The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:
[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.
|Voiceless glottal fricative|
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Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":
|Adyghe||Shapsug||хыгь||[həɡʲ]||'now'||Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.|
|Arabic||Modern Standard||هائل||[ˈhaːʔɪl]||'enormous'||See Arabic phonology|
|Asturian||guaḥe||[ˈɣwahe̞]||'child'||Mainly present in eastern dialects.|
|Basque||North-Eastern dialects||hirur||[hiɾur]||'three'||Can be voiced [ɦ] instead.|
|Chechen||хIара / hara||[hɑrɐ]||'this'|
|Chinese||Cantonese||海 / hói||[hɔːi̯˧˥]||'sea'||See Cantonese phonology|
|Mandarin||海 / hǎi||[haɪ̯˨˩˦]||Can be a velar fricative [x] for some speakers. See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Danish||hus||[ˈhuːˀs]||'house'||Often voiced [ɦ] when between vowels. See Danish phonology|
|English||high||[haɪ̯]||'high'||See English phonology and H-dropping|
|Esperanto||hejmo||[hejmo]||'home'||See Esperanto phonology|
|Eastern Lombard||Val Camonica||Bresa||[brɛha]||'Brescia'||Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.|
|Estonian||hammas||[hɑmˑɑs]||'tooth'||See Estonian phonology|
|Finnish||hammas||[hɑmːɑs]||'tooth'||See Finnish phonology|
|French||Belgian||hotte||[ˈhɔt]||'pannier'||Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology|
|German||Hass||[has]||'hatred'||See Standard German phonology|
|Greek||Cypriot||μαχαζί||[mahaˈzi]||'shop'||Allophone of /x/ before /a/.|
|Hawaiian||haka||[haka]||'shelf'||See Hawaiian phonology|
|Hebrew||הַר||[har]||'mountain'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Hindi||Standard||हम||[ˈhəm]||'we'||See Hindustani phonology|
|Hungarian||helyes||[hɛjɛʃ]||'right'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Italian||Tuscan||i capitani||[iˌhäɸiˈθäːni]||'the captains'||Intervocalic allophone of /k/. See Italian phonology|
|Japanese||すはだ / suhada||[su͍hada]||'bare skin'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||하루 / haru||[hɐɾu]||'day'||See Korean phonology|
|Limburgish||Some dialects||hòs||[hɔːs]||'glove'||Voiced [ɦ] in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.|
|Luxembourgish||hei||[hɑ̝ɪ̯]||'here'||See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Norwegian||hatt||[hɑtː]||'hat'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Persian||هفت||[hæft]||'seven'||See Persian phonology|
|Portuguese||Many Brazilian dialects||marreta||[maˈhetɐ]||'sledgehammer'||Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology|
|Minas Gerais (mountain dialect)||arte||[ˈahtʃ]||'art'|
|Colloquial Brazilian||chuvisco||[ɕuˈvihku]||'drizzle'||Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.|
|Romanian||hăț||[həts]||'bridle'||See Romanian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||hmelj||[hmê̞ʎ̟]||'hops'||Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Spanish||Andalusian||higo||[ˈhiɣo̞]||'fig'||Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.|
|Many dialects||obispo||[o̞ˈβ̞ihpo̞]||'bishop'||Allophone of /s/. See Spanish phonology|
|Some dialects||jaca||[ˈhaka]||'pony'||Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.|
|Swedish||hatt||[ˈhatː]||'hat'||See Swedish phonology|
|Turkish||halı||[häˈɫɯ]||'carpet'||See Turkish phonology|
|Ubykh||[dwaha]||'prayer'||See Ubykh phonology|
|Urdu||Standard||ہم||[ˈhəm]||'we'||See Hindi-Urdu phonology|
|Vietnamese||hiểu||[hjew˧˩˧]||'understand'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Welsh||haul||[ˈhaɨl]||'sun'||See Welsh orthography|
|Yi||ꉐ / hxa||[ha˧]||'hundred'|
In French spelling, aspirated "h" (French: "h" aspiré) is an initial silent letter that represents a hiatus at a word boundary, between the word's first vowel and the preceding word's last vowel. At the same time, the aspirated h stops the normal processes of contraction and liaison from occurring.The name of the now-silent h refers not to aspiration but to its former pronunciation as the voiceless glottal fricative [h] in Old French and in Middle French.Bazigar language
The Bazigar language is the Dravidian language of the Bazigar, a group of traveling acrobats of the Punjab region. Speakers are scattered across the country, but the principal block of speakers are south of Chandigarh in adjoining areas of the states of Panjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. Speakers are shifting to more dominant languages. Although Ethnologue classifies it as Dravidian, Bazigar has significant lexical similarity with Punjabi, as well as influence from western Rajasthani dialects. Bazigar has an almost identical phonology to Punjabi except for the presence of the voiceless palatal fricative and the absence of the voiceless glottal fricative.Dornberk
Dornberk (pronounced [ˈdoːɾnbɛɾk]; Italian: Montespino) is a village in western Slovenia in the Municipality of Nova Gorica.
It is located in the Vipava Valley within the Gorizia region of the Slovenian Littoral. Dornberk is the centre of a local community that includes the satellite settlements of Potok pri Dornberku, Saksid, Brdo, Tabor, Draga, Zalošče, and Budihni. The entire local community has a population of around 1,800.Estonian orthography
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet. The Estonian orthography is generally guided by phonemic principles, with each grapheme corresponding to one phoneme.Glottal fricative
Glottal fricative may refer to:
Voiceless glottal fricative ⟨h⟩
Voiced glottal fricative ⟨ɦ⟩H
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch , plural aitches) is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.H-dropping
H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound", [h]. The phenomenon is common in many dialects of English, and is also found in certain other languages, either as a purely historical development or as a contemporary difference between dialects. Although common in most regions of England and in some other English-speaking countries, H-dropping is often stigmatized and perceived as a sign of careless or uneducated speech.The reverse phenomenon, H-insertion or H-adding, is found in certain situations, sometimes as a hypercorrection by H-dropping speakers, and sometimes as a spelling pronunciation or out of perceived etymological correctness. A particular example of this is the spread of 'haitch' for 'aitch'.Hae (letter)
Hae (asomtavruli Ⴠ, nuskhuri ⴠ, mkhedruli ჰ) is the 37th letter of the three Georgian scripts.In the system of Georgian numerals it has a value of 9000.Hae commonly represents the voiceless glottal fricative /h/, like the pronunciation of ⟨h⟩ in "head".He (letter)
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē , Hebrew Hē ה, Aramaic Hē , Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic Hāʾ ه. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative ([h]).
The proto-Canaanite letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan 𐌄, Latin E, Ë and Ɛ, and Cyrillic Е, Ё, Є and Э. He, like all Phoenician letters, represented a consonant, but the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic equivalents have all come to represent vowel sounds.Labialization
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.
The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization.
In phonology, labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process.Smooth breathing
The smooth breathing (Ancient Greek: ψιλὸν πνεῦμα, translit. psilòn pneûma; Greek: ψιλή psilí; Latin: spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography. In ancient Greek, it marks the absence of the voiceless glottal fricative /h/ from the beginning of a word.
Some authorities have interpreted it as representing a glottal stop, but a final vowel at the end of a word is regularly elided (removed) when the following word starts with a vowel and elision would not happen if the second word began with a glottal stop (or any other form of stop consonant). In his Vox Graeca, W. Sidney Allen accordingly regards the glottal stop interpretation as "highly improbable".The smooth breathing ( ᾿ ) is written as on top of one initial vowel, on top of the second vowel of a diphthong or to the left of a capital and also, in certain editions, on the first of a pair of rhos. It did not occur on an initial upsilon, which always has rough breathing (thus the early name ὕ hy, rather than ὔ y).
The smooth breathing was kept in the traditional polytonic orthography even after the /h/ sound had disappeared from the language in Hellenistic times. It has been dropped in the modern monotonic orthography.Tinigua
Tinigua are the indigenous people who inhabited the river basin Yari, Caguan and today Caquetá Department of Colombia. In their language, Tinigua refers to the ancestors: tini probably meant “word of the ancients.”Voiceless bidental fricative
The voiceless bidental fricative is a rare consonantal sound used in some languages. The only natural language known to use it is the Shapsug dialect of Adyghe. It is also used for a geminate voiceless glottal fricative (so phonemically /hː/) in the original version of the constructed language Ithkuil, its offshoot Ilaksh, and the new version of Ithkuil as one of two allophones.Ḥ
Ḥ (minuscule: ḥ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic. The letter has significance in various writing systems.
Visarga, the phone [h] in Sanskrit phonology in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Other transliteration systems use different symbols.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/) in Arabic, some Syriac languages (such as Turoyo and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), and oriental Hebrew (whereas Ashkenazi Israelis usually pronounce the letter Ḥet as a voiceless uvular fricative (/χ/)).The phone [h] (voiceless glottal fricative) or [x] (voiceless velar fricative) in the Asturian language.