Voiced postalveolar fricative

Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ], the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠˔], the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative [ʑ]. This article discusses the first two.

Voiced palato-alveolar fricative

Voiced palato-alveolar fricative
ʒ
IPA number135
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0292
X-SAMPAZ
KirshenbaumZ
Braille⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or voiced domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

Transcription

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is the lower case form of the letter Ezh ⟨Ʒ ʒ⟩ (/ɛʒ/), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Z. An alternative symbol used in some older and American linguistic literature is ⟨ž⟩, a z with a caron. In some transcriptions of alphabets such as the Cyrillic, the sound is represented by the digraph zh.

Palatoalveolar fricative
palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ, ʒ]

Although present in English, the sound is not represented by a specific letter or digraph, but is formed by yod-coalescence of [z] and [j] in words such as measure. It also appears in some loanwords, mainly from French (thus written with ⟨g⟩ and ⟨j⟩).

The sound occurs in many languages and, as in English and French, may have simultaneous lip rounding ([ʒʷ]), although this is rarely indicated in transcription.

Features

Features of the voiced palato-alveolar fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe жакӀэ [ʒaːtʃʼa]  'beard'
Albanian zhurmë [ʒuɾmə] 'noise'
Arabic Maghrebi[1] زوج [zuʒ] 'husband' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ժամ [ʒɑm]  'hour'
Avar жакъа [ˈʒaqʼːa] 'today'
Azerbaijani jmürdə/پژمرده [pæʒmyrˈdæ] 'sad'
Berta [ŋɔ̀nʒɔ̀ʔ] 'honey'
Bulgarian мъжът [mɐˈʒɤ̞t̪] 'the man' See Bulgarian phonology
Chechen жий / ƶiy [ʒiː] 'sheep'
Chinese Quzhou dialect [ʒɑ̃] 'bed'
Corsican ghjesgia [ˈjeːʒa] 'church' Also in Gallurese
Czech muži [ˈmuʒɪ] 'men' See Czech phonology
Dutch garage [ɣäˈräːʒə] 'garage' See Dutch phonology
English vision [ˈvɪʒən] 'vision' See English phonology
Esperanto manĝaĵo [maɲˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
French[3] Jour [ʒuʁ] 'day' See French phonology
German Standard[4] Garage [ɡaˈʁaːʒʷə] 'garage' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Georgian[5] ურნალი [ʒuɾnali] 'magazine'
Goemai zhiem [ʒiem] 'sickle'
Greek Cypriot γαλάζ̌ο [ɣ̞ɐˈlɐʒːo̞] 'sky blue'
Gwich’in zhòh [ʒôh] 'wolf'
Hän zhùr [ʒûr] 'wolf'
Hebrew ז׳אנר [ʒaneʁ] 'genre' Phoneme present in loanwords only. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi झ़दहा [əʒd̪əhaː] 'dragon' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian zsa [ˈr̪oːʒɒ] 'rose' See Hungarian phonology
Ingush жий/žii [ʒiː] 'sheep'
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[6] caso [ˈkäːʒo] 'case' Apical;[6] not labialized;[6] may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʐ] instead.[6] It corresponds to [z] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Tuscan pigiare [piˈʒäːre] 'press' See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mujer [muˈʒɛr] 'woman'
Juǀ'hoan ju [ʒu] 'person'
Kabardian жыг [ʒəɣʲ] 'tree'
Kabyle jeddi [ʒəddi] 'my grandfather'
Kashubian[7]
Kazakh жеті/jeti [ʒeti] 'seven'
Latvian žāvēt [ˈʒäːveːt̪] 'to dry' See Latvian phonology
Ligurian xe ['ly:ʒe] 'light'
Limburgish Maastrichtian[8] zjuweleer [ʒy̠β̞əˈleːʀ̝̊] 'jeweller' Laminal post-alveolar with an unclear amount of palatalization.[9]
Lithuanian žmona [ʒmoːˈn̪ɐ] 'wife' See Lithuanian phonology
Livonian ž [kuːʒ] 'six'
Lombard Western resgiôra [reˈʒu(ː)ra] 'matriarch'
Macedonian жaбa [ˈʒaba] 'toad' See Macedonian phonology
Megrelian ირი [ʒiɾi] 'two'
Navajo łizh [ɬiʒ] 'urine'
Ngas zhaam [ʒaːm] 'chin'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [ʒíá] 'to split'
Occitan Auvergnat argent [aʀʒẽ] 'money' Southern dialects
Gascon [arʒen]
Pashto ژوول [ʒowul] 'chew'
Persian مژه [moʒe] 'eyelash' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna zielony [ʒɛˈlɔn̪ɘ] 'green' /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ merge into [ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex sibilant.
Lubawa dialect[10]
Malbork dialect[10]
Ostróda dialect[10]
Warmia dialect[10]
Portuguese[11][12] loja [ˈlɔʒɐ] 'shop' Also described as alveolo-palatal [ʑ].[13][14][15] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian jar [ʒär] 'embers' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian жут / žut [ʒûːt̪] 'yellow' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Silesian Gmina Istebna[16] These dialects merge /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ into [ʒ].
Jablunkov[16]
Sioux Lakota waŋži [wãˈʒi] 'one'
Slovenian žito [ʒito] 'cereal' See Slovene phonology
Spanish Rioplatense, Ecuadorian (lleísta dialect)[17][18] yo (Rioplatense), ellos (Ecuadorian, Rioplatense) [ʒo̞][eʒos] 'I', 'they' Some dialects.[17] See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Tadaksahak [ˈʒɐwɐb] 'to answer'
Tagish [ʒé] 'what'
Turkish jale [ʒäːˈlɛ] 'dew' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen žiraf [ʒiraf] 'giraffe'
Tutchone Northern zhi [ʒi] 'what'
Southern zhǜr [ʒɨ̂r] 'berry'
Ukrainian жaбa [ˈʒɑbɐ] 'frog' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu اژدہا [əʒd̪ahaː] 'dragon' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Veps ž [viːʒ] 'five'
Welayta [aʒa] 'bush'
West Frisian bagaazje [bɑˈɡaʒə] 'luggage' See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish אָראַנזש [ɔʀanʒ] 'orange' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[19] llan [ʒaŋ] 'anger'

The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ж⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
ɹ̠˔
ɹ̝˗
IPA number151 414 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\_-_r
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ⟨ɹ̠˔⟩ (retracted constricted [ɹ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_r.

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[20] meer [meːɹ̠˔] 'lake' A rare post-vocalic allophone of /r/.[21] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:18)
  3. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51)
  5. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  6. ^ a b c d Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2013-11-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  9. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:156). The authors state that /ʒ/ is "pre-palatal, articulated with the blade of the tongue against the post-alveolar place of articulation". This makes it unclear whether this sound is palato-alveolar (somewhat palatalized post-alveolar) or alveolo-palatal (strongly palatalized post-alveolar).
  10. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  11. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  12. ^ Medina (2010)
  13. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000)
  14. ^ Silva (2003:32)
  15. ^ Guimarães (2004)
  16. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  17. ^ a b Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
  18. ^ Argüello, Fanny M. (1980-03-10). "El rehilamiento en el español hablado en la región andina del Ecuador". Lexis (in Spanish). 4 (2): 151–155. ISSN 0254-9239.
  19. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  20. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:94–98 and 101–102)
  21. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:95–97 and 102)

References

  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland (eds.), 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, ISSN 0777-3692
  • Guimarães, Daniela (2004), Seqüências de (Sibilante + Africada Alveopalatal) no Português Falado em Belo Horizonte (PDF), Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Medina, Flávio (2010), Análise Acústica de Sequências de Fricativas Seguidas de [i] Produzidas por Japoneses Aprendizes de Português Brasileiro (PDF), Anais do IX Encontro do CELSUL Palhoça, SC, Palhoça: Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Silva, Thaïs Cristófaro (2003), Fonética e Fonologia do Português: Roteiro de Estudos e Guia de Exercícios (7th ed.), São Paulo: Contexto, ISBN 85-7244-102-6
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press

External links

Alveolo-palatal fricative

Alveolo-palatal fricative is a class of consonants in some oral languages. The consonants are sibilants, a variety of fricative. Their place of articulation is postalveolar. They differ in voicing.

The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative is written ɕ in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

The voiced alveolo-palatal fricative, written ʑ, is similar to the voiced postalveolar fricative in English words such as Asia.

Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.The Arabic script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads.

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used to write languages of many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur, and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

Automated Similarity Judgment Program

The Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP) is a collaborative project applying computational approaches to comparative linguistics using a database of word lists. The database is open access and consists of 40-item basic-vocabulary lists for well over half of the world's languages. It is continuously being expanded. In addition to isolates and languages of demonstrated genealogical groups, the database includes pidgins, creoles, mixed languages, and constructed languages. Words of the database are transcribed into a simplified standard orthography (ASJPcode). The database has been used to estimate dates at which language families have diverged into daughter languages by a method related to but still different from glottochronology, to determine the homeland (Urheimat) of a proto-language, to investigate sound symbolism, to evaluate different phylogenetic methods, and several other purposes.

Ezh

Ezh (Ʒ ʒ) , also called the "tailed z", is a letter whose lower case form is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), representing the voiced postalveolar fricative consonant. For example, the pronunciation of "si" in vision and precision , or the "s" in treasure . See also Ž, the Persian alphabet letter ژ and the Cyrillic ж.

Ezh is also used as a letter in some orthographies of Laz and Skolt Sami, both by itself, and with a caron (Ǯ ǯ). In Laz, these represent voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/ and its ejective counterpart /tsʼ/, respectively. In Skolt Sami they respectively denote partially voiced alveolar and post-alveolar affricates, broadly represented /dz/ and /dʒ/. It also appears in the orthography of some African languages, for example in the Aja language of Benin and the Dagbani language of Ghana, where the uppercase variant looks like a reflected sigma (Σ).

IPA Extensions

IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Both modern and historical characters are included, as well as former and proposed IPA signs and non-IPA phonetic letters. Additional characters employed for phonetics, like the palatalization sign, are encoded in the blocks Phonetic Extensions (1D00–1D7F) and Phonetic Extensions Supplement (1D80–1DBF). Diacritics are found in the Spacing Modifier Letters (02B0–02FF) and Combining Diacritical Marks (0300–036F) blocks.

With the ability to use Unicode for the presentation of IPA symbols, ASCII-based systems such as X-SAMPA or Kirshenbaum are being supplanted. Within the Unicode blocks there are also a few former IPA characters no longer in international use by linguists.

List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic came about mostly due to the contact between Assyrian people and Arabs, Persians, Kurds and Turks in modern history, and can also be found in the other two major dialects spoken by the Assyrian people, these being Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo. Assyrian is one of the few languages where most of its foreign words come from a different language family (in this case, Indo-European).Unlike other Neo-Aramaic languages, Assyrian has an extensive number of latterly introduced Iranian loanwords. Depending on the dialect, Arabic loanwords are also reasonably present. Some Turkish loanwords are Turkified words that are of Arabic origin. To note, some of the loanwords are revised (or "Assyrianized"), and therefore would sound somewhat different to the original word. Furthermore, some loanwords may also have a slightly different meaning from the original language.

Láadan

Láadan is a feminist constructed language created by Suzette Haden Elgin in 1982 to test the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, specifically to determine if development of a language aimed at expressing the views of women would shape a culture; a subsidiary hypothesis was that Western natural languages may be better suited for expressing the views of men than women. The language was included in her science fiction Native Tongue series. Láadan contains a number of words that are used to make unambiguous statements that include how one feels about what one is saying. According to Elgin, this is designed to counter male-centered language's limitations on women, who are forced to respond "I know I said that, but I meant this".

Old Spanish language

Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (Spanish: castellano antiguo; Old Spanish: romance castellano [roˈmantse kasteˈʎano]) or Medieval Spanish (Spanish: español medieval), was originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish. The poem Cantar de Mio Cid (The Poem of the Cid), published around 1200, remains the best known and most extensive work of literature in Old Spanish.

Postalveolar fricative

Postalveolar fricative may refer to:

Voiced postalveolar fricative

Voiceless postalveolar fricative

RFE Phonetic Alphabet

The RFE Phonetic Alphabet, named for a journal of philology, Revista de Filología Española (RFE) is a phonetic alphabet originally developed in 1915 for the languages and dialects of Iberian origin, primarily Spanish. The alphabet was proposed by Tomás Navarro Tomás and adopted by the Centro de Estudios Históricos in Madrid for the RFE and by the Instituto de Filología de Buenos Aires. It is used solely in works based on Hispanic themes, such as the Atlas Lingüístico de la Península Ibérica (ALPI), as well as phonetics manuals. Additionally, this phonetic alphabet is taught at the universities of Spanish-speaking countries such as Mexico.

SAMPA chart

The following show the typical symbols for consonants and vowels used in SAMPA, an ASCII-based system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that SAMPA is not a universal system as it varies from language to language.

Standard Alphabet by Lepsius

The Standard Alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet developed by Karl Richard Lepsius. Lepsius initially used it to transcribe Egyptian hieroglyphs and extended it to write African languages, published in 1854 and 1855, and in a revised edition in 1863. The alphabet was comprehensive but was not used much as it contained a lot of diacritic marks and was difficult to read and typeset at that time. It was, however, influential in later projects such as Ellis's Paleotype, and diacritics such as the acute accent for palatalization, under-dot for retroflex, underline for Arabic emphatics, and the click letters continue in modern use.

X-SAMPA

The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA; , /%Eks"s{mp@/) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.

SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.

Z

Z (named zed or zee ) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Z with stroke

Ƶ (minuscule: ƶ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from Z with the addition of a stroke.

Zhe (Cyrillic)

Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiced palato-alveolar sibilant /ʒ/ (listen), or the somewhat similar voiced retroflex sibilant /ʐ/ (listen), like the pronunciation of ⟨su⟩ in "treasure".

Zhe is romanized as ⟨zh⟩ or ⟨ž⟩.

Ž

The grapheme Ž (minuscule: ž) is formed from Latin Z with the addition of caron (Czech: háček, Slovak: mäkčeň, Slovene: strešica, Croatian: kvačica). It is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiced postalveolar fricative, a sound similar to English g in mirage, or Portuguese and French j. In the International Phonetic Alphabet this sound is denoted with [ʒ], but the lowercase ž is used in the Americanist phonetic notation, as well as in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. In addition, ž is used as the romanisation of Cyrillic ж in ISO 9 and scientific transliteration.

For use in computer systems, Ž and ž are at Unicode codepoints U+017D and U+017E, respectively. On Windows computers, it can be typed with Alt+0142 and Alt+0158, respectively.

Ž is the final letter of most alphabets that contain it, exceptions including Estonian and Turkmen.

Image
Voiced palato-alveolar fricative (vector)
IPA topics

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