Volgograd

Volgograd (UK: /ˈvɒlɡəɡræd, ˈvɒlɡoʊ-/, US: /ˈvɒlɡə-, ˈvoʊlɡə-/;[11][12] Russian: Волгогра́д, IPA: [vəɫɡɐˈɡrat] (listen)), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian: Цари́цын​ ), 1589–1925, and Stalingrad (/ˈstɑːlɪnɡræd, ˈstæl-, -ɡrɑːd/;[11][12] Russian: Сталингра́д​ ), 1925–1961, is an industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia.[13] The city lies on the western bank of the Volga River.

The Battle of Stalingrad in World War II was one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. Known locally as the "Hero City", it is home to The Motherland Calls, an 85 meter statue dedicated to the heroes of the battle. The city also has many tourist attractions, such as museums, sandy beaches, and a self-propelled floating church. Its population was 1,021,215 at the 2010 Census, growing from 1,011,417 in the 2002 Census.

Volgograd

Волгоград
Counterclockwise: The Motherland Calls, the railway station, Planetarium, The Metrotram, Panorama of the City, Gerhardt Mill, Mamayev Kurgan
Counterclockwise: The Motherland Calls, the railway station, Planetarium, The Metrotram, Panorama of the City, Gerhardt Mill, Mamayev Kurgan
Flag of Volgograd

Flag
Coat of arms of Volgograd

Coat of arms
Anthem: none[3]
Location of Volgograd
Volgograd is located in Russia
Volgograd
Volgograd
Location of Volgograd
Volgograd is located in Volgograd Oblast
Volgograd
Volgograd
Volgograd (Volgograd Oblast)
Coordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°ECoordinates: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E
CountryRussia
Federal subjectVolgograd Oblast[2]
Founded1589[4]
City status sincethe end of the
18th century[1]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[5]Alexander Chunakov
Area
 • Total859 km2 (332 sq mi)
Elevation
80 m (260 ft)
Population
 • Total1,021,215
 • Estimate 
(2018)[7]
1,013,533 (-0.8%)
 • Rank12th in 2010
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
 • Capital ofVolgograd Oblast[2], city of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
 • Urban okrugVolgograd Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofVolgograd Urban Okrug[8]
Postal code(s)[10]
400000–400002, 400005–400012, 400015–400017, 400019–400023, 400026, 400029, 400031–400034, 400036, 400038–400040, 400042, 400046, 400048–400055, 400057–400059, 400062–400067, 400069, 400071–400076, 400078–400082, 400084, 400086–400089, 400093, 400094, 400096–400098, 400105, 400107, 400108, 400110–400112, 400117, 400119–400125, 400127, 400131, 400136–400138, 400700, 400880, 400890, 400899, 400921–400942, 400960–400965, 400967, 400970–400979, 400990–400993
Dialing code(s)+7 8442
City DaySecond Sunday of September[1]
OKTMO ID18701000001
Websitewww.volgadmin.ru

History

Coat of Arms of Volgograd (Tsaritsyn Volgograd oblast) (1857)
Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857)
Map Tsaritsyn 1909
City map of Tsaritsyn (1909)

Tsaritsyn

Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga rivers dates only from 1589.[4] Grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su (the local Tatar-language name means "yellow water" or "yellow river") as part of the defences of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.

In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky for six months. In 1608 the city acquired its first stone church, St. John the Baptist. At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people.

In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress; they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin (died July 1708) held the fortress. In 1717 in the Kuban pogrom, raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city.

In 1691 Moscow established a customs-post at Tsaritsyn. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate; in 1719 to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people. In 1773 the city became a provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780 the city came under the newly-established Saratov Governorate.

Wrangel after worship Tsaritsyn 1919
General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919

In the 19th century Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center. The population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railway reached the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White troops under the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Pyotr Krasnov, besieged Tsaritsyn. The Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia under the command of General Denikin captured Tsaritsyn, which they held until January 1920. The fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn.

Stalingrad

The city was renamed Stalingrad after Joseph Stalin on April 10, 1925.[14][15] This was officially to recognize the city and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920.[16] In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta (founded in 1765) became a district of Stalingrad. Renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon (or "Red Army District"), it became the largest area of the city.

The first institute was opened in 1930. A year later, the Stalingrad Industrial Pedagogical Institute, now Volgograd State Pedagogical University, was opened.

Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river. During World War II, German and Axis forces attacked the city, and in 1942 it became the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad had perhaps the greatest casualty figures of any single battle in the history of warfare (estimates are between 1,250,000[17] and 1,798,619[18]). The battle became a titanic struggle between Hitler and Stalin as both saw it of great propaganda value, each keenly aware of the namesake of the city, and each poured hundreds of thousands of men into the battle.

RIAN archive 602161 Center of Stalingrad after liberation
Center of Stalingrad after liberation in 1942
Красноармейский Район - Волга
Volga River in Volgograd

The battle began on August 23, 1942, and on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the city's central railway station changed hands thirteen times, and the Mamayev Kurgan (one of the highest points of the city) was captured and recaptured eight times. By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets in two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance before Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack on November 19. This led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, surrendered, and by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over. In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery.

A number of cities around the world (especially those that had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister, friendship and twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established during World War II between Stalingrad and Coventry in the United Kingdom – both suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment.

Gogolya str., Tsaritsyn (1914)
City tram on Gogolya Street in 1914

Volgograd

Volgograd 1979
Volgograd on a 1979 map
Kazanskiy Sobor
Kazan Cathedral
Volgograd - Building of Regional Committee of KPSS and Executive Committee 002
Building of the Oblast Duma

On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of his programme of de-Stalinization following Stalin's death, as he was trying to reduce the "cult of personality". This action was and remains somewhat controversial, given Stalingrad's importance as a symbol of resistance during the war. During Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1984, proposals were floated to revive its historic name. There remains a strong degree of local support for a reversion but intermittent proposals have yet to be accepted by the Russian government.

On May 21, 2007, the Communist Party obtained an important success in the Volgograd mayoral election. Communist candidate Roman Grebennikov was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote. Grebennikov is Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center.

In 2010, Russian monarchists and leaders of the Orthodox organizations demanded that the city should return to its original name Tsaritsyn, but the authorities rejected their proposal.

On January 30, 2013, the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the title "Hero City Stalingrad" in city statements on nine specific dates annually.[19][20][21] On the following dates the title "Hero City Stalingrad" can officially be used in celebrations:

In addition, 50,000 people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin, asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad.[20] President Putin has replied that such a move should be preceded by a local referendum and that the Russian authorities will look into how to bring about such a referendum.[22]

Terrorist attacks

On August 24, 2004, the Volga-AviaExpress Flight 1353,[23] a Tupolev Tu-134 aircraft flying from Moscow to Volgograd, exploded in mid-air and crashed as a result of suicide terrorist attack. 34 passengers and 9 crew members were on board the aircraft, all of whom died in the crash. A Siberia Airlines flight bound for Sochi that day was also bombed, killing all 46 who were on board.

At approximately 2:00 p.m. on Monday 21 October 2013 Russian intelligence officers reported a bomb carried by a female suicide bomber exploded on a passenger bus carrying 40 people while stopped at the Lesobaza bus stop.[24] Irina Gogolyeva, a spokesperson from the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry, reported that at least five people died in the blast and seventeen others were injured.[25] On October 22, 2013, Vladimir Markin from Russia's investigative Committee reported that the suicide bomber had been identified as 30-year-old Naida Asiyalova of Dagestan.[26]

On December 29, 2013, a suicide bomb attack occurred at the Volgograd railway station, killing at least seventeen people. It is not clear how many bombers were involved or who they were.[27] The following day a suicide bombing on a trolleybus killed at least fifteen people.[28]

Politics

In 2011, the City Duma canceled direct election of the mayor and confirmed the position of City Manager. This was short-lived, as in March 2012, Volgograd residents voted for relevant amendments to the city charter to reinstate the direct mayoral elections.[29]

Administrative and municipal status

Voroshilovskiy district of Volgograd 001
View of Voroshilovsky City District of Volgograd

Volgograd is the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast.[30] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Volgograd—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[2] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Volgograd is incorporated as Volgograd Urban Okrug.[8]

Economy

Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminum production, manufacture of machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. The large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is a short distance to the north of Volgograd.

Transportation

Volgograd is a major railway junction served by the Privolzhskaya Railway. Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga–Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais in France with Ridder in Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, was inaugurated in October 2009.[31] The city river terminal is the center for local passenger shipping along the Volga River.

The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan and Aktau.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.

The Volga River still is a very important communication channel.

Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world:[32] the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd.

May2015 Volgograd img16 trolley

Trolza-5275 low-entry trolleybus

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification Volgograd has a dry humid continental climate (Dfa) with a hot summer subtype.[33]

Culture and recreation

Mamaev kurgan (ОКН)
The Motherland Calls in Volgograd is the tallest statue of a woman in the world (not including pedestals).
Memorial area and All Saints Church, Volgograd (2007)
All Saints' Church
Volgograd Synagogue
The Volgograd Synagogue (1911), Port-Said Street

A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture The Motherland Calls, was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle. At 85 metres it is almost twice the height of the Statue of Liberty in New York.

The Panorama Museum sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. These include a panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument on Mamayev Kurgan. A rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev is also on display.

The Musical Instrument Museum is a branch of the Volgograd regional Museum of local lore.

Education

Higher education facilities include:

Sports

View from Mamayev Kurgan towards Volga River, April 2017 (40030089895)
Construction of the Volgograd Arena in April 2017
Club Sport Founded Current League League
Tier
Stadium
Rotor Volgograd Football 1929 Russian Professional Football League 2nd Central Stadium
Olimpia Volgograd Football 1989 Volgograd Oblast Football Championship 5th Olimpia Stadium
Kaustik Volgograd Handball 1929 Handball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Complex
Dynamo Volgograd Handball 1929 Women's Handball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Complex
Krasny Oktyabr Volgograd Basketball 2012 VTB United League 2nd Trade Unions Sports Palace
Spartak Volgograd Water Polo 1994 Russian Water Polo Championship 1st CVVS

Volgograd was a host city to 4 matches of the FIFA World Cup in 2018. A new modern stadium, Volgograd Arena, was built for this occasion on the bank of the Volga River to serve as the venue. The stadium has a seating capacity for 45,000 people, including a press box, a VIP box and seats for people with limited mobility.

Notable people

International relations

Volgograd is twinned with:[39][40]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Charter of Volgograd, Preamble
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #139-OD
  3. ^ Official website of Volgograd. Конкурс на создание гимна Волгограда будет проведен повторно (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 81–83. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Charter of Volgograd, Article 22
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c Law #1031-OD
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ a b Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  12. ^ a b Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  13. ^ В Волгограде строится самый длинный мост Европы. geo.1september.ru (in Russian). 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  14. ^ Lutz-Auras, Ludmilla (2012). "Auf Stalin, Sieg Und Vaterland!": Politisierung Der Kollektiven Erinnerung an Den Zweiten Weltkrieg in Russland (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 189. ISBN 978-3658008215.
  15. ^ Mccauley, Martin (2013). Stalin and Stalinism (3 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1317863687. 10 April 1925: Tsaritsyn is renamed Stalingrad.
  16. ^ Breweres Dictionary of 20th Century Phrase and Fable
  17. ^ Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7566-1360-4.
  18. ^ Wagner, Margaret; et al. (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5219-5.
  19. ^ a b Decision #72/2149
  20. ^ a b "Russia revives Stalingrad city name". The Daily Telegraph. January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  21. ^ "Stalingrad name to be revived for anniversaries". BBC News Online. February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  22. ^ "Putin says Russian city Volgograd can become Stalingrad again". TASS.
  23. ^ Kurz, Robert W.; Charles K. Bartles (2007). "Chechen suicide bombers" (PDF). Journal of Slavic Military Studies. Routledge. 20: 529–547. doi:10.1080/13518040701703070. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  24. ^ Arkady Irshenko (October 21, 2013). "5 killed in Russia bus explosion; suicide bombing suspected". Cable News Network (CNN). Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  25. ^ "Blast kills bus passengers in Russia". Al Jazeera America. October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  26. ^ "6 dead as female suicide attacker explodes bomb on Russian bus". Fox News Network. October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  27. ^ "Suicide bombing kills at least 17 in Russia's Volgograd". RT. December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  28. ^ "Volgograd suicide bombing kills at least 14 (photos, graphic video)". RT. December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  29. ^ "Волгоград сдался выборам". www.gazeta.ru. 2012.
  30. ^ Europa Publications (February 26, 2004). "Southern Federal Okrug". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2004. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 174. Retrieved March 4, 2017. The Oblast's administrative centre is at Volgograd.
  31. ^ Иванов открыл в Волгограде самый большой мост в Европе (in Russian). Vesti. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  32. ^ Sputnik. "SELF-PROPELLED FLOATING CHURCH LAUNCHED IN VOLGOGRAD". sputniknews.com.
  33. ^ "Volgograd, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  34. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  35. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Volgograd, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  36. ^ "Volgograd State Technical University - Main page". Vstu.ru. August 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  37. ^ Россия. "Волгоградский государственный медицинский университет (ВолгГМУ)". Volgmed.ru. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  38. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. June 27, 2007. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  39. ^ "Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd". Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  40. ^ "VISIT VOLGOGRAD - RUSSIA - WELCOME TO THE CITY - THE HERO VOLGOGRAD!". www.visitvolgograd.info. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
  41. ^ Griffin, Mary (August 2, 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  42. ^ "Coventry - Twin towns and cities". Coventry City Council. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  43. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
  44. ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
  45. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  46. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. City of Yerevan. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  47. ^ "МЕЖДУНАРОДНО СЪТРУДНИЧЕСТВО НА ОБЩИНА РУСЕ - Побратимени градове". Община Русе [Municipality Ruse] (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
  48. ^ "ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ВЛАСТЬ ГОРОДА БАКУ" [Executive power of Baku city]. www.azerbaijan.az.
  49. ^ "Iran's Ardabil, Russia's Volgograd to be sisters". Mehr News Agency. May 23, 2015.

Sources

  • Волгоградский городской Совет народных депутатов. Постановление №20/362 от 29 июня 2005 г. «Устав города-героя Волгограда», в ред. Решения №32/1000 от 15 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города-героя Волгограда». Вступил в силу 10 марта 2006 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Волгоградская газета", №7, 9 марта 2006 г. (Volgograd City Council of People's Deputies. Resolution #20/362 of June 29, 2005 Charter of the Hero City of Volgograd, as amended by the Decision #32/1000 of July 15, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Hero City of Volgograd. Effective as of March 10, 2006 (with the exception of certain clauses).).
  • Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г. (Volgograd Oblast Duma. Law #139-OD of October 7, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Volgograd Oblast, as amended by the Law #107-OD of July 10, 2015 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Volgograd Oblast to Ensure Compliance with the Charter of Volgograd Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №1031-ОД от 21 марта 2005 г. «О наделении города-героя Волгограда статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №2013-ОД от 22 марта 2010 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от 21 марта 2005 г. №1031-ОД "О наделении города-героя Волгограда статусом городского округа и установлении его границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (22 марта 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №49, 22 марта 2005 г. (Volgograd Oblast Duma. Law #1031-OD of March 21, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Hero City of Volgograd and on Establishing Its Borders, as amended by the Law #2013-OD of March 22, 2010 On Amending the Law of Volgograd Oblast #1031-OD of March 21, 2005 "On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Hero City of Volgograd and on Establishing Its Borders". Effective as of the day of the official publication (March 22, 2005).).
  • Волгоградская городская Дума. Решение №72/2149 от 30 января 2013 г. «Об использовании наименования "город-герой Сталинград"», в ред. Решения №9/200 от 23 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в пункт 1 Порядка использования наименования "город-герой Сталинград", определённого Решением Волгоградской городской Думы от 30.01.2013 №72/2149 "Об использовании наименования "город-герой Сталинград"». Вступил в силу со дня принятия. Опубликован: "Городские вести. Царицын - Сталинград - Волгоград", #10, 2 февраля 2013 г. (Volgograd City Duma. Decision #72/2149 of January 30, 2013 On Using the Name of the "Hero City Stalingrad", as amended by the Decision #9/200 of December 23, 2013 On Amending Item 1 of the Procedures for Usage of the Name "Hero City Stalingrad", Adopted by the January 30, 2013 Decision #72/2149 of Volgograd City Duma "On Using the Name of the "Hero City Stalingrad". Effective as of the day of adoption.).

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Volgograd

External links

Administrative divisions of Volgograd Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Volgograd (Волгоград) (administrative center)

city districts:

Dzerzhinsky (Дзержинский)

Kirovsky (Кировский)

Krasnoarmeysky (Красноармейский)

Krasnooktyabrsky (Краснооктябрьский)

Sovetsky (Советский)

Traktorozavodsky (Тракторозаводский)

Tsentralny (Центральный)

Voroshilovsky (Ворошиловский)

Frolovo (Фролово)

Kamyshin (Камышин)

Mikhaylovka (Михайловка)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Sebrovo (Себрово)

Uryupinsk (Урюпинск)

Volzhsky (Волжский)

Districts:

Alexeyevsky (Алексеевский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Bykovsky (Быковский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Bykovo (Быково)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Chernyshkovsky (Чернышковский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Chernyshkovsky (Чернышковский)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Danilovsky (Даниловский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Danilovka (Даниловка)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Dubovsky (Дубовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Dubovka (Дубовка)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Frolovsky (Фроловский)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Gorodishchensky (Городищенский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Gorodishche (Городище)

Novy Rogachik (Новый Рогачик)

Yerzovka (Ерзовка)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ilovlinsky (Иловлинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Ilovlya (Иловля)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kalachyovsky (Калачёвский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kalach-na-Donu (Калач-на-Дону)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kamyshinsky (Камышинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Petrov Val (Петров Вал)

with 20 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kikvidzensky (Киквидзенский)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kletsky (Клетский)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kotelnikovsky (Котельниковский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kotelnikovo (Котельниково)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kotovsky (Котовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kotovo (Котово)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kumylzhensky (Кумылженский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Leninsky (Ленинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Leninsk (Ленинск)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Mikhaylovsky (Михайловский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Nekhayevsky (Нехаевский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Nikolayevsky (Николаевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Nikolayevsk (Николаевск)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Novoanninsky (Новоаннинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Novoanninsky (Новоаннинский)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Novonikolayevsky (Новониколаевский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Novonikolayevsky (Новониколаевский)

with 10 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Olkhovsky (Ольховский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Pallasovsky (Палласовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pallasovka (Палласовка)

with 12 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Rudnyansky (Руднянский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Rudnya (Рудня)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Serafimovichsky (Серафимовичский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Serafimovich (Серафимович)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sredneakhtubinsky (Среднеахтубинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Krasnoslobodsk (Краснослободск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Srednyaya Akhtuba (Средняя Ахтуба)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Staropoltavsky (Старополтавский)

with 18 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Surovikinsky (Суровикинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Surovikino (Суровикино)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Svetloyarsky (Светлоярский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Svetly Yar (Светлый Яр)

with 9 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Uryupinsky (Урюпинский)

with 23 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Yelansky (Еланский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Yelan (Елань)

with 20 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Zhirnovsky (Жирновский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zhirnovsk (Жирновск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Krasny Yar (Красный Яр)

Linyovo (Линёво)

Medveditsky (Медведицкий)

with 11 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Air Volga

LCC Air Volga (Russian: ООО «Авиакомпания Во́лга») was an airline headquartered in Volgograd, Russia, operating scheduled passenger flights as well as holiday charters out of its base at Volgograd International Airport.

Andrey Bocharov

Andrey Ivanovich Bocharov (Russian: Андрей Иванович Бочаров; born 14 October 1969), is a Russian politician and former military officer who serves as Governor of Volgogradskaya Oblast.He served as a deputy in the State Duma of the Russian Federation for the fifth and sixth convocations from 2007 to 2012, and as Deputy Governor of the Bryanskaya Oblast from 2005 to 2007. He was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation in 1996.

BC Krasny Oktyabr

BC Krasny Oktyabr was a Russian professional basketball club that is based in Volgograd. In English, the club's name translates to "'BC Red October'". The club played in the VTB United League until 2016, when the team was forced to leave the league because its home arena did not meet requirements.

December 2013 Volgograd bombings

In December 2013, two separate suicide bombings a day apart targeted mass transportation in the city of Volgograd, in the Volgograd Oblast of Southern Russia, killing 34 people overall, including both perpetrators. The attacks followed a bus bombing carried out in the same city two months earlier.

Dinamo Volgograd

Dinamo Volgograd (Russian: Динамо Волгоград) is a Russian women's handball club from Volgograd. Founded in 1972 as Burevestnik Volgograd, it represented Rotor Volgograd following the collapse of the Soviet Union and was subsequently named Aqva before taking its current name in 2003.

Dynamo is the most successful team in the Russian Super League with nine titles, and in the 2001-02 season it set an absolute record winning all the matches. It has also been fairly successful in international competitions with three titles: the 1995 Challenge Cup and Champions Trophy and the 2008 EHF Cup. In 2000 it became the first Russian team to reach the Champions League's semifinals since the USSR's break-up.

FC Olimpia Volgograd

FC Olimpia Volgograd (Russian: «Олимпия» (Волгоград)) is a Russian football team from the large city of Volgograd. They are the second- or third-largest club in the city after the famous Rotor Volgograd.

FC Rotor-2 Volgograd

FC Rotor-2 Volgograd (Russian: ФК «Ротор-Волгоград-2» Волгоград) is a Russian football team based in Volgograd. It is the farm club for FC Rotor Volgograd. It previously played professionally as FC Rotor-d Volgograd or FC Rotor-2 Volgograd in the Russian Second Division in 1992–1993, 1998–2000 and 2004 and Russian Third League in 1994-1997. They came in 3rd place in their Second Division zone in 1993. In 2001, the reserves tournament for Russian Premier League was re-established and the reserves team played there while the main team stayed in Premier League.

In 2005, the main Rotor team played under the name of FC Rotor-2 Volgograd, as the parent club had lost their professional licence. Subsequently, Rotor-2 was renamed Rotor, and a Rotor reserve side entered the Volgograd Oblast Championship. Following Rotor's promotion to the second-tier Russian National Football League for the 2017–18 season, the reserve team received professional license for the third-tier Russian Professional Football League.

FC Rotor Volgograd

FC Rotor Volgograd (Russian: ФК Ротор Волгоград) is a Russian football (soccer) club from the large city of Volgograd, Volgograd Oblast (formerly Stalingrad). The club plays in the second-level Russian National Football League. They are the largest and best supported Volgograd club and for most of their existence have been the city's only representatives in the national league system. They played at the top level of Soviet/Russian football either side of World War II, from 1989 to 1990, and from 1991 to 2004. During the 1990s they were one of the strongest clubs in newly independent Russia and qualified for European competition four times. In recent years financial and ownership difficulties have repeatedly threatened their professional status and they have played mostly in lower regional leagues.

Kalach-na-Donu

Kalach-na-Donu (Russian: Кала́ч-на-Дону́), or Kalach-on-the-Don, is a town and the administrative center of Kalachyovsky District in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the Don River, 72 kilometers (45 mi) west of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 26,910 (2010 Census); 26,882 (2002 Census); 22,979 (1989 Census).

Mamayev Kurgan

Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in Southern Russia. The name in Russian means "tumulus of Mamai".

The formation is dominated by a memorial complex commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 to February 1943). The battle, a hard-fought Soviet victory over Axis forces on the Eastern Front of World War II, turned into one of the bloodiest battles in human history. At the time of its installation in 1967 the statue named The Motherland Calls on Mamayev Kurgan formed the largest free-standing sculpture in the world;

as of 2016 it is the tallest sculpture of a woman in the world.

Moscow Time

Moscow Time (Russian: моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 permanently on 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round since 27 March 2011.Moscow Time is used to schedule trains, ships, etc. throughout Russia, but airplane travel is scheduled using local time. Trains are going to follow local time by 1 August. Times in Russia are often announced throughout the country on radio stations as Moscow Time, which is also registered in telegrams, etc. Descriptions of time zones in Russia are often based on Moscow Time rather than UTC. For example, Yakutsk (UTC+09:00) is said to be MSK+6 in Russia.

The Motherland Calls

The Motherland Calls (Russian: Родина-мать зовёт!, tr. Rodina-mat' zavyot!, lit. Homeland-Mother Is Calling!) is the compositional centre of the monument-ensemble "Heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad" on Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia. It was designed by sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and structural engineer Nikolai Nikitin, and declared the tallest statue in the world in 1967. It is the tallest statue in Europe and the tallest statue (excluding pedestal) of a human woman in the world.

Volga River

The Volga (; Russian: Во́лга, IPA: [ˈvoɫɡə] (listen); Tatar: İdel, Ätil, İtil; Chuvash: Atăl, Kazakh: Edil) is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin. The river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, and is widely regarded as the national river of Russia.

Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are located in the Volga's drainage basin.

Some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is often referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka (Mother Volga) in Russian literature and folklore.

Volgograd International Airport

Volgograd International Airport (Russian: Международный Аэропорт Волгоград) (IATA: VOG, ICAO: URWW) is an airport located 15 km northwest of the city of Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, in Russia. It comprises a civilian airport built on top of an older military runway (3300 m), now demolished. The terminal area parks 42 medium/large aircraft and 91 small aircraft.

A military training unit was present at Gumrak as late as 1994, the 706 UAP (706th Aviation Training Regiment), using Aero L-39 aircraft. However a more recent report puts 706 UAP at Beketovsk until 1997. Volgograd Airport served as base for Air Volga. When the airline went bankrupt in April 2010, its aircraft and most of the routes were taken over by RusLine.

In 2012 it was announced that Volgograd airport would have a new terminal and runway built which would bring the airport up to European standards, it is currently being built and will be complete sometime in 2017.

Volgograd Oblast

Volgograd Oblast (Russian: Волгогра́дская о́бласть, Volgogradskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia. Its administrative center is Volgograd. The population of the oblast was 2,610,161 in the 2010 Census.Formerly known as Stalingrad Oblast, it was given its present name in 1961, when the city of Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd as part of de-Stalinization. Volgograd Oblast borders Rostov Oblast in the southwest, Voronezh Oblast in the northwest, Saratov Oblast in the north, Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia in the southeast, and has an international border with Kazakhstan in the east. The two main rivers in European Russia, the Don and the Volga, run through the oblast and are connected by the Volga–Don Canal. Volgograd Oblast's strategic waterways have made it a popular route for shipping and for the generation of hydroelectricity.

Volgograd Oblast is best known as the primary site of the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II, often regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare.

Volgograd Tractor Plant

The Volgograd Tractor Plant (Russian: Волгоградский тракторный завод, Volgogradski traktorni zavod, or ВгТЗ, VgTZ), formerly the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory or the Stalingrad Tractor Plant, is a heavy equipment factory located in Volgograd, Russia. It was a site of fierce fighting during World War II's Battle of Stalingrad.

Volzhsky, Volgograd Oblast

Volzhsky (Russian: Волжский, IPA: [ˈvolʂskʲɪj]) is an industrial city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the east bank of the Volga River and its distributary the Akhtuba, 20 kilometers (12 mi) northeast of Volgograd. Population: 314,255 (2010 Census); 313,169 (2002 Census); 268,842 (1989 Census).

Yevgeny Sadovyi

Yevgeny Viktorovich Sadovyi (Russian: Евгений Викторович Садовый; born 19 January 1973) is a retired Russian freestyle swimmer who won three gold medals at the 1992 Summer Olympics at Barcelona and was subsequently chosen by Swimming World magazine as the Male World Swimmer of the Year.

Climate data for Volgograd
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
15.9
(60.6)
20.5
(68.9)
29.2
(84.6)
37.2
(99.0)
40.1
(104.2)
40.9
(105.6)
42.7
(108.9)
37.8
(100.0)
31.0
(87.8)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
42.7
(108.9)
Average high °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.3
(26.1)
3.3
(37.9)
14.5
(58.1)
21.4
(70.5)
26.6
(79.9)
29.3
(84.7)
28.1
(82.6)
21.3
(70.3)
12.7
(54.9)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−6.6
(20.1)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.9
(60.6)
21.0
(69.8)
23.7
(74.7)
22.3
(72.1)
15.6
(60.1)
8.1
(46.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.7
(23.5)
8.2
(46.8)
Average low °C (°F) −9.2
(15.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
4.1
(39.4)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
17.5
(63.5)
16.2
(61.2)
10.3
(50.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−32.5
(−26.5)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−12.8
(9.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.1
(34.0)
7.2
(45.0)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
−12.2
(10.0)
−25.8
(−14.4)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−33.0
(−27.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
30
(1.2)
28
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
39
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
35
(1.4)
30
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
29
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
45
(1.8)
406
(16.0)
Average rainy days 9 7 8 12 12 12 11 8 10 11 12 11 123
Average snowy days 20 18 11 2 0.03 0 0 0 0.1 1 9 18 79
Average relative humidity (%) 88 86 81 64 57 56 53 51 61 73 86 89 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.1 96.9 138.4 204.2 290.8 308.4 329.3 300.2 228.9 155.8 63.6 42.5 2,225.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[34]
Source #2: Weatherbase (sun only)[35]
Administrative districts
Cities and towns
Urban-type settlements

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