Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but it existed in Old English {Baker, 2012, P. 15}. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[1] use for the voiced velar fricative.

The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.

There is also a voiced post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiced pre-velar fricative (also called post-palatal), see voiced palatal fricative.

Voiced velar fricative
ɣ
IPA number141
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɣ
Unicode (hex)U+0263
X-SAMPAG
KirshenbaumQ
Braille⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Audio sample
source · help

Features

Features of the voiced velar fricative:

Occurrence

Some of the consonants listed as post-velar may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza бгъьы [bɣʲə] 'leaf'
Adyghe чъыгы [t͡ʂəɣə]  'tree'
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Aleut agiitalix [aɣiːtalix] 'with'
Angor ranihı [ɾɑniɣə] 'brother'
Angas γür [ɣyr] 'to pick up'
Arabic Modern Standard[2] غريب [ɣæˈriːb] 'stranger' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[3] See Arabic phonology
Some Northern Iraqi dialects[4] راس [ʁ̟ɑːs] 'head' Post-velar.[4] Corresponds to [r] in other dialects.[4] See Arabic phonology
Aromanian ghini [ˈɣi.ni] 'well' Allophone of /g/
Asturian gadañu [ɣaˈd̪ãɲʊ] 'scythe' Allophone of /ɡ/ in almost all positions
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Basque[5] hego [heɣo] 'wing' Allophone of /ɡ/
Belarusian галава [ɣalava] 'head'
Catalan[6] figuera [fiˈɣeɾə] 'fig tree' Allophone of /ɡ/. See Catalan phonology
Chechen гӀала / ġala [ɣaːla] 'town'
Chinese Xiang 湖南 [ɣu˩˧nia˩˧] 'Hunan (province)'
Czech bych byl [bɪɣ bɪl] 'I would be' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Dinka ɣo [ɣo] 'us'
Dutch Standard Belgian[7][8] gaan [ɣaːn] 'to go' May be post-palatal [ʝ̠] instead.[8] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[8]
Georgian[9] არიბი [ɣɑribi] 'poor' May actually be post-velar or uvular
German[10][11] damalige [ˈdaːmaːlɪɣə] 'former' Intervocalic allophone of /g/ in casual Austrian speech.[10][11] See Standard German phonology
Ghari cheghe [tʃeɣe] 'five'
Greek γάλα/gála [ˈɣɐlɐ] 'milk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati વા [ʋɑ̤̈ɣəɽ̃] 'tigress' See Gujarati phonology
Gweno [ndeɣe] 'bird'
Gwich’in videeghàn [viteːɣân] 'his/her chest'
Haitian Creole diri [diɣi] 'rice'
Hän dëgëghor [təkəɣor] 'I am playing'
Hebrew Yemenite מִגְדָּל [miɣdɔl] 'tower'
Hindi[12] ग़रीब [ɣ̄əriːb] 'poor' Post-velar.[12] See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Iranian Turkic اوغول [oɣul] 'son'
Icelandic saga [ˈsaːɣaː] 'saga' See Icelandic phonology
Irish a dhorn [ə ɣoːɾˠn̪ˠ] 'his fist' See Irish phonology
Istro-Romanian[13] gură [ˈɣurə] 'mouth' Corresponds to [g] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Iwaidja [mulaɣa] 'hermit crab'
Japanese[14] はげ/hage [haɣe] 'baldness' Allophone of /ɡ/, especially in fast or casual speech. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian гын [ɣən]  'powder'
Lezgian гъел [ɣel] 'sleigh'
Limburgish[15][16] gaw [ɣɑ̟β̞] 'quick' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian humoras [ˈɣʊmɔrɐs̪] 'humor' Preferred over [ɦ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Low German[17] gaan [ˈɣɔ̃ːn] 'to go' Increasingly replaced with High German [g]
Malay Standard Malay ghaib [ɣai̯b] 'unseen' Mostly in loanwords from Arabic. Indonesians tend to replace the sound with /g/.
Kelantan dialect ramai [ɣamaː] 'crowded (with people)' /r/ in Standard Malay is barely articulated in almost all of the Malay dialects in Malaysia. Usually it is uttered as guttural R at initial and medial position of a word. See Malay phonology
Terengganu dialect
Negeri Sembilan dialect [ɣamai̯]
Pahang dialect [ɣamɛ̃ː]
Sarawak dialect [ɣamɛː]
Macedonian Berovo accent дувна [ˈduɣna] 'it blew' Corresponds to etymological /x/ of other dialects, before sonorants. See Maleševo-Pirin dialect and Macedonian phonology
Bukovo accent глава [ˈɡɣa(v)a] 'head' Allophone of /l/ instead of usual [ɫ]. See Prilep-Bitola dialect
Mandarin Chinese Dongping dialect [ɣän55] 'I'
Navajo ’aghá [ʔaɣa] 'best'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nøɣə̀] 'sun'
Northern Qiang ? [ɣnəʂ] 'February'
Norwegian Urban East[18] å ha [ɔ ˈɣɑː] 'to have' Possible allophone of /h/ between two back vowels; can be voiceless [x] instead.[18] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Gascon digoc [diˈɣuk] 'said' (3rd pers. sg.)
Pashto غاتر [ɣɑtər] 'mule'
Polish niechże [ˈɲɛɣʐɛ] 'let' (imperative particle) Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European[19][20] agora [əˈɣɔɾə] 'now' Allophone of /ɡ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some Brazilian dialects[21] rmore [ˈmaɣmuɾi] 'marble', 'sill' Allophone of rhotic consonant (voiced equivalent to [x], itself allophone of /ʁ/) between voiced sounds, most often as coda before voiced consonants.
Punjabi ਗ਼ਰੀਬ [ɣəɾiːb] 'poor'
Ripuarian Colognian noch ein[en] [ˈnɔɣ‿ən] 'another one' Allophone of word-final /x/; occurs only immediately before a word that starts with a vowel. See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect[22] vroage [ˈvʀoə̯ɣə] 'to ask' Occurs only after back vowels.[22]
Romani γoines [ɣoines] 'good'
Russian Southern дорога [dɐˈro̞ɣə] 'road' Corresponds to /ɡ/ in standard
Standard угу [ʊˈɣu] 'uh-huh' Usually nasal, /g/ is used when spoken. See Russian phonology
Sardinian Nuorese dialect ghere [ˈsuɣɛrɛ] 'to suck' Allophone of /ɡ/
Scottish Gaelic laghail [ɫ̪ɤɣal] 'lawful' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23] ovih bi [ǒ̞ʋiɣ bi] 'of these would' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sindhi غم [ɣəmʊ] 'sadness'
Spanish amigo [a̠ˈmiɣo̟] 'friend' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[24] Allophone of /ɡ/, see Spanish phonology
Swahili ghali [ɣali] 'expensive'
Swedish Westrobothnian meg [mɪːɣ] 'me' Allophone of /ɡ/. Occurs between vowels and in word-final positions.[25] Here also /∅/ in Kalix.
Tadaksahak zog [zoɣ] 'war'
Tajik ғафс [ɣafs] 'thick'
Tamazight aɣilas (aghilas) [aɣilas] 'leopard'
Turkish Non-standard ağa [aɣa] 'agha' Deleted in most dialects. See Turkish phonology
Tutchone Northern ihghú [ihɣǔ] 'tooth'
Southern ghra [ɣra] 'baby'
Ukrainian Allophone of /x/. See Ukrainian phonology.
Urdu غریب [ɣəriːb] 'poor' See Hindustani phonology
Uzbek[26] ёмғир / yomir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain' Post-velar.[26]
Vietnamese[27] ghế [ɣe˧˥] 'chair' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian drage [ˈdraːɣə] 'to carry' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yi /we [ɣɤ˧] 'win'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik auga [ˈauːɣa] 'his/her/its blood' Never occurs in word-initial positions.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  2. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17 and 19-20.
  3. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  4. ^ a b c Watson (2002), p. 16.
  5. ^ Hualde (1991), pp. 99–100.
  6. ^ Wheeler (2005), p. 10.
  7. ^ Verhoeven (2005:243)
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:191)
  9. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  10. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  11. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  12. ^ a b Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  13. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  16. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  17. ^ R.E. Keller, German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, Manchester 1960
  18. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 40.
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  20. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  21. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 228.
  22. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  23. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  24. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  25. ^ http://runeberg.org/nfaq/0347.html
  26. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.
  27. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.

References

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge
  • Kachru, Yamuna (2006), Hindi, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 90-272-3812-X
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Nowikow, Wieczysław (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpańska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1, archived from the original on 2015-09-19, retrieved 2015-09-09
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7

External links

Börje

Börje is an old Swedish male name. It is the same name as Birger; Börje is the form that has developed naturally according to the sound change laws of Swedish, whilst Birger is a literary form that has been common since the nineteenth century, when archaic forms of names became fashionable.

Close-mid back unrounded vowel

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ⟨Ɐ⟩, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA. The symbol was ultimately revised to be ⟨⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma ⟨ɣ⟩. Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Gamma

Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek: γάμμα gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. In Ancient Greek, the letter gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, this letter represents either a voiced velar fricative or a voiced palatal fricative.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet and other modern Latin-alphabet based phonetic notations, it represents the voiced velar fricative.

Ge with middle hook

Ge with middle hook (Ҕ ҕ; italics: Ҕ ҕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in the Abkhaz and Yakut languages to represent the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. In Unicode, this letter is called "Ghe with middle hook". The letter was invented in 1844 by Andreas Johan Sjögren for the Ossetian language from the contraction of Cyrillic Г and Gothic .

Gh (digraph)

Gh is a digraph found in many languages.

Gha

The letter Ƣ (minuscule: ƣ) has been used in the Latin orthographies of various, mostly Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Jaꞑalif orthography for Tatar. It usually represents a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] but is sometimes used for a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]. All orthographies using it have been phased out, so the letter is not well-supported in fonts. It can still be seen in pre-1983 books published by the People’s Republic of China.

Historically, it is derived from a handwritten form of the small Latin letter q, around 1900. The majuscule is then based on the minuscule. Its use for [ɣ] stems from the linguistic tradition of representing such sounds (and similar ones) by q in Turkic languages and in transcriptions of Arabic or Persian (compare kaf and qaf).In alphabetical order, it comes between G and H.

Ghani (letter)

Ghani (asomtavruli Ⴖ, nuskhuri ⴖ, mkhedruli ღ) is the 26th letter of the three Georgian scripts.In the system of Georgian numerals it has a value of 700.Ghani commonly represents the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, like the pronunciation of French-like R.

Ghayn (Cyrillic)

Ghayn (Ғ ғ; italics: Ғ ғ) also known as Ge with stroke, or as Ayn (in Kazakh), is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Unicode this letter is called "Ghe with stroke".It is used in the Bashkir, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Uzbek and Tajik languages, where it represents the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/. Despite having a similar shape, it is not related to the Latin letter F (F f) or the Greek letter Digamma (Ϝ ϝ). In Kazakh and Tofa, this letter may also represent the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. In Nivkh, ғ represents /ɣ/, while /ʁ/ is represented by ӻ, which looks like ғ with a hook. The Khakas language also uses ғ.

In earlier, Arabic-alphabet-based orthographies for some of these languages, the same sound was written with the letter ﻍ (ġayn/ghain).

Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.

The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization, and the process may then be more precisely called labio-velarization.

In phonology, labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process.

Olrat language

Olrat is a moribund Oceanic language spoken on Gaua island in Vanuatu.

Tehrani accent

Tehrani accent (Persian: لهجهٔ تهرانی‎) is a dialect of modern Persian language spoken in Tehran Province, and the most common colloquial variant of the modern Persian language. Compared to literary standard Persian, the Tehrani dialect lacks original Persian diphthongs and tends to fuse certain sounds. The Tehrani accent of Persian language should not be confused with the Old Tehrani dialect, which was a northwestern Iranian dialect, belonging to the central group.

Velar fricative

A velar fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the back of the tongue against the soft palate (or "velum"). It is possible to distinguish the following kinds of velar fricatives:

Voiced velar fricative, a consonant sound written as ⟨ɣ⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet

Voiceless velar fricative, a consonant sound written as ⟨x⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet

Velar ejective fricative, a consonant sound written as ⟨xʼ⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet

Voiced palatal fricative

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩ (crossed-tail j), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\. It is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced palatal sibilant.

In broad transcription, the symbol for the palatal approximant, ⟨j⟩, may be used for the sake of simplicity.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs a result of phonological processes.

There is also the voiced post-palatal fricative in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal fricative but not as back as the prototypical voiced velar fricative. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨ʝ̠⟩, ⟨ʝ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ʝ⟩), ⟨ɣ̟⟩ or ⟨ɣ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɣ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_- and G_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar fricative (⟨ɣʲ⟩ in the IPA, G' or G_j in X-SAMPA).

Voiced uvular fricative

The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʁ⟩, an inverted small uppercase letter ⟨ʀ⟩, or in broad transcription ⟨ɣ⟩ or (if rhotic) ⟨r⟩. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages.

Because the IPA symbol stands for both the uvular fricative and the uvular approximant, the fricative nature of this sound may be specified by adding the uptack to the letter: ⟨ʁ̝⟩. The approximant can be specified by adding the downtack: ⟨ʁ̞⟩, though some writings use a superscript ⟨ʶ⟩, which is not an official IPA practice.

For a voiced pre-uvular fricative (also called post-velar), see voiced velar fricative.

Ğ

Ğ (g with breve) is a Latin letter found in the Turkish and Azerbaijani alphabets as well as the Latin alphabets of Laz, Crimean Tatar and Tatar. It traditionally represented the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or (in case of Tatar) the similar voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ in all those languages. However, in Turkish, the phoneme has in most cases been reduced to a silent letter, serving as a vowel-lengthener.

Ǧ

Ǧ/ǧ (G with caron, Unicode code points U+01E6 and U+01E7) is a letter used in several Latin orthographies.

In transliteration of South Azeri, ǧ represents /ɣ/, the voiced velar fricative.

In the Romany and Skolt Sami languages, it represents the palatalized g [ɟ͡ʝ].

It has also been used in Czech (and Slovak) orthographies until the middle of the 19th century to represent the

consonant /ɡ/, whereas "g" stood for /j/.

In a romanization of Pashto, ǧ is used to represent [ɣ] (equivalent to غ).

In the Berber Latin alphabet, ǧ is pronounced [d͡ʒ] as an English J, like in Jimmy.

In Lakota, ǧ represents voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.

In DIN 31635 Arabic transliteration it represents the letter ﺝ (ǧīm).

Image
Voiced velar fricative (vector)
IPA topics

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