Void galaxy

Void galaxies are galaxies which exist in cosmological voids.[2] Few galaxies exist in voids; most galaxies exist in sheets, walls and filaments that surround voids and supervoids.[3][4] Many of the void galaxies are connected through void filaments[5] or tendrils,[6] lightweight versions of the regular galaxy filaments that surround voids, to each other. These filaments are often straighter than their regular counterparts due to the lack of influence by surrounding filaments.[5] These filaments can even be rich enough to form poor groups of galaxies.[7] The void galaxies themselves are thought to represent pristine examples of galactic evolution, having few neighbours, and likely to have formed from pure intergalactic gas.[8]

The loneliest of galaxies
MCG+01-02-015 is a void galaxy. The galaxy is so isolated that if the Milky Way were to be situated in the same way, humans would not have known of the existence of other galaxies until the 1960s.[1]

List of void galaxies

Galaxy Void Filament Notes Comments
PC 1357+4641 Boötes void [9] Emission-line Galaxy
IRAS 14288+5255 Boötes void [9] AGN X-ray source
G 1432+5302 Boötes void [10] Starburst galaxy
G 1458+4944 Boötes void [10] LINER galaxy
G 1507+4554 Boötes void [10] Starburst galaxy
G 1510+4727A & G 1510+4727B Boötes void [10] Interacting galaxy pair
BHI 1514+3819 Boötes void [9]
FSS 1515+3823 Boötes void [9]
G 1517+3949 Boötes void [10] Starburst galaxy
G 1517+3956A & G 1517+3956B Boötes void [10] Interacting galaxy pair
IRAS 15195+5050 Boötes void [9] AGN X-ray source
Markarian 845 Boötes void [9] Seyfert 1 (X-ray source)
CG 547 Boötes void [9] Emission-line Galaxy
CG 637 Boötes void [9] Emission-line Galaxy
CG 922 Boötes void [9] Emission-line Galaxy
MCG+01-02-015 [1][11][12][13] LEDA 1852 (Pisces)
Pisces A Local Void [14]
Pisces B Local Void [14]
NGC 7077 Local Void [15]


  1. ^ a b "The loneliest of galaxies". Hubble Space Telescope. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  2. ^ arXiv, "The Cosmically Depressed: Life, Sociology and Identity of Voids", Rien van de Weygaert et al., 17 Dec 2009, arXiv:0912.3473v1, Bibcode2009arXiv0912.3473V
  3. ^ Astronomische Nachrichten, "On the emptiness of voids", Schmidt, K.-H.; Bohm, P.; Elsasser, H., 'vol. 318, no. 2', 02/1997, Bibcode1997AN....318...81S
  4. ^ Astronomy and Astrophysics, "Results of a search for faint galaxies in voids", Kuhn, B.; Hopp, U.; Elsaesser, H.;, 'v.318', 02/1997, Bibcode1997A&A...318..405K
  5. ^ a b Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "The Bridge Effect of Void Filaments", Daeseong Park, Jounghun Lee, 'Volume 400, Issue 2', 12/2009, arXiv:0905.4277v2, Bibcode2009MNRAS.400.1105P, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15524.x
  6. ^ Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society; "Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): fine filaments of galaxies detected within voids"; M. Alpaslan, A. S. G. Robotham, D. Obreschkow, S. Penny, S. Driver, P. Norberg, S. Brough, M. Brown, M. Cluver, B. Holwerda, A. M. Hopkins, E. van Kampen, L. S. Kelvin, M. A. Lara-Lopez, J. Liske, J. Loveday, S. Mahajan, K. Pimbblet; 9 March 2014, arXiv:1401.7331, Bibcode2014arXiv1401.7331A, doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu019
  7. ^ "Studies of Selected Voids. Faint Galaxies in the Direction of the Void 0049+05", G.T. Petrov, L. Slavcheva-Mihova, V. Kopchev, 2007' '
  8. ^ arXiv, "Cosmic Voids: structure, dynamics and galaxies", Rien van de Weygaert, Erwin Platen, 16 Dec 2009, arXiv:0912.2997, Bibcode2009arXiv0912.2997V
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Astrophysical Journal Letters, "Detection of X-Ray Emission from Galaxies inside the Bootes Void", Chulhee Kim, Th. Boller, Kajal K. Ghosh, Douglas A. Swartz, Brian D. Ramsey, 'Volume 546, Number 2', 10 January 2001, doi:10.1086/318868
  10. ^ a b c d e f The Astronomical Journal, "Spectroscopy of Galaxies in the Bootes Void", Shawn Cruzen 1, Tara Wehr, Donna Weistrop, Ronald J. Angione, Charles Hoopes, 'Volume 123, Number 1', 2002 January, doi:10.1086/324739
  11. ^ SIMBAD, MCG+01-02-015
  12. ^ Sci-News, "NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope Focuses on Lonely Galaxy", 9 November 2015
  13. ^ SpaceDaily, "Hubble Views a Lonely Galaxy", 18 November 2015
  14. ^ a b "Hubble Sees Two Dwarf Galaxies in Pisces". Sci-News. 15 August 2016.
  15. ^ Tully, Brent. "The Local Void" (PDF).
Coma Filament

Coma Filament is a galaxy filament. The filament contains the Coma Supercluster of galaxies and forms a part of the CfA2 Great Wall.

Lynx–Ursa Major Filament

Lynx–Ursa Major Filament (LUM Filament) is a galaxy filament.The filament is connected to and separate from the Lynx–Ursa Major Supercluster.

Perseus–Pegasus Filament

Perseus–Pegasus Filament is a galaxy filament containing the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and stretching for roughly a billion light years (or over 300/h Mpc). Currently, it is considered to be one of the largest known structures in the universe. This filament is adjacent to the Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex.

Radio Galaxy Zoo

Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) is an internet crowdsourced citizen science project that seeks to locate supermassive black holes in distant galaxies. It is hosted by the web portal Zooniverse. The scientific team want to identify black hole/jet pairs and associate them with the host galaxies. Using a large number of classifications provided by citizen scientists they hope to build a more complete picture of black holes at various stages and their origin. It was initiated in 2010 by Ray Norris in collaboration with the Zooniverse team, and was driven by the need to cross-identify the millions of extragalactic radio sources that will be discovered by the forthcoming Evolutionary Map of the Universe survey. RGZ is now led by scientists Julie Banfield and Ivy Wong. RGZ started operations on 17 December 2013.

Ursa Major Filament

Ursa Major Filament is a galaxy filament. The filament is connected to the CfA Homunculus, a portion of the filament forms a portion of the "leg" of the Homunculus.

Void (astronomy)

Cosmic voids are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the universe), which contain very few or no galaxies. Voids typically have a diameter of 10 to 100 megaparsecs; particularly large voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters, are sometimes called supervoids. They have less than one tenth of the average density of matter abundance that is considered typical for the observable universe. They were first discovered in 1978 in a pioneering study by Stephen Gregory and Laird A. Thompson at the Kitt Peak National Observatory.Voids are believed to have been formed by baryon acoustic oscillations in the Big Bang, collapses of mass followed by implosions of the compressed baryonic matter. Starting from initially small anisotropies from quantum fluctuations in the early universe, the anisotropies grew larger in scale over time. Regions of higher density collapsed more rapidly under gravity, eventually resulting in the large-scale, foam-like structure or "cosmic web" of voids and galaxy filaments seen today. Voids located in high-density environments are smaller than voids situated in low-density spaces of the universe.Voids appear to correlate with the observed temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) because of the Sachs–Wolfe effect. Colder regions correlate with voids and hotter regions correlate with filaments because of gravitational redshifting. As the Sachs–Wolfe effect is only significant if the universe is dominated by radiation or dark energy, the existence of voids is significant in providing physical evidence for dark energy.

Active nuclei
Energetic galaxies
Low activity
See also

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