Volata

Volata ("flow") is a code of football developed and promoted by Italian fascists for a brief period during the late 1920s and early 1930s, in an attempt to displace sports with non-Italian origins, such as association football (soccer) and rugby union.

Association football was popular in Italy when the fascists came to power in 1921. Rugby union was a new and relatively minor sport, but also growing in popularity.

Although the fascists idealized association football for its contribution to physical fitness, it was also seen at the time as an "English game" (because the rules had been codified by the English Football Association and the first organized matches had taken place in England). The fascists generally distanced themselves from cultural practices with foreign roots.

Conversely, rugby was seen as having links to the extinct Ancient Roman game of harpastum. By 1927, fascist propaganda actively promoted rugby – which it referred to as palla ovale ("oval ball"). However, the Federazione Italiana Rugby proved resistant to manipulation and the fascists quickly ceased their support.

The national secretary of the Fascist Party, Augusto Turati, devised volata. Officially, the rules were based on long-extinct codes of football indigenous to Italy, especially the Roman harpastum and the medieval calcio Fiorentino. Volata was contested by eight-member sides, with rules that were described by a 1929 propaganda newsreel from Istituto Luce as a "synthesis of the essential elements of the games of calcio and rugby" (sintesi di elementi essenziali del giuoco del calcio e del "rugby").[1] Use of the word "calcio" was ambiguous, as it was the usual name of association football, as well as calcio Fiorentino, which in 1930 was also revived at the fascists' behest.

Promoted by Fascist sporting and cultural organizations, Volata enjoyed a brief phase of popularity. More than 100 Volata clubs and a league were reportedly formed. However, the enduring popularity of association football caused the fascists to change their attitude toward the sport.

In 1933, volata organizations and competitions were officially abandoned. Afterwards the fascists encouraged association football; Italy hosted and won the 1934 World Cup.

The popularity of rugby and its place within Italian sporting culture appear to have been reduced by the changing policies of the fascists, as well as the invention of volata. Nevertheless, rugby survived the fascist period and began to grow when Italy was occupied by British Commonwealth forces during 1943–47.

See also

References

  1. ^ Istituto Luce, 1929, Partita di "volata" allo stadio del P.N.F. di Roma (1 September 2016).
  • Making the Rugby World: Race, Gender, Commerce edited by Timothy J L Chandler and John Nauright (ISBN 0-7146-4853-1). See especially pages 92–94. Book page: [1]
  • National Pastime: How Americans Play Baseball and the Rest of the World Plays Soccer by Stefan Szymanski, Andrew S Zimbalist (ISBN 0815782586) Book Page: [2]
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It was won by Fausto Coppi, at his first participation. Coppi, who was 20 years old at the time, is still the youngest winner of the Giro.

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The defending champion from the 2014 Gran Premio di Lugano was Mauro Finetto (Southeast Pro Cycling).

While the terrain of the race is not particularly difficult, it was considered likely that the race would be fairly selective because the race comes so early in the season, when riders are not in their best form. The most challenging climb was expected to be that of Collina d'Oro.The race was won by Niccolò Bonifazio (Lampre–Merida) in a sprint.

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Augusto Turati (16 April 1888 – 27 August 1955) was an Italian journalist and Fascist politician.

Born in Parma, after moving to Brescia as a young man, Turati worked on newspapers and became one of the editors at the liberal Provincia di Brescia; he attended law classes, but never graduated. An irredentist and advocate of Italy entering World War I, he volunteered for the front in 1915. In 1918, he returned to Brescia as head editor of the same newspaper.

In 1920, he joined the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento - a year later, the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF). Active in trade unionism for the régime-backed corporatist enterprises, Turati was a secretary for the Brescia Fascio. In 1926-1930, he was secretary of the PNF, helping in the consolidation of Benito Mussolini's rule. He doubled this task with leadership positions in sports: a Federtennis president, a Federazione Italiana di Atletica Leggera one, and leader of the Italian National Olympic Committee (jobs held in 1928-1930). In 1930-1931, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee. Turati was also the inventor of a short-lived and supposedly uniquely Italian team sport which he called volata.

Between 1924 and 1934, Turati served in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; in 1931-1932, he was the editor-in-chief of La Stampa. Accused of intrigues against other members of the PNF, Turati was demoted from official positions, and was confined on Rhodes (an Italian possession at the time) in 1933. Redeemed in 1937, he was released and assigned the task of carrying out a massive agricultural experiment in Ethiopia (part of Italian East Africa). He had to return to Italy after the project failed the next year.

Turati moved away from the political scene, and worked as a legal consultant. He was however opposed to Italy's entry into World War II, as well as to the Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic; at the end of the war, he nevertheless faced trial, but was acquitted on all charges.

He died in Rome

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Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.

Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash, racquetball and ball badminton.

Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and 4 square.

Goal games, such as forms of hockey (except ice hockey which uses a hockey puck), basketball and all forms of football or lacrosse.

Net games, such as volleyball and sepak.

List of sports

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Basket sports
Football codes
Bat-and-ball games
Stick and ball sports
Net sports
Other sports

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