Voronezh (Russian: Воро́неж, IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-DonNovorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895;[13] up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census;[6] it is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.


View of Voronezh
View of Voronezh
Flag of Voronezh

Coat of arms of Voronezh

Coat of arms
Location of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Russia
Location of Voronezh
Voronezh is located in Voronezh Oblast
Voronezh (Voronezh Oblast)
Coordinates: 51°40′18″N 39°12′38″E / 51.67167°N 39.21056°ECoordinates: 51°40′18″N 39°12′38″E / 51.67167°N 39.21056°E
Federal subjectVoronezh Oblast[1]
Founded1585[2] or much earlier[3]
City status since1585[4]
 • BodyCity Duma
 • MayorVadim Kstenin
 • Total601 km2 (232 sq mi)
154 m (505 ft)
 • Total889,680
 • Estimate 
1,047,549 (+17.7%)
 • Rank15th in 2010
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toVoronezh Urban Okrug[1]
 • Capital ofVoronezh Oblast[1], Voronezh Urban Okrug[1]
 • Urban okrugVoronezh Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofVoronezh Urban Okrug[8]
Postal code(s)[10]
Dialing code(s)+7 473[11]
City DayThird Saturday of September[12]
OKTMO ID20701000001


Foundation and name

Center of Voronezh at night

The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river (tributary of the Don) and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs (about 42 km long, about 13 forts and many unfortified villages). By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan[14][15][16][17].

For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man allegedly gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality (now the village of Voronezh in Ukraine[18]). Later, in the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, and the river got its name from the city[19][20]. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, and usually the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa.

The linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may partly be not only similar in sound, but also united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Brno, etc.[21]

A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov. His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- (from the proto-Slavic vorn) in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh (-azh, -ozh). It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests (oak forests) - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, and in the west to the Don (many forests were cut down). The historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest. This is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus[17][22].

Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven (ворон) and hedgehog (еж) into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which later in turn provided the name for a settlement. There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation.

In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.The city was named after the river [2].

17th to 20th centuries

Памятник Петру 1
A monument to Peter the Great
Гото Предестинация у Адмиралтейской площади
Voronezh. Ship Museum Goto Predestinatsia

In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645.[23] Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

View of Voronezh in the 18th century

Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.

In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871.

During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. By July 24 the frontline had stabilised along the Voronezh River as the German forces continued southeast into the Great Bend of the Don. The attack on Voronezh represented the first phase of the German Army's 1942 campaign in the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue.

Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.


By 1950, Voronezh had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.[24]

In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.

In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published",[25] and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".[26][27]


From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.[28]

On December 17, 2012, Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of over one million people.[29]

Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

Administrative and municipal status

The Mayor's office of Voronezh
Districts of voronezh
Administrative districts of Voronezh

Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[8]

City divisions

The city is divided into six administrative districts:

  • 1. Zheleznodorozhny (183,17 km²)
  • 2. Tsentralny (63,96 km²)
  • 3. Kominternovsky (47,41 km²)
  • 4. Leninsky (18,53 km²)
  • 5. Sovetsky (156,6 km²)
  • 6. Levoberezhny (123,89 km²)


Demographic Evolution
1615 1777 1840 1897 1923 1939 1959 1973 1989 1997
7,000 13,000 43,800 80,599 95,000 326,932 447,164 713,000 886,844 905,000
2010[6] 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016[13]
889,680 979,884 991,269 1,003,638 1,014,610 1,023,570 1,032,895

Note: 1926–1970 and 2016 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are census urban population only.


The leading sectors of the urban economy in the 20th century were mechanical engineering, metalworking, the electronics industry and the food industry.

In the city are such companies as:

RIAN archive 566221 Tu-144 passenger airliner
Tupolev Tu-144
  • Voronezhselmash (agricultural engineering)
  • Sozvezdie[30] (headquarter, JSC Concern “Sozvezdie”, in 1958 the world's first created mobile telephony and wireless telephone Altai
  • Verofarm (pharmaceutics, owner Abbott Laboratories),
  • Voronezh Mechanical Plant[31] (production of missile and aircraft engines, oil and gas equipment)
  • Mining Machinery Holding - RUDGORMASH[32] (production of drilling, mineral processing and mining equipment)
  • VNiiPM Research Institute of Semiconductor Engineering[33] (equipment for plasma-chemical processes, technical-chemical equipment for liquid operations, water treatment equipment)
  • KBKhA Chemical Automatics Design Bureau with notable products:.[34]
  • Pirelli Voronezh.[35]

On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia, is implementing a project to create an industrial park, "Maslowski", to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including the transformer factory of Siemens. On September 7, 2011 in Voronezh there opened a Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and the first in Russia.


In 2014, 926,000 square meters of housing was delivered.[36]

Clusters of Voronezh

In clusters of tax incentives and different preferences, the full support of the authorities. A cluster of Oil and Gas Equipment, Radio-electronic cluster, Furniture cluster, IT cluster, Cluster aircraft, Cluster Electromechanics, Transport and logistics cluster, Cluster building materials and technologies.[37]



The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.


Train Station Voronezh, Russia
Main entrance to Voronezh-1 Railway Station

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow.[38] Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov. The main train station is called Voronezh-1 Railway Station.


There are three Bus Stations in Voronezh that connect the city with a large number of destinations including Moscow, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan and many more.


Voronezh experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.[39]

Education and culture

A parkway in Koltsovsky Garden Square, Voronezh, Russia
Snow at night in a Voronezh park

The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:

  • Voronezh State University
  • Voronezh State Technical University
  • Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Voronezh State Pedagogical University
  • Voronezh State Agricultural University
  • Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
  • Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Voronezh State Academy of Arts
  • Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov
  • Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
  • Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
  • Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
  • Voronezh Institute of High Technologies
  • Voronezh Air Force Academy named after Prof. Zhukovsky and Gagarin
  • Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Voronezh branch)
  • Russian State University of Justice[42]
  • Admiral Makarov State University of Sea and River Fleet (Voronezh branch)
  • International Institute of Computer Technologies
  • Voronezh Institute of Economics and Law

and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.



Platonov International Arts Festival[47]


Club Sport Founded Current League League
Fakel Voronezh Football 1947 Russian Football National League 2nd Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion
Energy Voronezh Football 1989 Women's Premier League 1st Rudgormash Stadium
Buran Voronezh Ice Hockey 1977 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yubileyny Sports Palace
VC Voronezh Volleyball 2006 Women's Higher Volleyball League A 2nd Kristall Sports Complex


Annunciation Cathedral in Voronezh1
Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Voronezh

Orthodox Christianity is the prevalent religion in Voronezh.

There is an orthodox Jewish community in Voronezh, with a synagogue located on Stankevicha Street.[48][49]

Notable people

Nikolay Ge 015.jpeg
Nikolai Ge. Mary, sister of Lazarus, meets Jesus who is going to their house

Sister Cities


Date   Sister City
1968 Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic[51][52]
1989 Germany Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany
1991 United States Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
1992 China Chongqing, China
1995 Bulgaria Sliven, Bulgaria
1996 Spain León, Castile and León, Spain[53]



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  3. ^ Воронеж может оказаться намного старше (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
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  22. ^ П. А. Попов. "Комплексный подход в топонимических исследованиях в связи с историей русского градостроительства (на примере Центрального Черноземья)". Девятые всероссийские краеведческие чтения (Москва – Воронеж, 15–19 мая 2015 г.). Москва; Воронеж, 2016. Стр. 423–434.
  23. ^ Russiæ, vulgo Moscovia, pars australis in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulæ et Descriptiones Omnium Regionum, Editæ a Guiljel et Ioanne Blaeu, 1645.
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  • Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #87-OZ of October 27, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It, as amended by the Law #41-OZ of April 13, 2015 On Amending the Law of Voronezh Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).
  • Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №66-ОЗ от 31 октября 2005 г. «О наделении муниципального образования город Воронеж статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (18 ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Коммуна", №171, 8 ноября 2005 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #66-OZ of October 31, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Voronezh. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date (November 18, 2005).).

Further reading

  • Charlotte Hobson's book, Black Earth City, is an account of life in Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.
  • Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule.

External links

Administrative divisions of Voronezh Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Voronezh (Воронеж) (administrative center)

city districts:

Kominternovsky (Коминтерновский)

with 1 selsovet under the city district's jurisdiction.

Leninsky (Ленинский)

Levoberezhny (Левобережный)

with 2 selsovets under the city district's jurisdiction.

Sovetsky (Советский)

Urban-type settlements under the city district's jurisdiction:

Pridonskoy (Придонской)

Shilovo (Шилово)

with 2 selsovets under the city district's jurisdiction.

Tsentralny (Центральный)

Zheleznodorozhny (Железнодорожный)

Urban-type settlements under the city district's jurisdiction:

Krasnolesny (Краснолесный)

Somovo (Сомово)

with 1 selsovet under the city district's jurisdiction.

Borisoglebsk (Борисоглебск)

Novovoronezh (Нововоронеж)


Anninsky (Аннинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Anna (Анна)

with 22 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Bobrovsky (Бобровский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Bobrov (Бобров)

with 18 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Bogucharsky (Богучарский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Boguchar (Богучар)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Borisoglebsky (Борисоглебский)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Buturlinovsky (Бутурлиновский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Buturlinovka (Бутурлиновка)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Nizhny Kislyay (Нижний Кисляй)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ertilsky (Эртильский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Ertil (Эртиль)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Gribanovsky (Грибановский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Gribanovsky (Грибановский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kalacheyevsky (Калачеевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kalach (Калач)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kamensky (Каменский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kamenka (Каменка)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kantemirovsky (Кантемировский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kantemirovka (Кантемировка)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kashirsky (Каширский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Khokholsky (Хохольский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Khokholsky (Хохольский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Liskinsky (Лискинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Liski (Лиски)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Davydovka (Давыдовка)

with 21 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Nizhnedevitsky (Нижнедевицкий)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Novokhopyorsky (Новохопёрский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Novokhopyorsk (Новохопёрск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Novokhopyorsky (Новохопёрский)

Yelan-Kolenovsky (Елань-Коленовский)

with 19 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Novousmansky (Новоусманский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Olkhovatsky (Ольховатский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Olkhovatka (Ольховатка)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ostrogozhsky (Острогожский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Ostrogozhsk (Острогожск)

with 19 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Paninsky (Панинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Panino (Панино)

Pereleshinsky (Перелешинский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Pavlovsky (Павловский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pavlovsk (Павловск)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Petropavlovsky (Петропавловский)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Podgorensky (Подгоренский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Podgorensky (Подгоренский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Povorinsky (Поворинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Povorino (Поворино)

with 8 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ramonsky (Рамонский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Ramon (Рамонь)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Repyovsky (Репьёвский)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Rossoshansky (Россошанский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Rossosh (Россошь)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Semiluksky (Семилукский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Semiluki (Семилуки)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Latnaya (Латная)

Strelitsa (Стрелица)

with 20 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Talovsky (Таловский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Talovaya (Таловая)

with 23 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ternovsky (Терновский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Verkhnekhavsky (Верхнехавский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Verkhnemamonsky (Верхнемамонский)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Vorobyovsky (Воробьёвский)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.


Borisoglebsk (Russian: Борисогле́бск) is a town in Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Vorona River near its confluence with the Khopyor. Population: 65,585 (2010 Census); 69,392 (2002 Census); 72,338 (1989 Census); 65,000 (1969).

Buran Voronezh

Buran Voronezh (Russian: Буран Воронеж) is an ice hockey team in Voronezh, Russia. They play in the VHL, the second level of Russian ice hockey. It joined the league in 2012 and is currently affiliated with Dynamo Moscow of the KHL.

Don River

The Don (Russian: Дон, IPA: [don]) is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, and the Oka basin (tributary of the Volga) to the north.

The Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Tula (120 km south of Moscow), and flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets.

FC Dynamo Voronezh

FC Dynamo Voronezh (Russian: «Динамо» (Воронеж)) is a Russian football team from Voronezh. It played professionally in 1946, 1949 and 2006–2008. In 1949, they played in the second-highest Soviet First League, taking 8th place in Zone 1. As of 2009, it plays in the Amateur Football League.

FC Energy Voronezh

FC Energy Voronezh (Russian: «Энергия» Воронеж) is a women's football club from Voronezh, Russia.

The club holds the most championships in Russian, having 5 championships to its name. In 1994 the team won the vice championship behind CSK WWS Samara. From that time to 2004 when the club finished third, the team always achieved at least a second-place finish winning titles in 1995, 1997, 1998, 2002 and 2003.

FC Fakel Voronezh

FC Fakel Voronezh (Russian: Футбольный клуб "Факел" Воронеж) is a Russian association football club based in Voronezh. Currently the club plays in the Russian Football National League. The name of the club means "Torch" or "Flambeau" (Russian: Факел).

Fidel Castro Díaz-Balart

Fidel Ángel Castro Díaz-Balart (1 September 1949 – 1 February 2018) was a Cuban nuclear physicist and government official.

Frequently known by the diminutive

Fidelito, he was the eldest son of Cuban leader Fidel Castro and his first wife, Mirta Diaz-Balart.

Polet Airlines

CJSC «Polet Airlines» (Russian: ЗАО «Авиакомпания „Полёт“», «ZAO Aviakompániya “Palyót”») was an airline based in Voronezh, Russia. It operated a worldwide cargo and domestic passenger charter services from Voronezh, as well as regional passenger and cargo services from Sokol. It was one of two airlines which flew the Antonov An-124 Ruslan, the world's highest gross weight cargo airplane which specialises in oversized freight. Its collapse, over lease payments for these massive aircraft, left only the Volga-Dnepr Airlines/Antonov Airlines joint partnership in this market. Its main base was Chertovitskoye Airport, Voronezh. Polet is the Russian word for flight.

Pridacha Airport

Pridacha Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Придача) (also given as Repnoe, or Voronezh East) (ICAO: UUOD) is an airport in Russia located 5 km east of Voronezh. It is home to the Voronezh Aircraft Plant (VASO). The Tupolev Tu-144, Ilyushin Il-86, and Ilyushin Il-96 were built here.

Voronezh Pridacha is not open to the public and is used solely by VASO, no public access is allowed

Russian Women's Cup

The Russian Women's Cup (Russian: КУБОК РОССИИ) is the national women's football cup competition in Russia. The first edition of the cup was played out in 1992.

Russian Women's Football Championship

The Russian Women's Football Championship (Russian: ЧЕМПИОНАТ РОССИИ ПО ЖЕНСКОМУ ФУТБОЛУ), also known as the Top Division, is the highest professional women's football league in Russia.

The Top Division was founded in 1992. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, there had been a women's league, but it only played two seasons, 1990 and 1991.

Voronezh Front

The Voronezh Front (Russian: Воронежский Фронт) was a front (a military formation equivalent to army group) of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War. The name indicated the primary geographical region in which the front first fought, based on the town of Voronezh on the Don River.

The front was established at the end of June 1942 when tanks of the German Wehrmacht's 6th Army reached Voronezh during the early stages of Operation Blau. It was a renaming of the earlier Bryansk Front.

Voronezh Front participated in the Battle of Voronezh, the defensive operations on the approaches to Stalingrad, and in the December 1942 Operation Saturn, the follow-on to the encirclement of German 6th Army at Stalingrad where it destroyed the Hungarian Second Army. Following Operation Saturn the front was involved in Operation Star, which included the Third Battle of Kharkov, and resulted in a long-running battle from 2 February to 23 March 1943, and the reversal of much of the Soviet gains by the Germans. During Zvezda the front included the 38th, 40th, 60th, and 69th Armies plus the 3rd Tank Army. The 3rd Tank Army was so badly battered by the operation that it was reorganized afterwards as the 57th Army. In the Battle of Kursk in August 1943, the front operated on the southern shoulder, during which it commanded the Battle of Prokhorovka on the Soviet side.

During Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev, which began on August 3, 1943, the front included 38th, 40th, 27th, 6th Guards, 5th Guards, and 1st and 5th Guards Tank Armies. During this battle both 1st and 5th Guards Tank Armies made their main effort in the 5th Guards Army sector, and succeeded eventually in taking both Belgorod and liberating Kharkov. One of the divisions in 5th Guards Army was the 13th Guards Rifle Division. The front also fought in the subsequent liberation of eastern Ukraine.

Voronezh Front was renamed to the 1st Ukrainian Front on October 20, 1943.

Voronezh Governorate

Voronezh Governorate (Russian: Воронежская губерния, Voronezhskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which existed from 1708 (as Azov Governorate) until 1779 and from 1796 until 1928. Its seat was located in Voronezh since 1725.

The governorate was located in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire. In 1928, the governorate was abolished, and its area was included into newly established Central Black Earth Oblast.

Voronezh International Airport

Voronezh International Airport (Russian: Международный аэропорт Воронеж) (IATA: VOZ, ICAO: UUOO) (also recorded as Chertovitskoye Airport) is an airport in Russia located 11 km north of Voronezh. Serves the city of Voronezh, Lipetsk, Tambov, Oryol, Belgorod, Kursk regions.

Voronezh Oblast

Voronezh Oblast (Russian: Воро́нежская о́бласть, Voronezhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh. Its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census.Voronezh Oblast is the birthplace of Pavel Cherenkov, co-recipient of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Voronezh State University

Voronezh State University is one of the main universities in Central Russia, located in the city of Voronezh. The university was established in 1918 by professors evacuated from the University of Tartu in Estonia. The university has 18 faculties and an enrollment of 22,000 students from Russia, Europe, Africa, the Americas and Asia. Besides, the university has 6 research institutes and 16 research laboratories administered by the Russian Academy of Science. The university is composed of 10 buildings and 7 resident halls situated throughout the city. For over 90 years the University has trained more than 100,000 professionals. Among university graduates there are Nobel laureates, State Prize winners of the USSR and Russia, academicians, ministers, representatives of science and culture. University graduates are working in more than 90 countries worldwide.

Voronezh UFO incident

The Voronezh UFO incident was an alleged UFO sighting reported in Voronezh, Soviet Union, on September 27, 1989. The incident was allegedly witnessed by a group of children, with other members of the local community, including civil servants, claiming to have seen the craft only. The area has been popular with UFO-hunting tourists.

Voronezh radar

Voronezh radars (Russian: РЛС Воронеж) are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020.Their common name follows the pattern of Soviet radars in being named after a river, the Voronezh. The previous generation of radar was known as the Daryal (after Darial Gorge), Volga (after Volga River) and Daugava (Daugava River) and the generation before the Dnepr (Dnieper River), and Dnestr (Dniester River).

The Voronezh radars are described as highly prefabricated meaning that they have a set up time of months rather than years and need fewer personnel than previous generations. They are also modular so that a radar can be brought into (partial) operation whilst being incomplete.Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe. At the launch of the Kaliningrad radar in November 2011 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was quoted as saying "I expect that this step [the launch of the radar] will be seen by our partners as the first signal of our country's readiness to make an adequate response to the threats which the missile shield poses for our strategic nuclear forces."

Climate data for Voronezh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.0
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.1
Average low °C (°F) −8.8
Record low °C (°F) −36.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
Average rainy days 8 6 8 12 13 15 13 10 13 14 13 9 134
Average snowy days 21 20 14 3 0.2 0 0 0 0.1 3 12 20 93
Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 77 66 61 67 68 67 73 79 85 85 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 86 125 184 268 284 286 254 185 111 45 38 1,928
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[40]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[41]
Cities and towns
Urban-type settlements

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