The voiceless uvular affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨q͡χ⟩ and ⟨q͜χ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
q_X. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨qχ⟩ in the IPA and
qX in X-SAMPA.
There is also the voiceless pre-uvular affricate in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar affricate. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟͡χ̟⟩ or ⟨q͡χ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q͡χ⟩) or ⟨k̠͡x̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k͡x⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
|Voiceless uvular affricate|
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Features of the voiceless uvular affricate:
|Adyghe||Natukhai||кхъэ||[q͡χa] (help·info)||'grave'||Dialectal. Corresponds to [qʰ] in other dialects.|
|Avar||хъарахъ||[q͡χʰːaˈraq͡χʰː] (help·info)||'bush'||Contrasts with the ejective [q͡χʼː].|
|English||Scouse||clock||[kl̥ɒq͡χ]||'clock'||Possible word-final realization of /k/.|
|German||Some Swiss dialects||Gschänk||[ˈkʃæŋq͡χ]||'present'||Velar [k͡x] in other dialects.|
|Persian||Some dialects||قفل||[q͡χofl]||'lock'||Fortition of word-initial /q/.|
|Uzbek||quruq||[q̟uɾ̪uq̟͡χ̟]||'dry'||Allophone of /q/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.|
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair. English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively.Labialization
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.
The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization.
In phonology, labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process.List of consonants
This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.Voiceless velar affricate
The voiceless velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound are ⟨k͡x⟩ and ⟨k͜x⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k_x. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨kx⟩ in the IPA and kx in X-SAMPA.
Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar affricate, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate - see that article for more information.
Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar affricate, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate - see that article for more information.