Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives
Not to be confused with the lh Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate, the Tibetan as in
is a type of voiceless alveolar lateral fricative consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is [ɬ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
[K]. The symbol
[ɬ] is called "belted l" and should not be confused with "l with tilde", [ɫ], which transcribes a different sound, the velarized alveolar lateral approximant. It should also be distinguished from a voiceless alveolar lateral approximant, although the fricative is sometimes incorrectly described as a "voiceless l", a description fitting only of the approximant.
Several Welsh names beginning with this sound (e.g.
Llwyd /ɬʊɨd/, Llywelyn /ɬəˈwɛlɨn/) have been borrowed into English, where they either retain the Welsh ⟨ll⟩ spelling but are pronounced with an / (Lloyd, Llewellyn), or are substituted with ⟨fl⟩ (pronounced l/ /fl/) (Floyd, Fluellen).
Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative ɬ IPA number 148 Encoding Entity (decimal)
Unicode (hex) U+026C X-SAMPA
source · help Features
Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative:
manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its
place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively and apical . laminal Its
phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Occurrence
Although the sound is rare among European languages outside the
Caucasus (being found notably in Welsh, where it is written ⟨ ll⟩), it is fairly common among  indigenous languages of the Americas such as Nahuatl, Navajo, , and  North Caucasian languages, such as Avar. It is also found in African languages like  Zulu, Asian languages like Chukchi and some Yue dialects like Taishanese, and several Formosan languages and a number of dialects in Taiwan.
The sound is found in two
artificial languages invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, Sindarin (inspired by Welsh) and Quenya. 
 Dental or denti-alveolar Alveolar Semitic languages
The sound is conjectured as a phoneme for
Proto-Semitic language, usually transcribed as ś; it has evolved into Arabic [ʃ], Hebrew [s]:
Semitic languages, the sound still exists in contemporary Soqotri and Mehri. In Ge'ez, it is written with the letter  Śawt.
See also Notes
Ladefoged, Peter (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 203. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
McDonough, Joyce (2003). The Navajo Sound System. Cambridge: Kluwer. ISBN 1-4020-1351-5.
Laver, John (1994). Principles of Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 0-521-45655-X.
Henry Y., Chang (2000). 噶瑪蘭語參考語法 (Kavalan Grammar). Taipei: 遠流 (Yuan-Liou). pp. 43–45. ISBN 9573238985.
Helge, Fauskanger. "Sindarin - the Noble Tongue". Ardalambion . Retrieved . 2 January 2019
Helge, Fauskanger. "Quenya Course". Ardalambion . Retrieved . 2 January 2019
^ a b c d
Sadowsky et al. (2013:88, 91)
^ a b
Taishanese Dictionary & Resources
Svantesson et al. (2005:30–33)
Liljegren, Henrik (2009). "The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush". Acta Orientalia (70): 7–62.
Howe, Darin (2003). Segmental Phonology. University of Calgary. p. 22. References
Grønnum, Nina (2005), (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk ISBN 87-500-3865-6
Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi: 10.1017/S0025100312000369
Svantesson, Jan-Olof; Tsendina, Anna; Mukhanova Karlsson, Anastasia; Franzen, Vivan (2005), The phonology of Mongolian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199260176
Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi: 10.1017/s0025100307002952 Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 Further reading External links
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