districts. It is believed to be the land of Krishna and is derived from the Sanskrit word vraja. The main cities in the region are Mathura, Vrindavan, Gokul, Jalesar, Bharatpur, Agra, Farrukhabad, Hathras, Dholpur, Aligarh, Etawah, Auraiya, Mainpuri, Etah, Kasganj and Firozabad.

Brindavan Nagar, Bhopal

Vrindavan Nagar Bhopal is a suburb of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

It is located on Ayodhya bypass road in Bhopal, with Ayodhya Nagar, Piplani and Rajiv Nagar surrounding it. It is situated on one side of Hathaikheda Lake, which gives it a unique and very picturesque location. It is home to number of high-profile residential societies such as Sagar Lake view homes; other housing societies include Kanta Shravan homes, Jeet homes to name a few.

Gopi

Gopi (गोपी) is a Sanskrit word originating from the word Gopala referring to a person in charge of a herd of cows. In Hinduism especially the name gopika (feminine form of gopi) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cowherding girls famous within Vaishnavism for their unconditional devotion (Bhakti) to Krishna as described in the Bhagavata Purana and other Puranic literature. Of this group, one gopika known as Radha (or Radhika) holds a place of particularly high reverence and importance in a number of religious traditions, especially within Gaudiya Vaishnavism. In Gaudiya Vaishnavism, there are 108 gopikas of Vrindavan. Although Radha and the other gopis are referred to as "cowherd girls," according to the esoteric theology of Vaishnavism they are the eternal consorts of Krishna, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As such, they are the internal potency, or antaranga shakti, and expansions of the internal potency of the Supreme Godhead.

Khirachora Gopinatha Temple

Khirachora Gopinatha Temple (Odia: କ୍ଷୀରଚୋରା ଗୋପୀନାଥ ମନ୍ଦିର} is in Remuna. It is a little town 9 km west of Balasore railway station, about halfway between Howrah and Bhubaneswar in Odisha. The name "Remuna" is from the word "Ramaniya" which means very good-looking. "Khirachora" in Odia means Stealer of Milk and Gopinatha means the Divine Consort of Gopis. The reference is to child Krishna's love for milk and milk products.

Krishna Balaram Mandir

Sri Krishna-Balaram Mandir is a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple in the holy city of Vrindavan. It is one of the main ISKCON temples in India and internationally.

Madan Mohan

Madan Mohan is a form of the Hindu god, Krishna.

Krishna is celebrated as Madan Mohan, who mesmerises everyone. His consort, Radha is glorified as Madan Mohan's Mohini, the mesmeriser of the mesmeriser for spiritual aspirants. Radha is known as the mediator without whom access to Krishna is not possible.Originally from Shri Vrindavan, Madan Mohan ji went to Amer in Jaipur with Raja Sawai Jai Singh II — the founder of Jaipur and from there was brought to Karauli in Rajasthan by Maharaj Gopal Singh after he conquered the battle of Daulatabad.

Mathura

Mathura (pronunciation ) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Agra, and 145 kilometres (90 mi) south-east of Delhi; about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the town of Vrindavan, and 22 kilometres (14 mi) from Govardhan. It is the administrative centre of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes. The 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura at 441,894.

In Hinduism, Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna, which is located at the Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex. It is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven cities considered holy by Hindus. The Kesava Deo Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace (an underground prison). Mathura was the capital of the kingdom of Surasena, ruled by Kansa, the maternal uncle of Krishna.

Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for the Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Mathura Junction railway station

Mathura Junction railway station is on the Agra-Delhi chord of Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Chennai lines. It is located in Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It serves Mathura and Vrindavan.

New Vrindaban, West Virginia

New Vrindaban is an unincorporated area and an ISKCON (Hare Krishna) intentional community located in Marshall County, West Virginia near Moundsville. The town consists of 1,204 acres (4.87 km2) (of which 0.1 km² is of water), and several building complexes, homes, apartment buildings, and businesses including the Sri Sri Radha Vrindaban Chandra Temple (RVC Temple) and Prabhupada's Palace of Gold. New Vrindaban was founded in 1968 under the direct guidance of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, founder of ISKCON. It is named for the Indian city of Vrindavan.

Parikrama

Parikrama or Pradakshina refers to circumambulation of sacred places to imbibe their energy in Sikh, Hindu, Jain or Buddhist context, and the path along which this is performed. Parikrama means "the path surrounding something" in Sanskrit, and is also known as Pradakshina ("to the right"), representing circumambulation. Both words are mostly used in the context of religious deities in a temple, sacred rivers, sacred hills and a close cluster of temples, and "doing a parikrama" as a symbol of prayer is an integral part of Hindu worship. In Hinduism and other Indian religions, the Parikrama inside temples or sacred sites is traditionally clockwise.Most Hindu temple structures include various Pradakshina paths. Pradakshina paths are defined. as:

Circumbulatory or pathway around the shrine of the temples by keeping time is a common form of prayer in India.It includes Narmada,Shetrunjaya,Girnar. This pathway made of stone around the shrine is called Pradakshina path.

There could be one surrounding the main deity, other paths could be broader being concentric to the main path. However, it is not uncommon to find non-concentric parikrama paths in a single temple structure. At times the outermost parikrama path covers the whole village/town/city, thereby implying that the length of the path can stretch.Parikrama is done around sacred fire (Agni – the fire God), Tulsi plant (Ocimum tenuiflorum) and Peepal tree. Parikrama of Agni or Agni Pradakshina is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony.

Some of the Parikramas are Narmada River, Govardhan hill, Vrindavan, Vraj Mandala, Dwadash Madhav parikrama Tirthraj Prayag, Ayodhya, Girnar, Chitrakoot hill, Varanasi, Mathura, and Mathura-Vrindavan yugalabandi in Kartik .....

Typically, Parikrama is done after the completion of traditional worship (puja) and after paying homage to the deity. Parikrama is supposed to be done with a meditative mood.

The pathway made of granite stone around the shrine is called the Pradakshina path.Pradakshina around the sacred fire is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony.Parikrama is also practiced in Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.

Prem Mandir, Vrindavan

Prem Mandir is a Hindu temple in Vrindavan, Mathura, India. It is maintained by Jagadguru Kripalu Parishat, an international non-profit, educational, spiritual, charitable trust.

The complex is on a 54-acre site on the outskirts of Vrindavan, and is dedicated to Lord Radha Krishna and Sita Ram. The temple structure was established by the fifth Jagadguru, Kripalu Maharaj. Figures of Shri Krishna and his followers depicting important events surrounding the Lord's existence cover the main temple.Construction began in January 2001 and the inauguration ceremony took place from 15 February to 17 February 2012. The temple was opened to public on 17 February. The cost was 150 crore rupees ($23 million). The presiding deity are Shri Radha Govind (Radha Krishna) and Shri Sita Ram. A 73,000 square feet, pillar-less, dome shaped satsang hall is being constructed next to Prem Mandir, which will accommodate 25,000 people at a time.

Radha-vallabha

Radhavallabha is a Vaishnava denomination which began with the Vaishnava theologian Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu. This theology and Harivansh's leadership created the Radhavallabha sect. Radhavallabha Theology emphasizes devotion to Radharani. Shri Radhavallabh ji Temple in Vrindaban , Mathura is a very famous temple of the same preaching.This temple is among the most famous 7 temples of Thakur of Vrindavan including Sri Radhavallabh ji, Shri Govind Dev ji, Shri Bankey Bihari Ji and four others. In this temple, there is no deity of Radharani, but a crown has been placed next to Krishna to signify her presence.

Sanatana Goswami

Sanatana Goswami (1488–1558) was a principal disciple of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Sanatana wrote a number of important works in the bhakti tradition of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and was the seniormost of the influential Six Goswamis of Vrindavan, among whom was his brother Rupa Goswami.

Six Goswamis of Vrindavana

The Six Goswamis of Vrindavan were a group of devotional teachers (gurus) from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Vedic religion who lived in India during the 15th and 16th centuries. They are closely associated with the land of Vrindavan where they spent much time in service of the Bengali saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who is considered as Krishna's yuga-avatar by the Gaudiya Vaishnava lineage, who highly regard them for their extreme renunciation of physical comforts and pleasures in the practice of Bhakti Yoga, and for their philosophical presentations of the teachings of their guru, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

Tourism in Uttar Pradesh

Situated in the northern part of India, bordering with the capital of India New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh is one of the most popular and an established tourist destination for both Indians and non-Indians alike in India. The most populous state of India, Uttar Pradesh contains a large number of historical monuments and places of religious significance. Geographically, Uttar Pradesh is very diverse, with Himalayan foothills in the extreme north and the Gangetic Plain in the centre. It is also home of India's most visited sites, the Taj Mahal, and Hinduism's holiest city, Varanasi. Kathak, one of the eight forms of Indian classical dances, originated from Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh is at the heart of India, hence it is also known as The Heartland of India. Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh like Awadhi cuisine, Mughlai cuisine, Kumauni cuisine are very famous not only in India but also many places abroad.

Uttar Pradesh is known for its rich culture and tradition. It is home to Ayodhya and Mathura birthplace of Lord Rama and Lord Krishna respectively. Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of both national and international tourists. Taj Mahal, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in Agra is also located in Uttar Pradesh.

There are different places one can visit in Uttar Pradesh. Agra, Jhansi, Lucknow and Meerut are historical cities famous for their monuments. Mathura, Vrindavan, Gokul, Varanasi, Ayodhya and Allahabad are holy cities for Hindus and Kushinar and Sarnath are important Buddhist places among the main four pilgrimage sites related to the life of Gautama Buddha. Noida is the most developed urban city of Uttar Pradesh.

To boost the tourism in the state from within the country and other parts of the world, the Government of Uttar Pradesh established a 'Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc' covering the cities of Agra, Lucknow and Varanasi.

Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir

Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir is the world's tallest temple under-construction at Vrindavan, Mathura, India. When completed, it will be the tallest religious monument in the world. At cost of ₹300 crore (US$42 million) it will be one of the most expensively built temples in world by ISKCON Bangalore. The temple has a footprint of about 5 acres and rises to a height of about 700 feet (213 meters or 70 floors) and a built-up area of 5,40,000 sq. ft. The temple is planned to be vibrant with festivals and religious activities throughout the year. It is expected to be a must go place for every Hindu.A look-alike of the verdant forests of Vrindavan will be recreated around this magnificent temple. It will be spread over a sprawling 26 acres, it will consist of the twelve forests (dvadashakanana) of Braj, with varieties of lush vegetation, green pastures, elegant vistas of fruit bearing trees, flower laden creepers serenaded by bird songs, clear water lakes with lotuses and lilies and water falls that tumble from small artificial hillocks - all recreated from descriptions in the SrimadBhagavatam and other source books of Lord Sri Krishna - to transport the visitors to Krishna's times in Vrindavan. The project is set in 62 acres of land and includes 12 acres for parking and a helipad.

Vrindavan Lal Verma

Vrindavan Lal Verma (9 January 1889) was a Hindi novelist and playwright. He was honoured with Padma Bhushan for his literary works; Agra University presented him with honorary D. Lit. He received Soviet Land Nehru Award and the government India also awarded him for his novel, Jhansi Ki Rani.

Vrindavan railway station

Vrindavan railway station is on the Mathura-Vrindavan link. It is located in Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It serves Vrindavan.

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