The Volkssport (German Verband Volkssport, Nazionalsozialistischer Verband für Wandern, Radfahren, Spiel und Sport aller Art) was the paramilitary wing of the German National Socialist Workers' Party (DNSAP) in Czechoslovakia between 1929 and 1932, later operating illegally.[1][2]

It was founded on May 15, 1929 on the example of the Sturmabteilung by Hans Krebs and Paul Illing under the guise of a sporting organization.[3]

It was banned on 22 February 1932 by Czechoslovak authorities.

Emblem of Volkssport, inspired by German Sturmabteilung


Hans Krebs

Hans Krebs, politician in Czechoslovakia were iniciator of creation of the Volksport

Paul Illing, úředník, zástupce zemského velitele organizace Volkssport

Paul Illing, official and Deputy Director of the Volkssport


  1. ^ https://is.muni.cz/th/361043/ff_b/Proces_Volkssport.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.bohemistik.de/sudetistikdaten.html
  3. ^ http://www.bohemistik.de/sudetistikdaten.html
D River State Recreation Site

D River State Recreation Site (also D River State Wayside and D River State Park) is a state park in the U.S. state of Oregon, administered by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. It is a sandy beach of the Pacific Ocean within central Lincoln City along the length of the 120-foot (37 m) long D River, one of the world's shortest rivers.

The site provides public access to Wecoma Beach, part of Lincoln City's 7.5 miles (12.1 km) of beach. There is parking and day use facilities, and no fees. The site has access to river and ocean fishing.Two of the world's largest kite flying festivals are held here, one in the spring and one in the fall, as well as a summer kite festival which features several professional kite fliers. It was named by Kitelines Magazine as one of the best places in the world to fly a kite. The area also has two year-round 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) Volkssport walking courses.D River State Recreation Site is considered among the ten best places along the Oregon coast for whale watching. Whale watching guide volunteers are present one week in January and one in March to help visitors see and understand the whale migration.The area of ocean where the D River enters the sea creates consistent year-round surfing conditions suitable for intermediate skills.Like many Oregon coast locations, flocks of seagulls are frequently present in winter. The most common species are western gull, glaucous-winged gull, and California gull. Occasionally Thayer's gull and American herring gull are observed here.

Deutscher Bund Gälischer Sportarten

The Deutscher Bund Gälischer Sportarten (also German GAA) is a union of German clubs, who play Hurling, Camogie, Gaelic Football, Gaelic Handball and Rounders. Currently, this union consists of 11 German Gaelic Athletic Association clubs. The Bund was founded in 2015. It organizes the German Gaelic football, hurling and camogie cups and is also responsible for the German national team selection for international cups.

Finger pulling

Finger pulling, regionally known as Fingerhakeln (German), Trække krog (Danish), Fingerkrok (Norwegian), and Sormikoukku (Finnish) is a sport practiced in many regions, predominantly Bavaria, Austria, Scandinavia, and Finland.

German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia)

The German National Socialist Workers' Party (German: Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP, Czech: Německá národně socialistická strana dělnická) was a protofascist party of Germans in Czechoslovakia, successor of the German Workers' Party (DAP) from Austria-Hungary. It was founded in November 1919 in Duchcov. Most important party activists were Hans Knirsch, Hans Krebs, Adam Fahrner, Rudolf Jung and Josef Patzel. In May 1932 it had 1,024 local chapters with 61,000 members.Unlike the successive sister party in Austria, which only played a marginal role in Austrian politics, the Czechoslovak branch was able to attract a considerable number of votes because of the large Sudeten German minority in Czechoslovakia. In elections, it worked together with the Deutsche Nationalpartei (DNP). The party advocated cultural and territorial autonomy and anti-clericalism. It also showed anti-semitic tendencies. It organized fascist militia Volkssport. In October 1933 it was banned by the Czechoslovak government on the grounds of its anti-state activities. It was officially dissolved on 11 November 1933. DNSAP was succeeded by the Sudeten German Party.


The exhibition Battle of the Sexes – Franz von Stuck to Frida Kahlo

(Geschlechterkampf – Franz von Stuck bis Frida Kahlo) was held from

24 November 2016 to 19 March 2017 at the Städel-Museum in Frankfurt

am Main. 140 paintings, films and sculptures reflected the change in gender

roles and the perception of these roles.

As logo of the exhibition two paintings have been used: Salome by Jean Benner

and Elle (She) by Gustav-Adolf Mossa, the depiction of a

femme fatale with the blood of her male victims smeared on her thighs,

sitting on a mountain of their corpses. Her genitalia are hidden by a cat. An

inscription reads: hoc volo, sic iubeo; sit pro ratione voluntas.


Klootschieten ("Ball shooting" in English) is a sport in the Netherlands and East Frisia, Germany. In the game, participants try to throw a ball (the kloot) as far as they can. It is most popular in the eastern regions of Twente and Achterhoek. It is known in Northern Germany and the Netherlands. The game is ultimately of Frisian origin. It is a relatively difficult throwing style that requires speed, power, and concentration. The distance of the throw is measured by meters. The sport was connected to betting, drinking and disorderly conduct, often gaining a bad reputation and was banned a few times. Ultimately, this competitive game prevailed. Its first league was developed by Hinrick Dunkhase in 1902. The sport divides into field fighting and stand fighting. Field fighting has two teams playing against each other, while stand fighting is individual. Stefan Albarus is the current record holder, throwing the ball 106.20 meters.

List of German expressions in English

A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language. A loanword is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation. It is distinguished from a calque, or loan translation, where a meaning or idiom from another language is translated into existing words or roots of the host language. Some of the expressions are relatively common (e.g. hamburger), but most are comparatively rare. In many cases the loanword has assumed a meaning substantially different from its German forebear.

English and German both are West Germanic languages, though their relationship has been obscured by the lexical influence of Old Norse and Norman French (as a consequence of the Norman conquest of England in 1066) on English as well as the High German consonant shift. In recent years, however, many English words have been borrowed directly from German. Typically, English spellings of German loanwords suppress any umlauts (the superscript, double-dot diacritic in Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö and ü) of the original word or replace the umlaut letters with Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue, respectively (as is done commonly in German speaking countries when the umlaut is not available; the origin of the umlaut was a superscript E).

German words have been incorporated into English usage for many reasons:

German cultural artifacts, especially foods, have spread to English-speaking nations and often are identified either by their original German names or by German-sounding English names

Developments and discoveries in German-speaking nations in science, scholarship, and classical music have led to German words for new concepts, which have been adopted into English: for example the words doppelgänger and angst in psychology.

Discussion of German history and culture requires some German words.

Some German words are used in English narrative to identify that the subject expressed is in German, e.g. Frau, Reich.As languages, English and German descend from the common ancestor language West Germanic and further back to Proto-Germanic; because of this, some English words are essentially identical to their German lexical counterparts, either in spelling (Hand, Sand, Finger) or pronunciation ("fish" = Fisch, "mouse" = Maus), or both (Arm, Ring); these are excluded from this list.

German common nouns fully adopted into English are in general not initially capitalised, and the German letter "ß" is generally changed to "ss".

List of trails in Brevard County, Florida

The following is a list of recreational trails in Brevard County, Florida. This list includes hiking, biking, equestrian, nature, and multi-use trails administered by various federal, state, county, and city agencies.

Mathias Zdarsky

Mathias Zdarsky (Czech: Matyáš Žďárský; 25 February 1856, in Kožichovice, Třebíč District of Moravia, then Austria-Hungary, present Czech Republic – 20 June 1940, in St. Pölten, Austria) was an early ski pioneer and is considered one of the founders of modern Alpine skiing technique: Arnold Lunn described him as the "father of alpine skiing". He was probably Austria's first ski instructor. He was also a teacher, painter and sculptor.

Inspired by Norway's Fridtjof Nansen's 1888 crossing of Greenland, he adapted skis for use on alpine terrain. In 1890 he developed a steel binding (the "Lilienfelder Stahlsohlenbindung"), which made steep mountain slopes and gate runs possible. Zdarsky felt the earlier bindings did not hold the foot firmly enough, and so he designed binding with a strong, sprung, steel sole, which is the basis of modern ski bindings. As in the earlier Norwegian skiing, he used only one ski pole. Unlike today, the skier steered by using their elbows.

In January 1905, Zdarsky demonstrated a steep downhill descent, and was among the first to publicize this development in Central Europe. To show the superiority of his ski technology, he skied the "Breite Ries" at Schneeberg, Austria. On 19 March 1905 he organized the first alpine ski race (on the Muckenkogel via Lilienfeld, Austria)(though Crans-Montana in Switzerland had already run the first Kandahar descent race, in January, 1901). This had 24 participants. Zdarsky won, making him the first winner of an official ski race. However the event attained little attention beyond ski enthusiasts, so in 1922 the Englishman Arnold Lunn invented the shorter, but more difficult slalom race, which had greater appeal.

During his lifetime nobody suspected Zdarsky had created the basis for a popular sport, and he was considered something of an eccentric inventor. During World War I, he taught mountain troops skiing and advanced avalanche training. He described his skiing techniques in his book Die Lilienfelder Skilauf-Technik (The Lilienfelder Ski Method). First published in 1897, seventeen editions were published up to 1925.

Zdarsky is also thought to be the inventor of the bivouac sack. Mount Zdarsky in Antarctica is named for him.


Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion is a football stadium in Dresden, Saxony. It is named after German athlete Rudolf Harbig, and is the current home of Dynamo Dresden. Sports facilities have existed on the site of the stadium, the Güntzwiesen, since 1874. The stadium also hosts events other than soccer games and has hosted several home games of the Dresden Monarchs American Football team of the German Football League, including their lone home appearance in the BIG6 European Football League in 2014.

SS Cap Arcona

Cap Arcona, named after Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen, was a large German ocean liner and the flagship of the Hamburg Südamerikanische Dampfschifffahrts-Gesellschaft ("Hamburg-South America Line"). She took her maiden voyage on 29 October 1927, carrying passengers and cargo between Germany and the east coast of South America, and in her time was the largest and quickest ship on the route.In 1940 the Kriegsmarine requisitioned her as an accommodation ship. In 1942 she served as the set for the German propaganda feature film Titanic. In 1945 she evacuated almost 26,000 German soldiers and civilians from East Prussia before the advance of the Red Army.

Cap Arcona's final use was as a prison ship. In May 1945 she was heavily laden with prisoners from Nazi concentration camps when the Royal Air Force sank her, killing about 5,000 people; with more than 2,000 further casualties in the sinkings of the accompanying vessels of the prison fleet; Deutschland and Thielbek. This was one of the biggest single-incident maritime losses of life in the Second World War, the largest being the wartime sinking of the German evacuation liner Wilhelm Gustloff in January 1945 in World War II by a Soviet Navy submarine, with an estimated loss of about 9,400 people.


Schwingen (from German schwingen "to swing"), also known as Swiss wrestling (French lutte Suisse) and natively (and colloquially) as Hosenlupf (Swiss German for "breeches-lifting"), is a style of folk wrestling native to Switzerland, more specifically the pre-alpine parts of German-speaking Switzerland.

Wrestlers wear Schwingerhosen ("wrestling breeches") with belts that are used for taking holds. Throws and trips are common because the first person to pin his or her opponent's shoulders to the ground wins the bout.

Schwingen is considered a "national sport" of Switzerland, alongside Hornussen and Steinstossen.

Schwingen and Steinstossen were included as Nationalturnen ("national gymnastics") in the Eidgenössisches Turnfest at Lausanne in 1855.

The modern history of organized Schwingen tournaments begins with the Unspunnenfest of 1805.

Sudeten German Party

The Sudeten German Party (German: Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Czech: Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP). In April 1935, the party was renamed Sudetendeutsche Partei following a mandatory demand of the Czechoslovak government. The name was officially changed to Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party (Sudetendeutsche und Karpatendeutsche Partei) in November 1935.

With the rising power of Nazi Party in Germany, the Sudeten German Party became a major pro-Nazi force in Czechoslovakia with explicit official aim of breaking the country up and joining it to the Third Reich. By June 1938, the party had over 1.3 million members, i.e. 40.6% of ethnic-German citizens of Czechoslovakia. During last free democratic elections before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the May 1938 communal elections, the party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes, taking over control of most municipal authorities in the Czech borderland. The country's mass membership made it one of the largest fascist parties in Europe at the time.

Sudeten Germans

German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia. Before 1945, Czechoslovakia was inhabited by over three million such German Bohemians, comprising about 23 percent of the population of the whole republic and about 29.5 percent of the population of Bohemia and Moravia. Ethnic Germans migrated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electoral territory of the Holy Roman Empire, from the 11th century, mostly in the border regions of what would later be called the "Sudetenland", named after the Sudeten Mountains. This process of German expansion was known as Ostsiedlung ('Settling of the East'). The name "Sudeten Germans" was adopted amidst rising nationalism in the aftermath of the fall of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, which was a consequence of the First World War. After 1945, most ethnic Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia to Germany and Austria.

The area that became known as the Sudetenland possessed chemical works and lignite mines, as well as textile, china, and glass factories. The Bohemian border with Bavaria was inhabited primarily by Germans. The Upper Palatine Forest, which extends along the Bavarian frontier and into the agricultural areas of southern Bohemia, was an area of German settlement. Moravia contained patches of "locked" German territory to the north and south. More characteristic were the German language islands: towns inhabited by German minorities and surrounded by Czechs. Sudeten Germans were mostly Roman Catholics, a legacy of centuries of Austrian Habsburg rule.

Not all ethnic Germans lived in isolated and well-defined areas; for historical reasons, Czechs and Germans mixed in many places and at least a partial knowledge of the second language was quite common. Nevertheless, since the second half of the 19th century, Czechs and Germans created separate cultural, educational, political and economic institutions which kept both groups isolated from each other. This form of separation continued until the end of the Second World War, when the Germans were expelled.

VSG Altglienicke

VSG Altglienicke is a German sports club based in the Treptow district of eastern Berlin offering its members football, volleyball, handball, bowling, seniors activities and gymnastics. Its football team plays in the Regionalliga Nordost (IV).

VfV 06 Hildesheim

VfV 06 Hildesheim is a German association football club from the town of Hildesheim, Lower Saxony. The club's greatest success has been promotion to the tier four Regionalliga Nord in 2015.

Vincent Nguyen (basketball)

Vincent Nguyen (Vietnamese: Nguyễn Quang Vinh; born 24 February 1995) is a Vietnamese-Dutch professional basketball player for the Hanoi Buffaloes of the VBA.


Volksmarching (from German "Volksmarsch", people's march) is a form of non-competitive fitness walking that developed in Europe in the mid-late 1960s. By 1968, the International Federation of Popular Sports (better known as the "IVV") was formed by Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. The national emblems of these four countries were placed in a wreath to form the symbol IVV. The IVV Headquarters is located in Altötting, Germany (Bavaria) and the official languages of the IVV are English and German, though French is also used unofficially.Though walking is the primary activity, the volkssporting movement also includes bicycling, swimming, cross-country skiing or snow-shoeing, and other approved activities. Special provisions also allow for people with disabilities to participate in most events. Participants typically walk 5 kilometers (3.1 mi), 10 kilometers (6.2 mi), 20 kilometers (12 mi) or longer, on a pre-determined outdoor path or trail, with the aid of posted signs or markings, or a map and a set of written directions. Volksmarching associations offer incentive awards (including certificates, pins and patches) for participating in a certain number of events and for covering different cumulative distances over time. Volksmarching participants enjoy recording distances and event participation in international record books.IVV members around the world organize more than 7,500 events each year for an estimated participation of 10,000,000 people. People of all ages and abilities participate. As of 2016, IVV Membership includes 31 National Federations (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland/Liechtenstein, Southern Tyrol, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States) as well as 11 additional "direct members" in Andorra, Croatia, Ireland, Indonesia, Lithuania, New Zealand, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain—representing 4,000 local clubs and making volkssporting available in at least 40 countries worldwide. Members are loosely organized under three geographic groupings: IVV-Europe, IVV-Asia and IVV-Americas.Less frequently used terms are Volkswanderung and Volkswalk.

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