Voyage to the Outer Planets

Voyage to the Outer Planets was an early multimedia experiment combining Omnimax film, 70 mm film and planetarium special effects. The special effects and stills on standard and zoom equipped slide projectors were provided by the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater, and their Spitz Space Transit Simulator (STS). The large format footage was provided by Graphic Films. The presentation was mostly multimedia, with short clips of the planets and spacecraft.

The production was to portray a manned mission to the outer planets in the year 2348, a year in which the planets would be in a favorable alignment permitting such a three-year journey of exploration.[1]

It transpired that the Space Theater was still under construction, with equipment months from installation, and there was no way of viewing finished or full format test footage before the theater opened. Beyond that, it was infeasible to film in directly the Imax format which would be used for projection. The crew were therefore obliged to film in smaller format (65 mm eight-perf) for later optical blowup and projection to a screen image magnification 600 times the size of the camera negative.[2]


Executive Producer Preston Fleet
Director of Planetarium Media Michael Sullivan
Producers Lester Novros and George Casey
Written and directed by Colin Cantwell
Planetarium Production Joeseph Herrington, George Marchyshyn, John P. Mulligan, Greg Paris
Music Paul Novros
Artwork Don Moore
Camera James Connor
Special Effects Camera John Dykstra
Models Colin Cantwell
Optical printing Film Effects
Narration Gene McGarr
Surround Mix Glen Glenn Sound


  1. ^ George Casey, president of Graphic Films, American Cinematographer, August 1973.
  2. ^ Mary Anderson, console operator at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center

External links

Fleet Science Center

The Fleet Science Center (previously the 'Reuben H. Fleet Science Center') is a science museum and planetarium in Balboa Park, located in San Diego, California. It is at the east end of the El Prado Drive walkway, next to the Bea Evenson Fountain and plaza in central Balboa Park.Established in 1973, it was the first science museum to combine interactive science exhibits with a planetarium and an IMAX Dome (OMNIMAX) theater, setting the standard that most major science museums follow today.


IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, and William C. Shaw developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally (see diagram sprocket holes) so that the image width is greater than the width of the film. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, and some have also been (partially) shot in IMAX. IMAX is the most widely used system for special-venue film presentations. By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, and 86 institutional settings in 75 countries.

Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (; c. January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of science fiction and popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer who wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards. His books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification.Asimov wrote hard science fiction. Along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimov's most famous work is the "Foundation" series; his other major series are the "Galactic Empire" series and the Robot series. The Galactic Empire novels are set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation series. Later, with Foundation and Earth (1986), he linked this distant future to the Robot stories, creating a unified "future history" for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and previously produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson. He wrote hundreds of short stories, including the social science fiction novelette "Nightfall"; in 1964, it was voted the best short science fiction story of all time by the Science Fiction Writers of America. Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French.Asimov also wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his popular science books explain concepts in a historical way, going as far back as possible to a time when the science in question was at its simplest stage. Examples include Guide to Science, the three-volume set Understanding Physics, and Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, as well as works on chemistry, astronomy, mathematics, history, and William Shakespeare's writings.

He was president of the American Humanist Association. The asteroid 5020 Asimov, a crater on the planet Mars, a Brooklyn elementary school, and a literary award are named in his honor.

Lester Novros

Lester Novros (January 27, 1909 - September 10, 2000) was an American artist, animator and teacher.

Born in Passaic, New Jersey in 1909, Novros studied painting at the National Academy of Design in New York City, was an active member of the Art Students League of New York and studied at the Prado Museum in Madrid, Spain. His curiosity in the study of movement lead to an interest in motion pictures. In 1936 he was recruited by the Walt Disney Company to come to Hollywood to work on feature animation projects. Novros was an "inbetweener" on the 1937 Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and received a credit for art direction for the "Night on Bald Mountain" sequence of Fantasia (1940).

In 1941, Novros left Disney to form his own production company, Graphic Films. That same year he joined the faculty of the Cinema Department of the University of Southern California. Thousands of students took his course on "Filmic Expression" before his retirement in 1984.

Graphic Films found immediate success producing training films for the military during World War II. As the United States Air Force and NASA emerged in the post war period, Graphic's expertise in animating the visual dimensions of space exploration played a key role in interesting the United States Congress and the general public in supporting the country's first forays into space.

Among his many achievements, Novros may be most remembered as a pioneer in the large format and special venue film industries. Included in his filmography are numerous specialty films produced for World Fair Expositions, including several titles for the 1964 New York's World Fair, including Chemical Man for Abbott Laboratories, Reaching for the Stars, for Lockheed Corporation, and Voyage to America for the United States Pavilion. However, it was the 10-perf, 70mm film To the Moon and Beyond, (produced for Cinerama Corporation) that caught the attention of filmmaker Stanley Kubrick, who soon enlisted the creativity of Novros and his special effects team in the creation of A Space Odyssey (1968).Novros's interest in large format film technology led him to produce some of the first Imax/Omnimax films, for the Reuben H. Fleet Space Center in San Diego, California, including Voyage to the Outer Planets, Cosmos: the World of Loren Eisley and Tomorrow in Space (1982). In 1976 Novros won national acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for his documentary film Universe.

Novros's much sought after course at USC helped young filmmakers understand the relationship of color, light, movement and form as they specifically related to the film medium. Upon his retirement from USC, he continued to assemble his lectures into a textbook. Former student and friend George Lucas penned these words for the introduction of the manuscript: "The first time I truly understood the unique quality of film was when I took Les Novros' class. Stressing that film is a kinetic medium, Les has kept the Eisenstienian flame burning at USC, and it is a tradition that has strongly influenced my work."

At the age of 91, Novros died in Sherman Oaks, California, after an extended illness.

List of 70 mm films

The following movies were filmed using 65mm or 70mm negative stock. Titles are followed by the photographic process(es) employed.

Releases produced in Todd-AO, Todd-70, Super Panavision 70 (also known as Panavision 70), Panavision System 65 (also known as Panavision Super 70), Dimension 150, Arri 765 and Superpanorama 70 (also known as MClS 70 and MCS Superpanorama 70) were photographed with spherical optics on 65 mm film with five perforations per frame, yielding an aspect ratio of 2.20:1.

Sovscope 70 and DEFA 70 releases were identical with the exception that they were photographed on 70 mm negative stock.

MGM Camera 65 and Ultra Panavision 70 releases employed the same film format, but the use of 1.25X anamorphic optics yielded a super-wide aspect ratio of approximately 2.75:1.

70 mm Cinerama releases were projected with special optics onto a deeply curved screen in an attempt to mimic the effect of the original 3-strip Cinerama process.

Hi Fi Stereo 70 (also known as Triarama and Stereovision 70) was a 3-D process. Two anamorphic images, one for each eye, were captured side by side on 65 mm film. A special lens on a 70 mm projector added polarization and merged the two images on the screen. A similar Soviet system known as Stereo 70 did not employ anamorphics, resulting in an aspect ratio of 1.37:1.Stereospace 2000 (a 3D process) and Kodak-Disney 3D used dual 65 mm cameras operating at 30fps.

Standard 70 mm theater prints were 70 mm wide, with the extra space used to accommodate the 6-channel magnetic soundtracks, consisting of five full-range channels (left, left-center, center, right-center and right) arrayed behind the screen, with the sixth channel providing surround effects.

Far and Away (1992), Baraka (1992) and Hamlet (1996) employed a modified arrangement of speakers, with left, center and right channels behind the screen, left and right surround channels and a low-frequency effects channel. More recent 70 mm releases (including The Hateful Eight) have used standard 5.1 DTS sound.

This list does not include any of the hundreds of 35 mm films which have been optically enlarged to 70 mm for deluxe exhibition, including such titles as Logan's Run, Jesus Christ Superstar and Akira.

Also not included are 70 mm releases which originated on horizontal 35 mm negative such as Vistavision and Technirama (see List of Technirama films), nor films made in the Showscan process. For films shot in the IMAX 70mm format, see List of IMAX films.

List of IMAX films

This is a list of films shot partially or in full with IMAX cameras, either on 15/70 film or with the IMAX/Phantom 3D or the IMAX/Arri digital cameras. Films that may have been projected onto IMAX screens using a standard 35mm print, such as Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, are not listed. The US premiere dates are displayed where available. Due of the ease of downconverting, most IMAX 3D films have also been remastered and exhibited in 2D, with an appropriate name change (for example Space Station 3D becomes Space Station).

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