Volata ("flow") is a code of football developed and promoted by Italian fascists for a brief period during the late 1920s and early 1930s, in an attempt to displace sports with non-Italian origins, such as association football (soccer) and rugby union.
Although the fascists idealized association football for its contribution to physical fitness, it was also seen at the time as an "English game" (because the rules had been codified by the English Football Association and the first organized matches had taken place in England). The fascists generally distanced themselves from cultural practices with foreign roots.
Conversely, rugby was seen as having links to the extinct Ancient Roman game of harpastum. By 1927, fascist propaganda actively promoted rugby – which it referred to as palla ovale ("oval ball"). However, the Federazione Italiana Rugby proved resistant to manipulation and the fascists quickly ceased their support.
The national secretary of the Fascist Party, Augusto Turati, devised volata. Officially, the rules were based on long-extinct codes of football indigenous to Italy, especially the Roman harpastum and the medieval calcio Fiorentino. Volata was contested by eight-member sides, with rules that were described by a 1929 propaganda newsreel from Istituto Luce as a "synthesis of the essential elements of the games of calcio and rugby" (sintesi di elementi essenziali del giuoco del calcio e del "rugby"). Use of the word "calcio" was ambiguous, as it was the usual name of association football, as well as calcio Fiorentino, which in 1930 was also revived at the fascists' behest.
Promoted by Fascist sporting and cultural organizations, Volata enjoyed a brief phase of popularity. More than 100 Volata clubs and a league were reportedly formed. However, the enduring popularity of association football caused the fascists to change their attitude toward the sport.
In 1933, volata organizations and competitions were officially abandoned. Afterwards the fascists encouraged association football; Italy hosted and won the 1934 World Cup.
The popularity of rugby and its place within Italian sporting culture appear to have been reduced by the changing policies of the fascists, as well as the invention of volata. Nevertheless, rugby survived the fascist period and began to grow when Italy was occupied by British Commonwealth forces during 1943–47.
The 1907 Milan–San Remo was the 1st edition of the Milan–San Remo, a classic one-day cycle race organised by La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy. The single day event was held on 14 April 1907 and stretched 288 km (179 mi) from Milan to its end in Sanremo. The winner was Lucien Petit-Breton from France.33 riders rode the 288 km course, starting at 4am.1940 Giro d'Italia
The 1940 Giro d'Italia was the 28th edition of the Giro d'Italia, a cycling race organized and sponsored by the newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport. The race began on 17 May in Milan with a stage that stretched 180 km (112 mi) to Turin, finishing back in Milan on 9 June after a 180 km (112 mi) stage and a total distance covered of 3,574 km (2,221 mi). The race was won by the Italian rider Fausto Coppi of the Legnano team, with fellow Italians Enrico Mollo and Giordano Cottur coming in second and third respectively.
It was won by Fausto Coppi, at his first participation. Coppi, who was 20 years old at the time, is still the youngest winner of the Giro.2015 Gran Premio di Lugano
The 2015 Gran Premio di Lugano was the 69th edition of the Gran Premio di Lugano road cycling race. The race took place on 1 March 2015 on a loop around the city of Lugano, Switzerland, starting and finishing on the shore of Lake Lugano.
The defending champion from the 2014 Gran Premio di Lugano was Mauro Finetto (Southeast Pro Cycling).
While the terrain of the race is not particularly difficult, it was considered likely that the race would be fairly selective because the race comes so early in the season, when riders are not in their best form. The most challenging climb was expected to be that of Collina d'Oro.The race was won by Niccolò Bonifazio (Lampre–Merida) in a sprint.Alice D'Amato
Alice D'Amato (Italian pronunciation: [aˈliːtʃe]) (born 7 February 2003) is an Italian artistic gymnast. She was a member of the team who won gold at the 2018 European Junior Championships and is the 2019 European bronze medalist on the uneven bars. She is also a member of the Italian National Team and is the twin sister of Asia D'Amato.Andrea Beghetto
Andrea Beghetto (born 11 October 1994) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Italian club Frosinone Calcio in the Serie A.Augusto Turati
Augusto Turati (16 April 1888 – 27 August 1955) was an Italian journalist and Fascist politician.
Born in Parma, after moving to Brescia as a young man, Turati worked on newspapers and became one of the editors at the liberal Provincia di Brescia; he attended law classes, but never graduated. An irredentist and advocate of Italy entering World War I, he volunteered for the front in 1915. In 1918, he returned to Brescia as head editor of the same newspaper.
In 1920, he joined the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento - a year later, the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF). Active in trade unionism for the régime-backed corporatist enterprises, Turati was a secretary for the Brescia Fascio. In 1926-1930, he was secretary of the PNF, helping in the consolidation of Benito Mussolini's rule. He doubled this task with leadership positions in sports: a Federtennis president, a Federazione Italiana di Atletica Leggera one, and leader of the Italian National Olympic Committee (jobs held in 1928-1930). In 1930-1931, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee. Turati was also the inventor of a short-lived and supposedly uniquely Italian team sport which he called volata.
Between 1924 and 1934, Turati served in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; in 1931-1932, he was the editor-in-chief of La Stampa. Accused of intrigues against other members of the PNF, Turati was demoted from official positions, and was confined on Rhodes (an Italian possession at the time) in 1933. Redeemed in 1937, he was released and assigned the task of carrying out a massive agricultural experiment in Ethiopia (part of Italian East Africa). He had to return to Italy after the project failed the next year.
Turati moved away from the political scene, and worked as a legal consultant. He was however opposed to Italy's entry into World War II, as well as to the Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic; at the end of the war, he nevertheless faced trial, but was acquitted on all charges.
He died in RomeCalcio Fiorentino
Calcio fiorentino (also known as calcio storico "historic football") is an early form of football and rugby that originated in 16th-century Italy. Once widely played, the sport is thought to have started in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence. There it became known as the giuoco del calcio fiorentino ("Florentine kick game") or simply calcio; which is now also the name for association football in the Italian language. The game may have started as a revival of the Roman sport of harpastum.Castiglione Cosentino
Castiglione Cosentino is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.Chipchase Stakes
The Chipchase Stakes is a Group 3 flat horse race in Great Britain open to horses aged three years or older. It is run at Newcastle over a distance of 6 furlongs (1,207 metres), and it is scheduled to take place each year in late June or early July.
The event was established in 1994, and it was initially classed at Listed level. It was promoted to Group 3 status in 2001. Since 2016 it has been run on a Tapeta all-weather track, having previously been contested on turf. It is one of four non-turf Group races in Britain, along with the Winter Derby, September Stakes and the Sirenia Stakes.
The Chipchase Stakes is run on the same afternoon as Newcastle's richest race, the Northumberland Plate.Harpastum
Harpastum, also known as harpustum, was a form of ball game played in the Roman Empire. The Romans also referred to it as the small ball game. The ball used was small (not as large as a follis, paganica, or football-sized ball) and hard, probably about the size and solidity of a softball. The word harpastum is the latinisation of the Greek ἁρπαστόν (harpaston), the neuter of ἁρπαστός (harpastos), "carried away", from the verb ἁρπάζω (harpazo), "to seize, to snatch".This game was apparently a romanized version of a Greek game called phaininda (Greek: φαινίνδα), or of another Greek game called ἐπίσκυρος (episkyros). It involved considerable speed, agility and physical exertion.
Little is known about the exact rules of the game, but sources indicate the game was a violent one with players often ending up on the ground. In Greece, a spectator (of the Greek form of the game) once had his leg broken when he got caught in the middle of play.Hybrid sport
A hybrid sport is one which combines two or more (often similar) sports in order to create a new sport, or to allow meaningful competition between players of those sports.
The most popular hybrid sport in terms of attendance and television viewers is international rules football.Kī-o-rahi
Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.
In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.
The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.
Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.List of ball games
This is a list of ball games which are popular games or sports involving some type of ball or similar object. Ball sports are not sports in the true sense, but are instead considered to be games. These ball games can be grouped by the general objective of the game, sometimes indicating a common origin either of a game itself or of its basic idea:
Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.
Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash, racquetball and ball badminton.
Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and 4 square.
Goal games, such as forms of hockey (except ice hockey which uses a hockey puck), basketball and all forms of football or lacrosse.
Net games, such as volleyball and sepak.List of sports
The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.
According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.Manuela Arcuri
Manuela Arcuri (born 8 January 1977 in Anagni) is an Italian actress, model and soubrette.
She was the protagonist of two successful fiction L'onore e il rispetto and Il peccato e la vergogna.Nationalism and sport
Nationalism and sport are often intertwined, as sports provide a venue for symbolic competition between nations; sports competition often reflects national conflict, and in fact has often been a tool of diplomacy. The involvement of political goals in sport is seen by some as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake, for the enjoyment of its participants, but this involvement has been true throughout the history of sport.Rugby union in Italy
Rugby union in Italy is governed by the Italian Rugby Federation. Rugby was introduced to Italy in the early 1900s. Two Italian professional teams (Treviso and Zebre) compete in Pro14, a league that also includes sides from Ireland, Scotland, South Africa and Wales. One of the teams is guaranteed a place in the European Rugby Champions Cup; the other normally plays in the European Rugby Challenge Cup. The Top12 is the main national club competition. Four Italian clubs from the national championship compete in a qualifying tournament that awards two places in the Challenge Cup. Italy compete in the Six Nations Championship and Rugby World Cup, and are classified as a tier one nation by World Rugby (formerly the International Rugby Board).Skyrunning European Championships
The Skyrunning European Championships are biennial (annual only the first three editions) skyrunning competitions, held for the first time in 2009 and organised by International Skyrunning Federation.World Junior Alpine Skiing Championships 2019
The World Junior Alpine Skiing Championships 2019 were the 38th World Junior Alpine Skiing Championships, held between 18 and 27 February 2019 in Val di Fassa, Trentino, Italy.
Race courses took place at the Aloch Ski Stadium in Pozza di Fassa (Sèn Jan di Fassa) and at La VolatA slope on Passo San Pellegrino (Moena).
|Stick and ball sports|