Voyager Golden Record

The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.[1] The records contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them. The records are a sort of time capsule.

Although neither Voyager spacecraft is heading toward any particular star, Voyager 1 will pass within 1.6 light-years' distance of the star Gliese 445, currently in the constellation Camelopardalis, in about 40,000 years.[2]

Carl Sagan noted that "The spacecraft will be encountered and the record played only if there are advanced space-faring civilizations in interstellar space, but the launching of this 'bottle' into the cosmic 'ocean' says something very hopeful about life on this planet." [3]

The Sounds of Earth - GPN-2000-001976
The Voyager Golden Record
The Sounds of Earth Record Cover - GPN-2000-001978
Cover of the Voyager Golden Record
Voyager
The golden record's location on Voyager (middle-bottom-left)

Background

The Voyager 1 probe is currently the farthest human-made object from Earth. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have reached interstellar space, the region between stars where the galactic plasma is present.[4] Like their predecessors Pioneer 10 and 11, which featured a simple plaque, both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were launched by NASA with a message aboard—a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate to extraterrestrials a story of the world of humans on Earth.[3]

This is a present from a small, distant world, a token of our sounds, our science, our images, our music, our thoughts and our feelings. We are attempting to survive our time so we may live into yours.

Contents

The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University. The selection of content for the record took almost a year. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, thunder and animals (including the songs of birds and whales). To this they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, spoken greetings in 55 ancient and modern languages, other human sounds, like footsteps and laughter (Sagan's),[1] and printed messages from U.S. president Jimmy Carter and U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. The record also includes the inspirational message Per aspera ad astra in Morse code.

The collection of images includes many photographs and diagrams both in black and white, and color. The first images are of scientific interest, showing mathematical and physical quantities, the Solar System and its planets, DNA, and human anatomy and reproduction. Care was taken to include not only pictures of humanity, but also some of animals, insects, plants and landscapes. Images of humanity depict a broad range of cultures. These images show food, architecture, and humans in portraits as well as going about their day-to-day lives. Many pictures are annotated with one or more indications of scales of time, size, or mass. Some images contain indications of chemical composition. All measures used on the pictures are defined in the first few images using physical references that are likely to be consistent anywhere in the universe.

The musical selection is also varied, featuring works by composers such as J.S. Bach (interpreted by Glenn Gould), Mozart, Beethoven (played by the Budapest String Quartet), and Stravinsky. The disc also includes music by Guan Pinghu, Blind Willie Johnson, Chuck Berry, Kesarbai Kerkar, Valya Balkanska, and electronic composer Laurie Spiegel, as well as Azerbaijani folk music by oboe player Kamil Jalilov.[5] The inclusion of Berry's "Johnny B. Goode" was controversial, with some claiming that rock music was "adolescent", to which Sagan replied, "There are a lot of adolescents on the planet."[6] The selection of music for the record was completed by a team composed of Carl Sagan as project director, Linda Salzman Sagan, Frank Drake, Alan Lomax, Ann Druyan as creative director, artist Jon Lomberg, Timothy Ferris as producer, and Jimmy Iovine as sound engineer.[6][7]

The Golden Record also carries an hour-long recording of the brainwaves of Ann Druyan.[6] During the recording of the brainwaves, Druyan thought of many topics, including Earth's history, civilizations and the problems they face, and what it was like to fall in love.[8]

After NASA had received criticism over the nudity on the Pioneer plaque (line drawings of a naked man and woman), the agency chose not to allow Sagan and his colleagues to include a photograph of a nude man and woman on the record. Instead, only a silhouette of the couple was included.[9] However, the record does contain "Diagram of vertebrate evolution", by Jon Lomberg, with drawings of an anatomically correct naked male and naked female, showing external organs.[10]

The pulsar map and hydrogen molecule diagram are shared in common with the Pioneer plaque.

The 115 images are encoded in analogue form and composed of 512 vertical lines. The remainder of the record is audio, designed to be played at 16⅔ revolutions per minute.

Jimmy Iovine, who was still early in his career as a music producer, served as sound engineer for the project.[11]

It has been said that Carl Sagan suggested including the Beatles song "Here Comes the Sun" on the record but the record company EMI, which held the copyrights, declined.[12] However, this was refuted by Timothy Ferris, who worked on the selection with Sagan; the song was never even considered for inclusion.[11]

In July 2015, NASA uploaded the audio contents of the record to the audio streaming service SoundCloud.[13][14]

Images

Voyager golden record 77 supermarket

A woman in a supermarket

Voyager golden record 11 jupiter

A photo of Jupiter with its diameter indicated

Voyager golden record 82 feeding

This image depicts humans drinking, licking and eating as modes of feeding.

Voyager golden record 110 arecibo

This is a photograph of the Arecibo observatory marked with an indication of scale.

Voyager golden record 111 systemoftheworld

This image is a photograph of page 6 from Isaac Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Volume 3, De mundi systemate (On the system of the world).

Voyager golden record 13 earth

This is a photograph of Egypt, Red Sea, Sinai Peninsula and the Nile from Earth orbit annotated with chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere.

Playback

Voyager Golden Record Cover Explanation
Explanation of the Voyager record cover diagram, as provided by NASA

In the upper left-hand corner is a drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record, 3.6 seconds, expressed in time units of 0.70 billionths of a second, the time period associated with a fundamental transition of the hydrogen atom. The drawing indicates that the record should be played from the outside in. Below this drawing is a side view of the record and stylus, with a binary number giving the time to play one side of the record—about an hour (more precisely, between 53 and 54 minutes).

The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how pictures are to be constructed from the recorded signals. The top drawing shows the typical signal that occurs at the start of a picture. The picture is made from this signal, which traces the picture as a series of vertical lines, similar to analog television (in which the picture is a series of horizontal lines). Picture lines 1, 2 and 3 are noted in binary numbers, and the duration of one of the "picture lines," about 8 milliseconds, is noted. The drawing immediately below shows how these lines are to be drawn vertically, with staggered "interlace" to give the correct picture rendition. Immediately below this is a drawing of an entire picture raster, showing that there are 512 (29) vertical lines in a complete picture. Immediately below this is a replica of the first picture on the record to permit the recipients to verify that they are decoding the signals correctly. A circle was used in this picture to ensure that the recipients use the correct ratio of horizontal to vertical height in picture reconstruction. Color images were represented by three images in sequence, one each for red, green, and blue components of the image. A color image of the spectrum of the sun was included for calibration purposes.

The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. It shows the location of the Solar System with respect to 14 pulsars, whose precise periods are given. The drawing containing two circles in the lower right-hand corner is a drawing of the hydrogen atom in its two lowest states, with a connecting line and digit 1 to indicate that the time interval associated with the transition from one state to the other is to be used as the fundamental time scale, both for the time given on the cover and in the decoded pictures.[15]

Manufacturing

Gold plating at the James G. Lee Record Processing center in Gardena, California (left), and preparation for the record's packaging before the launch of Voyager 2 (right).

Voyager golden record gold plating
PIA17035 Mementos of Earth

Blank records were provided by the Pyral S.A. of Créteil, France. CBS Records contracted the JVC Cutting Center in Boulder, Colorado, to cut the lacquer masters which were then sent to the James G. Lee record-processing center in Gardena, California, to cut and gold-plate eight Voyager records. After the records were plated they were mounted in aluminum containers and delivered to JPL.[16][17]

The record is constructed of gold-plated copper and is 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter.[3] The record's cover is aluminum and electroplated upon it is an ultra-pure sample of the isotope uranium-238. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.468 billion years. It is possible (e.g. via mass-spectrometry) that a civilization that encounters the record will be able to use the ratio of remaining uranium to the other elements to determine the age of the record.

The records also had the inscription "To the makers of music – all worlds, all times" hand-etched on its surface. The inscription was located in the "takeout grooves", an area of the record between the label and playable surface. Since this was not in the original specifications, the record was initially rejected, to be replaced with a blank disc. Sagan later convinced the administrator to include the record as is.[18]

Journey

Record is attached to Voyager 1
Golden record is attached to the spacecraft.

Voyager 1 was launched in 1977, passed the orbit of Pluto in 1990, and left the Solar System (in the sense of passing the termination shock) in November 2004. It is now in the Kuiper belt. In about 40,000 years, it and Voyager 2 will each come to within about 1.8 light-years of two separate stars: Voyager 1 will have approached star Gliese 445, located in the constellation Camelopardalis; and Voyager 2 will have approached star Ross 248, located in the constellation of Andromeda.

In March 2012, Voyager 1 was over 17.9 billion km from the Sun and traveling at a speed of 3.6 AU per year (approximately 61,000 km/h (38,000 mph)), while Voyager 2 was over 14.7 billion km away and moving at about 3.3 AU per year (approximately 56,000 km/h (35,000 mph)).[19]

Voyager 1 has entered the heliosheath, the region beyond the termination shock. The termination shock is where the solar wind, a thin stream of electrically charged gas blowing continuously outward from the Sun, is slowed by pressure from gas between the stars. At the termination shock, the solar wind slows abruptly from its average speed of 300–700 km/s (670,000–1,570,000 mph) and becomes denser and hotter.[20]

Of the eleven instruments carried on Voyager 1, five of them are still operational and continue to send back data today. It is expected that there will be insufficient energy to power any of the instruments beyond 2025.

On September 12, 2013, NASA announced that Voyager 1 had left the heliosheath and entered interstellar space,[21] although it still remains within the Sun's gravitational sphere of influence.

Depictions in culture

Voyager Sounds of Earth record - Udvar-Hazy Center
A copy of the record on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center in Washington Dulles International Airport.

Several works of science fiction, such as the 1979 film Star Trek: The Motion Picture, the 1984 film Starman and the 2000 film Battlefield Earth feature extraterrestrial intelligences discovering the record and turning their attention to Earth as a result. Among these is included the computer animated television show Beast Wars, which features one of the records as a central plot point in a continuation of the Transformers storyline. Referred to as the Golden Disk, the record is stolen by Megatron and his band of Predacons. The disk is revealed to contain a hidden message left by the original Megatron, instructing his descendants to venture back in time to prehistoric Earth and assassinate Optimus Prime, to change history and ensure a Decepticon victory against the Autobots.

In a Saturday Night Live segment ("Next Week in Review") in episode 64 of the show's third season (originally aired 1978), Steve Martin's character, a psychic named Cocuwa, announced that extraterrestrials had responded to the record with the four words "Send more Chuck Berry".[22]

The recording is a major plot piece of "Little Green Men", a season 2 episode of The X-Files.

On Star Trek: Voyager, the Greetings from Earth on the golden record are sent to Voyager by Rain Robinson in Season 3, Episode 8 "Future's End".

It was also referenced in the 2005 animation known as Fafner in the Azure as being one of the objects that the aliens discover.

In 2014, the podcast The Truth produced an episode titled "Voyager Found", where the Voyager crash-lands on the property of Dawn and Tad, an alien couple, who decide to play the record.[23]

In 2014, composer Dario Marianelli wrote a Voyager Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, which was premiered in Brisbane, Australia in November that year by the Queensland Symphony Orchestra (QSO), and in Stockholm the following April (2015), by the Swedish Radio Orchestra. The QSO, with British violinist Jack Liebeck, performed the piece over several concerts at the Queensland Performing Arts Centre; each performance was preceded by a lecture by physicist professor Brian Cox, who talked at length about NASA's Voyager Mission, and introduced the concerto. The 30-minute piece, in one single movement, depicts the journey of the Voyager through the Solar System, using as references some of the music that is on board each probe, on the Golden Record.[24]

An image of the Golden Record cover is printed on the physical CD of Mary Fahl's 2014 release Love & Gravity.

The 2015 feature documentary Sam Klemke's Time Machine, compares the Golden Record's portrait of humanity to American man Sam Klemke's ongoing self-portraiture. In 1977—the same year that NASA launched Voyager with the Golden Record—Sam started obsessively documenting his entire life on film. Sam Klemke's Time Machine, directed by Matthew Bate, premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival.[25]

Jim Moray, an English folk singer, released the album Upcetera in September 2016. It contains the track 'Sounds of Earth' in which he interweaves the stories of the production of the Golden Record and the romance between Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan. It refers to the recording of an EEG of Druyan as she thought of Sagan as the sound of someone falling in love.[26]

In October 2016, the podcast Science Friday featured an updated, crowd sourced version of the Golden Record which included, among other entries, I Have a Dream, The Little Prince, and the human genome.[27]

Grace Petrie, an English songwriter and folk singer, released a track by the name of "The Golden Record" on her 2017 album Heart First Aid Kit, which is a love song based upon the story of Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan, referencing the additions made to the record intended to depict the sound of human beings in love. [28]

The 2017 documentary The Farthest, directed by Emer Reynolds, features those who worked on the Golden Record and Voyager missions including Frank Drake, Timothy Ferris, and Nick Sagan.[29]

Publications

Most of the images used on the record (reproduced in black and white), together with information about its compilation, can be found in the 1978 book Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record by Carl Sagan, F. D. Drake, Ann Druyan, Timothy Ferris, Jon Lomberg, and Linda Salzman.[30] A CD-ROM version was issued by Warner New Media in 1992.[31] Author Ann Druyan, who later married Carl Sagan, wrote about the Voyager Record in the epilogue of Sagan's final book Billions and Billions.[32]

To celebrate the 40th anniversary of the record, Ozma Records launched a Kickstarter project to release the record contents in LP format as part of a box set also containing a hardcover book, turntable slipmat, and art print.[33] The Kickstarter was successfully funded with over $1.4 million raised. Ozma Records then produced another edition of the three-disc LP vinyl record box set that also includes the audio content of the Golden Record, softcover book containing the images encoded on the record, images sent back by Voyager, commentary from Ferris, art print, turntable slipmat, and a collector's box. This edition was released in February 2018 along with a 2xCD-Book edition.[34][35] In January 2018, Ozma Records' "Voyager Golden Record; 40th Anniversary Edition" won a Grammy Award for best boxed or limited-edition package.[36]

A book called Hello World - A Time Capsule of Life, the Earth, and Humanity was inspired by Voyager's Golden Record. This book shares videos from around the world to create a time capsule of the planet Earth.[37]

Track listing

The track listing is as it appears on the 2017 edition released by Ozma Records.

Disc one
No.TitleLength
1."Greeting from Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations"0:44
2."Greetings in 55 Languages" (by Various Artists)3:46
3."United Nations Greetings/Whale Songs" (by Various Artists)4:04
4."The Sounds of Earth" (by Various Artists)12:19
5."Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F Major, BWV 1047: I. Allegro (Johann Sebastian Bach)" (by Munich Bach Orchestra/Karl Richter)4:44
6."Ketawang: Puspåwårnå (Kinds of Flowers)" (by Pura Paku Alaman Palace Orchestra/K.R.T. Wasitodipuro)4:47
7."Cengunmé" (by Mahi musicians of Benin)2:11
8."Alima Song" (by Mbuti of the Ituri Rainforest)1:01
9."Barnumbirr (Morning Star) and Moikoi Song" (by Tom Djawa, Mudpo, and Waliparu)1:29
10."El Cascabel (Lorenzo Barcelata)" (by Antonio Maciel and Los Aguilillas with Mariachi México de Pepe Villa/Rafael Carrión)3:20
11."Johnny B. Goode" (by Chuck Berry)2:41
12."Mariuamangɨ" (by Pranis Pandang and Kumbui of the Nyaura Clan)1:25
13."Sokaku-Reibo (Depicting the Cranes in Their Nest)" (by Goro Yamaguchi)5:04
14."Partita for Violin Solo No. 3 in E Major, BWV 1006: III. Gavotte en Rondeau (Johann Sebastian Bach)" (by Arthur Grumiaux)2:58
15."The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte), K. 620, Act II: Hell's Vengeance Boils in My Heart (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)" (by Edda Moser/Bavarian State Opera Orchestra and Chorus/Wolfgang Sawallisch)3:00
16."Chakrulo" (by Georgian State Merited Ensemble of Folk Song and Dance/Anzor Kavsadze)2:21
Disc two
No.TitleLength
1."Roncadoras and Drums" (by Musicians from Ancash)0:55
2."Melancholy Blues (Marty Bloom/Walter Melrose)" (by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven)3:06
3."Muğam" (by Kamil Jalilov)2:35
4."The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du Printemps), Part II—The Sacrifice: VI. Sacrificial Dance (The Chosen One) (Igor Stravinsky)" (by Columbia Symphony Orchestra/Igor Stravinsky)4:38
5."The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II: Prelude and Fugue No. 1 in C Major, BWV 870 (Johann Sebastian Bach)" (by Glenn Gould)4:51
6."Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Opus 67: I. Allegro Con Brio (Ludwig van Beethoven)" (by Philharmonia Orchestra/Otto Klemperer)8:49
7."Izlel e Delyu Haydutin" (by Valya Balkanska)5:04
8."Navajo Night Chant, Yeibichai Dance" (Ambrose Roan Horse, Chester Roan, and Tom Roan)1:01
9."The Fairie Round (Anthony Holborne)" (by Early Music Consort of London/David Munrow)1:19
10."Naranaratana Kookokoo (The Cry of the Megapode Bird)" (by Maniasinimae and Taumaetarau Chieftain Tribe of Oloha and Palasu'u Village Community)1:15
11."Wedding Song" (by Young girl of Huancavelica)0:42
12."Liu Shui (Flowing Streams)" (by Guan Pinghu)7:36
13."Bhairavi: Jaat Kahan Ho" (by Kesarbai Kerkar)3:34
14."Dark Was the Night, Cold Was the Ground" (by Blind Willie Johnson)3:32
15."String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Major, Opus 130: V. Cavatina (Ludwig van Beethoven)" (by Budapest String Quartet)6:41

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lafrance, Adrienne (30 June 2017). "Solving the Mystery of Whose Laughter Is On the Golden Record". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  2. ^ "Voyager – Interstellar Mission". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. January 25, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c "Voyager – Golden Record". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
  4. ^ "NASA Spacecraft Embarks on Historic Journey Into Interstellar Space". NASA. September 12, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  5. ^ Ross, Alex (February 13, 2014). "The Interstellar Contract". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Gambino, Megan (April 22, 2012). "What Is on Voyager's Golden Record?". The Smithsonian. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  7. ^ Ferris, Timothy (20 August 2017). "How the Voyager Golden Record Was Made". The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  8. ^ Sagan, Carl (1997). Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-41160-7.
  9. ^ Lomberg, Jon, "Pictures of Earth" in Sagan, Carl (1979). Murmurs of Earth. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-34528-396-2.
  10. ^ "Voyager Record Photograph Index". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  11. ^ a b Ferris, Timothy (August 20, 2017). "How the Voyager Golden Record Was Made". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  12. ^ Deecke, Arved (June 12, 2015). "The Truly Most Expensive Record Ever: 2.5 billion dollars (no Beatles and no nudity)". Kvart & Bølge. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  13. ^ "Greetings to the Universe". Retrieved April 20, 2016 – via SoundCloud.
  14. ^ "Sounds of Earth". Retrieved April 20, 2016 – via SoundCloud.
  15. ^ "Voyager Record". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  16. ^ "Voyager & the Golden Record". NASA/JPL – via Flickr.
  17. ^ "Voyager Interstellar Record Collection, 1976-1977" (PDF). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA.
  18. ^ Ferris, Timothy (September 5, 2007). "The Mix Tape of the Gods". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
  19. ^ "Voyager – The Interstellar Mission". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  20. ^ "Voyager Enters Solar System's Final Frontier". NASA. May 24, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  21. ^ "NASA Spacecraft Embarks on Historic Journey Into Interstellar Space". NASA. September 12, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  22. ^ "Saturday Night Live Transcripts, Season 3: Episode 18, 77r: Steve Martin / The Blues Brothers, Next Week In Review". Season 3: 1977-1978. April 22, 1978. Lay summary.
  23. ^ "Voyager Found". The Truth Podcast. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  24. ^ "D. Marianelli - Voyager Concerto".
  25. ^ Harvey, Dennis (January 23, 2015). "Sundance Film Review: 'Sam Klemke's Time Machine'". Variety. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  26. ^ "Upcetera by Jim Moray". jimmoray.co.uk. July 19, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  27. ^ "Your Record". Science Friday. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  28. ^ "Heart First Aid Kit, by Grace Petrie & the PC Brigade". Grace Petrie. June 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  29. ^ Epstein, Sonia (May 4, 2017). "Interview with Director Emer Reynolds". Sloan Science & Film. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  30. ^ Sagan, Carl (1978). Murmurs of Earth. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-41047-5.
  31. ^ Sagan, Carl et al. (1992) Murmurs of Earth (computer file): The Voyager Interstellar Record. Burbank: Warner New Media.
  32. ^ Sagan, Carl (1997). Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House. ISBN 0-679-41160-7.
  33. ^ "Voyager Golden Record: 40th Anniversary Edition". Kickstarter. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  34. ^ Sodomsky, Sam (November 28, 2017). "NASA's Voyager Golden Record Gets New Vinyl Reissue". Pitchfork. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  35. ^ Andrews, Travis (November 28, 2017). "NASA launched this record into space in 1977. Now, you can own your own copy". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  36. ^ Cofield, Calla (January 31, 2018). "Reprint of NASA's Golden Record Takes Home a Grammy". Space.com. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  37. ^ "Voyager Golden Record Inspires a Video Montage Book". PRweb. August 8, 2017.
  • Originally based on public domain text from the NASA website, where selected images and sounds from the record can be found.

External links

Brandenburg Concertos

The Brandenburg Concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach (BWV 1046–1051, original title: Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments) are a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, in 1721 (though probably composed earlier). They are widely regarded as some of the best orchestral compositions of the Baroque era.

Cathy Rigby

Cathleen Roxanne Rigby (later Mason, later McCoy, born December 12, 1952), known as Cathy Rigby, is an actress, speaker, and former artistic gymnast. Her performance in the 1968 Summer Olympics helped to popularize the sport of gymnastics in the United States.

After her retirement from gymnastics, Rigby became a stage and television actress. She is most noted for the role of Peter Pan, which she played for more than 30 years. She also became a public speaker on the subject of eating disorders, which she struggled with and overcame.Rigby is featured in an image included on the Voyager Golden Record.

Chakrulo

Chakrulo (Georgian: ჩაკრულო, transliterated: chak'rulo) is a Georgian polyphonic choral folk song. It is a three part drinking song from the region of Kakheti, dramatising preparations for a battle. It is characterized by two highly ornamented individual vocal parts, against a slow moving drone chorus.When Georgian vocal polyphony was recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Heritage masterpiece in 2001, Chakrulo was cited as a prime example of this. Chakrulo was one of 27 musical compositions included on the Voyager Golden Records that were sent into space on Voyager 2 on 20 August 1977.

Contents of the Voyager Golden Record

The Voyager Golden Record contains 116 images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds, whales and dolphins. The record, which is carried on both the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecrafts, additionally features musical selections from different cultures and eras, spoken greetings in fifty-nine languages, other human sounds, like footsteps and laughter (Carl Sagan's), and printed messages from President Jimmy Carter and U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. The items were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.

After NASA had received criticism over the nudity on the Pioneer plaque (line drawings of a naked man and woman), the agency chose not to allow Sagan and his colleagues to include a photograph of a nude man and woman on the record. Instead, only a silhouette of the couple was included.Here is an excerpt of President Carter's official statement placed on the Voyager spacecraft for its trip outside the Solar System, June 16, 1977:

We cast this message into the cosmos ... Of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, some – perhaps many – may have inhabited planets and space faring civilizations. If one such civilization intercepts Voyager and can understand these recorded contents, here is our message: This is a present from a small distant world, a token of our sounds, our science, our images, our music, our thoughts, and our feelings. We are attempting to survive our time so we may live into yours. We hope some day, having solved the problems we face, to join a community of galactic civilizations. This record represents our hope and our determination and our goodwill in a vast and awesome universe.

Daighi tongiong pingim

Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT; Chinese: 臺語通用拼音) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin. It is able to use the Latin alphabet to indicate the proper variation of pitch with nine diacritic symbols.

Dark Was the Night, Cold Was the Ground

"Dark Was the Night, Cold Was the Ground" is a gospel blues song written and performed by American musician Blind Willie Johnson and recorded in 1927. The song is primarily an instrumental featuring Johnson's self-taught bottleneck slide guitar and picking style accompanied by his vocalizations of humming and moaning. It has the distinction of being one of 27 samples of music included on the Voyager Golden Record, launched into space in 1977 to represent the diversity of life on Earth. The song has been highly praised and covered by numerous musicians and is featured on the soundtracks of several films.

Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen

"Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" ("Hell's vengeance boils in my heart"), commonly abbreviated "Der Hölle Rache", is an aria sung by the Queen of the Night, a coloratura soprano part, in the second act of Mozart's opera The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte). It depicts a fit of vengeful rage in which the Queen of the Night places a knife into the hand of her daughter Pamina and exhorts her to assassinate Sarastro, the Queen's rival, else she will disown and curse Pamina.

"Der Hölle Rache" is one of the most famous of all opera arias, memorable, fast paced and menacingly grandiose. This rage aria is often referred to as the "Queen of the Night's Aria", although the Queen sings another distinguished aria earlier in the opera, "O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn".

Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin

"Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin" (Bulgarian: Излел е Дельо хайдутин) ("Delyo has become hajduk") is a Bulgarian folk song from the central Rhodope Mountains about Delyo, a rebel leader who was active in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The song is most famously sung by Valya Balkanska, a 1977 recording of which was included on the Golden Record carried on board the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes.

Johnny B. Goode

"Johnny B. Goode" is a 1958 rock-and-roll song written and first recorded by Chuck Berry. The song was a major hit, peaking at number two on Billboard magazine's Hot R&B Sides chart and number eight on its Hot 100 chart."Johnny B. Goode" is considered one of the most recognizable songs in the history of popular music. Credited as "the first rock & roll hit about rock & roll stardom", it has been recorded by many other artists and has received several honors and accolades. The song is also ranked seventh on Rolling Stone's list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time".

Linda Salzman Sagan

Linda Salzman (born July 16, 1940) is an American artist and writer, who created the artwork for the plaque on the Pioneer spacecraft and coproduced the Voyager Golden Record.She co-authored the book Murmurs of Earth with her husband, astronomer Carl Sagan, whom she married on April 6, 1968; the marriage lasted until their divorce in 1981. She also directed plays for the Central Casting Theater in Ithaca, New York, and wrote episodes of television shows such as Knots Landing and General Hospital.Salzman is the mother of author and screenwriter Nick Sagan.

Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven

Louis Armstrong and his Hot Seven was a jazz studio group organized to make a series of recordings for Okeh Records in Chicago, Illinois, in May 1927. Some of the personnel also recorded with Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five, including Johnny Dodds (clarinet), Lil Armstrong (piano), and Johnny St. Cyr (banjo and guitar). These musicians were augmented by Dodds's brother, Baby Dodds (drums), Pete Briggs (tuba), and John Thomas (trombone, replacing Armstrong's usual trombonist, Kid Ory, who was then touring with King Oliver). Briggs and Thomas were at the time working with Armstrong's performing group, the Sunset Stompers.

In five sessions between May 7 and May 14, 1927, the group recorded at least 12 sides, including "Willie the Weeper," "Wild Man Blues", "Twelfth Street Rag" and "Potato Head Blues" (celebrated for Louis Armstrong's stop-time solo and triumphant ride-out final chorus).

In these records, Armstrong continued and further developed his mastery of the jazz solo, almost completely dominating some of the numbers and further breaking down the New Orleans jazz style of collective improvization into a vehicle for the soloist.

The Hot Seven song "Melancholy Blues" is included on the Voyager Golden Record, attached to the Voyager spacecraft.

Mugham

Mugham (Azerbaijani: Muğam) is one of the many folk musical compositions from Azerbaijan, contrasting with tasnif and ashiks.It is a highly complex art form that weds classical poetry and musical improvisation in specific local modes. Mugham is a modal system. Unlike Western modes, "mugham" modes are associated not only with scales but with an orally transmitted collection of melodies and melodic fragments that performers use in the course of improvisation. Mugham is a compound composition of many parts. The choice of a particular mugham and a style of performance fits a specific event. The dramatic unfolding in performance is typically associated with increasing intensity and rising pitches, and a form of poetic-musical communication between performers and initiated listeners.Three major schools of mugham performance existed from the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the regions of Karabakh, Shirvan, and Baku. The town of Shusha of Karabakh, was particularly renowned for this art.A short selection of Azerbaijani mugham, played on the Azerbaijani wind instrument balaban, was included among many cultural achievements of humanity on the Voyager Golden Record, which was attached to the Voyager spacecraft to represent world music.In 2003, UNESCO proclaimed Azerbaijani Mugham a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity". It was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists in 2008.

Newton's cannonball

Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal, and it was the key force for planetary motion. It appeared in his book A Treatise of the System of the World.

Partita for Violin No. 3 (Bach)

The Partita No. 3 in E major BWV 1006 by Johann Sebastian Bach for solo violin is the last work in the set of Six Sonatas and Partitas. It consists of the following movements:

Preludio

Loure

Gavotte en Rondeau

Menuets (I and II)

Bourrée

GigueIt takes about 20 minutes to perform.

The entire partita was transcribed by Bach cataloged as BWV 1006a. The organist Wilhelm Tappert claimed in 1900 that this arrangement was for lute solo, but present research indicates that it was for an unspecified instrument.The most commonly found recordings are usually of the Preludio. The Preludio consists almost entirely of semiquavers (i.e. sixteenth notes). The Preludio was also transcribed by Bach for use in two cantatas:

the sinfonia which opens the second part of the 1729 cantata Herr Gott, Beherrscher aller Dinge, BWV 120a.

the opening sinfonia, scored for obbligato organ, oboes, trumpets and strings, of the 1731 cantata Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir, BWV 29, in D majorThe "Gavotte en Rondeau" is famously included on the Voyager Golden Record and often heard in TV or radio programs.

In 1933 Sergei Rachmaninoff transcribed for piano (and subsequently recorded) the Preludio, Gavotte, and Giga from this partita (as TN 111/1).

Prelude and Fugue in C major, BWV 870

Prelude and Fugue in C major, BWV 870, is a keyboard composition written by Johann Sebastian Bach. It is the first prelude and fugue in the second book of The Well-Tempered Clavier, a series of 48 preludes and fugues in every major and minor key.

Puspawarna

Puspawarna (Javanese for "kinds of flowers") is a gamelan composition famous in Central Java. It is a ketawang in slendro pathet manyura. Thus the full title of the piece is Ketawang Puspawarna Laras Slendro Pathet Manyura. As manyura is the final pathet in a wayang performance, the mood it evokes is of ripeness or fulfillment.

The piece is performed for the entrance of the prince. The text refers to different kinds of flowers, each symbolizing a different rasa. The text and melody are attributed to Prince Mangkunegara IV of Surakarta (reigned 1853-1881), to commemorate his favorite wives and concubines.

A recording of Puspawarna by the court gamelan of Paku Alaman, Yogyakarta, directed by K.R.T. Wasitodipuro (now K.P.H. Natoprojo), recorded by Robert E. Brown, was included on the Voyager Golden Record, which was sent on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as a greeting to whatever extraterrestrials may find it. The recording is also available on the album Java: Court Gamelan (originally released in 1971). According to the note by Brown in the reissued version of that CD, "Puspawarna" was one of Carl Sagan's favorites on the record.

String Quartet No. 13 (Beethoven)

The String Quartet No. 13 in B♭ major, Op. 130, by Ludwig van Beethoven was completed (in its final form) in November 1826. The number traditionally assigned to it is based on the order of its publication; it is actually Beethoven's 14th quartet in order of composition. It was premiered (in its original form) in March 1826 by the Schuppanzigh Quartet and dedicated to Nikolai Galitzin on its publication in 1827.

Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67, was written between 1804 and 1808. It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music, and one of the most frequently played symphonies. First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterward. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time". As is typical of symphonies in the classical period, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony is in four movements.

It begins with a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif:

The symphony, and the four-note opening motif in particular, are known worldwide, with the motif appearing frequently in popular culture, from disco versions to rock and roll covers, to uses in film and television.

Like Beethoven's Eroica (heroic) and Pastorale (rural), Symphony No. 5 was given an explicit name, besides the numbering. It became popular under "Schicksals-Sinfonie" (symphony of destiny), and the famous five bar theme was coined "Schicksals-Motiv". This name is also used in translations.

The Great Pretenders

The Great Pretenders is the second album by Los Angeles band Mini Mansions. It was released on March 23, 2015. The album cover alludes to the cover of the Voyager Golden Record.

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