Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]

Voiceless glottal fricative
h
IPA number146
Encoding
Entity (decimal)h
Unicode (hex)U+0068
X-SAMPAh
Kirshenbaumh
Braille⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
Audio sample
source · help

Features

Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":

  • In some languages, it has the constricted manner of articulation of a fricative. However, in many if not most it is a transitional state of the glottis, with no manner of articulation other than its phonation type. Because there is no other constriction to produce friction in the vocal tract in the languages they are familiar with, many phoneticians no longer consider [h] to be a fricative. However, the term "fricative" is generally retained for historical reasons.
  • It may have a glottal place of articulation. However, it may have no fricative articulation, in which case the term 'glottal' only refers to the nature of its phonation, and does not describe the location of the stricture nor the turbulence. All consonants except for the glottals, and all vowels, have an individual place of articulation in addition to the state of the glottis. As with all other consonants, surrounding vowels influence the pronunciation [h], and [h] has sometimes been presented as a voiceless vowel, having the place of articulation of these surrounding vowels.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Shapsug хыгь [həɡʲ] 'now' Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.
Albanian hire [hiɾɛ] 'the graces'
Arabic Modern Standard[5] هائل [ˈhaːʔɪl] 'enormous' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[6] հայերեն [hɑjɛɾɛn]  'Armenian'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ [hajmaːnuːtʰa] 'faith'
Asturian guae [ˈɣwahe̞] 'child' Mainly present in eastern dialects.
Avar гьа [ha] 'oath'
Basque North-Eastern dialects[7] hirur [hiɾur] 'three' Can be voiced [ɦ] instead.
Bengali হাওয়া [hao̯a] 'wind'
Berber aherkus [ahərkus] 'shoe'
Chechen хIара / hara [hɑrɐ] 'this'
Chinese Cantonese / hói [hɔːi̯˧˥] 'sea' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / hǎi [haɪ̯˨˩˦] Can be a velar fricative [x] for some speakers. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[4] hus [ˈhuːˀs] 'house' Often voiced [ɦ] when between vowels.[4] See Danish phonology
English high [haɪ̯] 'high' See English phonology and H-dropping
Esperanto hejmo [hejmo] 'home' See Esperanto phonology
Eastern Lombard Val Camonica Bresa [brɛha] 'Brescia' Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.
Estonian hammas [hɑmˑɑs] 'tooth' See Estonian phonology
Faroese hon [hoːn] 'she'
Finnish hammas [hɑmːɑs] 'tooth' See Finnish phonology
French Belgian hotte [ˈhɔt] 'pannier' Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology
Georgian[8] ავა [hɑvɑ] 'climate'
German[9] Hass [has] 'hatred' See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[10] μαχαζί [mahaˈzi] 'shop' Allophone of /x/ before /a/.
Hawaiian[11] haka [haka] 'shelf' See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew הַר [har] 'mountain' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi Standard[5] हम [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindustani phonology
Hmong hawm [haɨ̰] 'to honor'
Hungarian helyes [hɛjɛʃ] 'right' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Tuscan[12] i capitani [iˌhäɸiˈθäːni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /k/.[12] See Italian phonology
Japanese すはだ / suhada [su͍hada] 'bare skin' See Japanese phonology
Korean 하루 / haru [hɐɾu] 'day' See Korean phonology
Kabardian тхылъхэ [tχɪɬhɑ] 'books'
Lakota ho [ho] 'voice'
Lao ຫ້າ [haː˧˩] 'five'
Leonese guaje [ˈwahe̞] 'boy'
Lezgian гьек [hek] 'glue'
Limburgish Some dialects[13][14] hòs [hɔːs] 'glove' Voiced [ɦ] in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Luxembourgish[15] hei [hɑ̝ɪ̯] 'here' See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay hari [hari] 'day'
Mutsun hučekniš [hut͡ʃɛkniʃ] 'dog'
Navajo hastiin [hàsd̥ìːn] 'mister'
Norwegian hatt [hɑtː] 'hat' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto هو [ho] 'yes'
Persian هفت [hæft] 'seven' See Persian phonology
Pirahã hi [hì] 'he'
Portuguese Many Brazilian dialects[16] marreta [maˈhetɐ] 'sledgehammer' Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects Honda [ˈhõ̞dɐ] 'Honda'
Minas Gerais (mountain dialect) arte [ˈahtʃ] 'art'
Colloquial Brazilian[17][18] chuvisco [ɕuˈvihku] 'drizzle' Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Romanian hăț [həts] 'bridle' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[19] hmelj [hmê̞ʎ̟] 'hops' Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster.[19] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[20] Andalusian higo [ˈhiɣo̞] 'fig' Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.
Many dialects obispo [o̞ˈβ̞ihpo̞] 'bishop' Allophone of /s/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects jaca [ˈhaka] 'pony' Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.
Swedish hatt [ˈhatː] 'hat' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠢꠣꠝꠥꠇ [hamux] 'snail'
Thai ห้า [haː˥˩] 'five'
Turkish halı [häˈɫɯ] 'carpet' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [dwaha] 'prayer' See Ubykh phonology
Urdu Standard[5] ہم [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Vietnamese[21] hiểu [hjew˧˩˧] 'understand' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh haul [ˈhaɨl] 'sun' See Welsh orthography
West Frisian hoeke [ˈhukə] 'corner'
Yi / hxa [ha˧] 'hundred'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Smyth (1920, §16: description of stops and h)
  2. ^ Wright & Wright (1925, §7h: initial h)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:325–326)
  4. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005:125)
  5. ^ a b c Thelwall (1990:38)
  6. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  7. ^ Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003:24)
  8. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  9. ^ Kohler (1999:86–87)
  10. ^ Arvaniti (1999:175)
  11. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  12. ^ a b Hall (1944:75)
  13. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  14. ^ Peters (2006:117)
  15. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  16. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:5–6)
  17. ^ (in Portuguese) Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty
  19. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  20. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
  21. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (1999), "Cypriot Greek" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 173–178, doi:10.1017/S002510030000654X
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
  • Kohler, Klaus (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association:A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 91–93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges. American Book Company. Retrieved 1 January 2014 – via CCEL.
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Wright, Joseph; Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1925). Old English Grammar (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

External links

Aspirated h

In French spelling, aspirated "h" (French: "h" aspiré) is an initial silent letter that represents a hiatus at a word boundary, between the word's first vowel and the preceding word's last vowel. At the same time, the aspirated h stops the normal processes of contraction and liaison from occurring.The name of the now-silent h refers not to aspiration but to its former pronunciation as the voiceless glottal fricative [h] in Old French and in Middle French.

Bazigar language

The Bazigar language is the Dravidian language of the Bazigar, a group of traveling acrobats of the Punjab region. Speakers are scattered across the country, but the principal block of speakers are south of Chandigarh in adjoining areas of the states of Panjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. Speakers are shifting to more dominant languages. Although Ethnologue classifies it as Dravidian, Bazigar has significant lexical similarity with Punjabi, as well as influence from western Rajasthani dialects. Bazigar has an almost identical phonology to Punjabi except for the presence of the voiceless palatal fricative and the absence of the voiceless glottal fricative.

Dornberk

Dornberk (pronounced [ˈdoːɾnbɛɾk]; Italian: Montespino) is a village in western Slovenia in the Municipality of Nova Gorica.

It is located in the Vipava Valley within the Gorizia region of the Slovenian Littoral. Dornberk is the centre of a local community that includes the satellite settlements of Potok pri Dornberku, Saksid, Brdo, Tabor, Draga, Zalošče, and Budihni. The entire local community has a population of around 1,800.

Estonian orthography

Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet. The Estonian orthography is generally guided by phonemic principles, with each grapheme corresponding to one phoneme.

Glottal fricative

Glottal fricative may refer to:

Voiceless glottal fricative ⟨h⟩

Voiced glottal fricative ⟨ɦ⟩

H

H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch , plural aitches) is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

H-dropping

H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound", [h]. The phenomenon is common in many dialects of English, and is also found in certain other languages, either as a purely historical development or as a contemporary difference between dialects. Although common in most regions of England and in some other English-speaking countries, H-dropping is often stigmatized and perceived as a sign of careless or uneducated speech.The reverse phenomenon, H-insertion or H-adding, is found in certain situations, sometimes as a hypercorrection by H-dropping speakers, and sometimes as a spelling pronunciation or out of perceived etymological correctness. A particular example of this is the spread of 'haitch' for 'aitch'.

Hae (letter)

Hae (asomtavruli Ⴠ, nuskhuri ⴠ, mkhedruli ჰ) is the 37th letter of the three Georgian scripts.In the system of Georgian numerals it has a value of 9000.Hae commonly represents the voiceless glottal fricative /h/, like the pronunciation of ⟨h⟩ in "head".

He (letter)

He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē , Hebrew Hē ה, Aramaic Hē , Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic Hāʾ ه. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative ([h]).

The proto-Canaanite letter gave rise to the Greek Epsilon, Etruscan 𐌄, Latin E, Ë and Ɛ, and Cyrillic Е, Ё, Є and Э. He, like all Phoenician letters, represented a consonant, but the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic equivalents have all come to represent vowel sounds.

Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.

The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization.

In phonology, labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process.

Smooth breathing

The smooth breathing (Ancient Greek: ψιλὸν πνεῦμα, translit. psilòn pneûma; Greek: ψιλή psilí; Latin: spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography. In ancient Greek, it marks the absence of the voiceless glottal fricative /h/ from the beginning of a word.

Some authorities have interpreted it as representing a glottal stop, but a final vowel at the end of a word is regularly elided (removed) when the following word starts with a vowel and elision would not happen if the second word began with a glottal stop (or any other form of stop consonant). In his Vox Graeca, W. Sidney Allen accordingly regards the glottal stop interpretation as "highly improbable".The smooth breathing ( ᾿ ) is written as on top of one initial vowel, on top of the second vowel of a diphthong or to the left of a capital and also, in certain editions, on the first of a pair of rhos. It did not occur on an initial upsilon, which always has rough breathing (thus the early name ὕ hy, rather than ὔ y).

The smooth breathing was kept in the traditional polytonic orthography even after the /h/ sound had disappeared from the language in Hellenistic times. It has been dropped in the modern monotonic orthography.

Tinigua

Tinigua are the indigenous people who inhabited the river basin Yari, Caguan and today Caquetá Department of Colombia. In their language, Tinigua refers to the ancestors: tini probably meant “word of the ancients.”

Voiceless bidental fricative

The voiceless bidental fricative is a rare consonantal sound used in some languages. The only natural language known to use it is the Shapsug dialect of Adyghe. It is also used for a geminate voiceless glottal fricative (so phonemically /hː/) in the original version of the constructed language Ithkuil, its offshoot Ilaksh, and the new version of Ithkuil as one of two allophones.

Ḥ (minuscule: ḥ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic. The letter has significance in various writing systems.

These include:

Visarga, the phone [h] in Sanskrit phonology in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Other transliteration systems use different symbols.

The voiceless pharyngeal fricative (/ħ/) in Arabic, some Syriac languages (such as Turoyo and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic), and oriental Hebrew (whereas Ashkenazi Israelis usually pronounce the letter Ḥet as a voiceless uvular fricative (/χ/)).The phone [h] (voiceless glottal fricative) or [x] (voiceless velar fricative) in the Asturian language.

IPA topics

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