Voiceless uvular affricate

The voiceless uvular affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨q͡χ⟩ and ⟨q͜χ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is q_X. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ in the IPA and qX in X-SAMPA.

There is also the voiceless pre-uvular affricate[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar affricate. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟͡χ̟⟩ or ⟨q͡χ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advancedq͡χ⟩) or ⟨k̠͡x̠⟩ (retractedk͡x⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are q_+_X_+ and k_-_x_-, respectively.

Voiceless uvular affricate
Encoding
X-SAMPAq_X
Audio sample
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Features

Features of the voiceless uvular affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Uvular

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Natukhai кхъэ [q͡χa]  'grave' Dialectal. Corresponds to [qʰ] in other dialects.
Avar хъарахъ [q͡χʰːaˈraq͡χʰː]  'bush' Contrasts with the ejective [q͡χʼː].
English Scouse[2] clock [kl̥ɒq͡χ] 'clock' Possible word-final realization of /k/.[2]
German Some Swiss dialects Gschänk [ˈkʃæŋq͡χ] 'present' Velar [k͡x] in other dialects.
Kabardian кхъэ [q͡χa]  'grave'
Persian Some dialects قفل [q͡χofl] 'lock' Fortition of word-initial /q/.

Pre-uvular

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Uzbek[3] quruq [q̟uɾ̪uq̟͡χ̟] 'dry' Allophone of /q/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Instead of "pre-uvular", it can be called "advanced uvular", "fronted uvular", "post-velar", "retracted velar" or "backed velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "pre-uvular".
  2. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 372–373.
  3. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.

References

  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X

External links

Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair. English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively.

Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.

The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization.

In phonology, labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process.

List of consonants

This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

Voiceless velar affricate

The voiceless velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound are ⟨k͡x⟩ and ⟨k͜x⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k_x. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨kx⟩ in the IPA and kx in X-SAMPA.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar affricate, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar affricate, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate - see that article for more information.

IPA topics

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