Volk en Staat

Volk en Staat (Dutch; "People and State") was a Flemish daily newspaper between 1936 and 1944, linked to the Fascist Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV) party. It was founded on 15 November 1936 and banned shortly after the liberation of Belgium from German control in 1944.

Volk en Staat had a circulation which peaked at between 40,000 and 50,000 copies sold each day.

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

The German occupation of Belgium (French: Occupation allemande, Dutch: Duitse bezetting) during World War II began on 28 May 1940 when the Belgian army surrendered to German forces and lasted until Belgium's liberation by the Western Allies between September 1944 and February 1945. It was the second time that Germany had occupied Belgium in under thirty years.

After the success of the invasion, a military administration was established in Belgium, bringing the territory under the direct rule of the Wehrmacht. Thousands of Belgian soldiers were taken as prisoners of war, and many were not released until 1945. The German administration juggled competing objectives of maintaining order while extracting material from the territory for the war effort. They were assisted by the Belgian civil service, which believed that limited co-operation with the occupiers would result in the least damage to Belgian interests. Belgian Fascist parties in both Flanders and Wallonia, established before the war, collaborated much more actively with the occupiers; they helped recruit Belgians for the German army and were given more power themselves toward the end of the occupation. Food and fuel were tightly rationed, and all official news was closely censored. Belgian civilians living near possible targets such as railway junctions were in danger of Allied aerial bombing.

From 1942, the occupation became more repressive. Jews suffered systematic persecution and deportation to concentration camps, as measures were taken against potential political opposition. Despite vigorous protest, the Germans deported Belgian civilians to work in factories in Germany. Meanwhile, the Belgian Resistance, formed in late 1940, expanded vastly. From 1944, the SS and Nazi Party gained much greater control in Belgium, particularly after the military government was replaced in July by a Nazi civil administration, the Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich. In September 1944, Allied forces arrived in Belgium and quickly moved across the country. That December, the territory was incorporated de jure into the Greater German Reich although its collaborationist leaders were already in exile in Germany and German control in the region was virtually non-existent. Belgium was declared fully liberated in February 1945. In total, 40,690 Belgians, over half of them Jews, were killed during the occupation and the country's pre-war gross domestic product (GDP) was reduced by eight percent.

National anthem of the Orange Free State

The national anthem of the Orange Free State (Afrikaans: Vrystaatse Volkslied, Dutch: Volkslied van de Oranje Vrijstaat) was used from 1854 until 1902 as the national anthem of the Orange Free State.

Vlaams Nationaal Verbond

The Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (Dutch for "Flemish National Union"), widely known by its acronym VNV, was a Flemish nationalist political party active in Belgium between 1933 and 1945. It became the leading force of political collaboration in Flanders during the German occupation of Belgium in World War II. Authoritarian by inclination, the party advocated the creation of a "Greater Netherlands" (Dietsland) combining Flanders and the Netherlands.

Volk en Vaderland

Volk en Vaderland ('People and Fatherland') was a Dutch weekly paper published by Nenasu (Nederlandsch Nationaal Socialistische Uitgeverij), a national socialist publishing firm owned by Anton Mussert. Mussert was leader of the NSB or National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands. The NSB was a fascist / national socialist Dutch political party that collaborated with the German occupier during World War II.

The weekly paper, also known as VoVa, was founded in January 1933. It was the oldest national magazine related to the NSB. It was published in newspaper format and was sold mostly by peddling in the streets. It had a print run of 40,000 in May 1940 and grew to 200,000 in 1943, but in the last year of World War II its print run decreased to only 15,000.The street peddling of the weekly often led to riots and fights with opponents of the NSB. As VoVa reflected the opinions of the NSB's political leadership, it gradually moved from fascism to national socialism. During the German occupation of the Netherlands from May 1940 to May 1945 the paper's contents was in line with Nazism.

After the liberation the publication was ended and until 2023 the name Volk en Vaderland is banned for use by new publications.

Ward Hermans

Cornelius Eduardus Hermans (6 February 1897 – 23 November 1992) was a Belgian Flemish nationalist politician and writer.

Hermans saw service with the Belgian Army during the First World War before becoming involved in politics as a member of the nationalist Frontpartij. He served this party in the Belgian parliament from 1929 to 1932. He quit the Frontpartij in 1933 to join Verdinaso and soon became known for his pro-Nazi Germany stance in journals such as De Schelde, Volk en Staat and Strijd. His membership came to an end the following year when he argued with Joris van Severen and so left the group to join the Flemish National Union. Serving as an arrondissement leader for the group from 1935 to 1940, he also returned to parliament as a VNV representative from 1939 to 1944.Given his disposition towards Nazism Hermans became an enthusiastic collaborator after the invasion. Along with René Lagrou, he was the founder of the Algemeene-SS Vlaanderen, the Flemish SS, in 1940. Having left his official engagements with VNV in October 1940 to concentrate on this assignment he also edited the new movement's journal SS-Man. In the later years of the war Hermans went to Germany to broadcast propaganda over the radio in Bremen.Hermans was sentenced to death in absentia after the Second World War but he was not arrested until his capture in Germany in November 1946. He was returned to Belgium where his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and he was freed in 1955. He largely remained aloof from political involvement following his release, apart from a spell in the Vlaamse Militanten Orde during the 1970s.

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