Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English-speakers, as the th sound in father. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is eth, or [ð] and was taken from the Old English and Icelandic letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental non-sibilant fricative.

The letter ⟨ð⟩ is sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound, which no language is known to contrast with a dental non-sibilant fricative,[1] but the approximant is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic: ⟨ð̞⟩. Very rarely used variant transcriptions of the dental approximant include ⟨ʋ̠⟩ (retracted [ʋ]), ⟨ɹ̟⟩ (advanced [ɹ]) and ⟨ɹ̪⟩ (dentalized [ɹ]). It has been proposed that either a turned ⟨ð⟩ or reversed ⟨ð⟩ be used as a dedicated symbol for the dental approximant, but despite occasional usage this has not gained general acceptance.[2] Dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth (as in English), and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.

This sound and its unvoiced counterpart are rare phonemes. Almost all languages of Europe and Asia, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Mandarin, lack the sound. Native speakers of languages without the sound often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and they replace it with a voiced alveolar sibilant [z], a voiced dental stop or voiced alveolar stop [d], or a voiced labiodental fricative [v]; known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting. As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where the sound (and/or its unvoiced variant) is present. Most of Mainland Europe lacks the sound. However, some "periphery" languages as Gascon, Welsh, English, Icelandic, Elfdalian, Kven, Northern Sami, Mari, Greek, Albanian, Sardinian, some dialects of Basque and most speakers of Spanish have the sound in their consonant inventories, as phonemes or allophones.

Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental non-sibilant fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Turoyo, Modern Standard Arabic, albeit not by all speakers of modern Arabic dialects, as well as in some dialects of Hebrew and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.

Voiced dental fricative
ð
IPA number131
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ð
Unicode (hex)U+00F0
X-SAMPAD
KirshenbaumD
Braille⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456)
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced dental approximant
ð̞

Features

Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal. Note that most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic may be used to indicate an approximant [ð̞].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian idhull [iðuɫ] 'idol'
Aleut Atkan dialect dax̂ [ðɑχ] 'eye'
Arabic Modern Standard[3] ذهب [ˈðahab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Aromanian[4] zală [ðalə] 'butter whey' Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic wada [waːð̞a] 'doing' Common in the Tyari, Barwari and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects.
Corresponds to [d] in other varieties.
Bashkir ҡаҙ/qað [qɑð]  'goose'
Basque[5] adar [að̞ar] 'horn' Allophone of /d/
Berta [fɛ̀ːðɑ̀nɑ́] 'to sweep'
Burmese[6] အညာသား [ʔəɲàd̪͡ðá] 'inlander' Commonly realized as an affricate [d̪͡ð].[7]
Catalan[8] fada [ˈfað̞ə] 'fairy' Fricative or approximant. Allophone of /d/. See Catalan phonology
Dahalo[9] Weak fricative or approximant. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̪/, and may be simply a plosive [] instead.[9]
Elfdalian baiða [ˈbaɪða] 'wait'
English this [ðɪs] 'this' See English phonology
Fijian ciwa [ðiwa] 'nine'
German Austrian[10] leider [ˈlaɛ̯ða] 'unfortunately' Intervocalic allophone of /d/ in casual speech. See Standard German phonology
Greek δάφνη/dáfni [ˈðafni] 'laurel' See Modern Greek phonology
Gwich’in niidhàn [niːðân] 'you want'
Hän ë̀dhä̀ [ə̂ðɑ̂] 'hide'
Harsusi [ðebeːr] 'bee'
Hebrew Iraqi אדוני [ʔaðoˈnaj]  'my lord' Commonly pronounced [d]. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Judeo-Spanish Many dialects קריאדֿור‎ / kriador [kɾiaˈðor] 'creator' Intervocalic allophone of /d/ in many dialects.
Kabyle uḇ [ðuβ] 'to be exhausted'
Kagayanen[11] kalag [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Kurdish An approximant; postvocalic allophone of /d/. See Kurdish phonology.
Mari Eastern dialect шодо [ʃoðo] 'lung'
Norman Jèrriais the [með] 'mother'
Northern Sami dieđa [d̥ieðɑ] 'science'
Norwegian Meldal dialect[12] i [ð̩ʲ˕ː] 'in' Syllabic palatalized frictionless approximant[12] corresponding to /iː/ in other dialects. See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Gascon que divi [ke ˈð̞iwi] 'what I should' Allophone of /d/. See Occitan phonology
Portuguese European[13] nada [ˈn̪äðɐ] 'nothing' Northern and central dialects. Allophone of /d/, mainly after an oral vowel.[14] See Portuguese phonology
Sardinian nidu [ˈnið̞u]  'nest' Allophone of /d/
Scottish Gaelic iri [ˈmaːðə] 'Mary' Some dialects (Lèodhas and Barraigh)[15]
Sioux Lakota zapta [ˈðaptã] 'five' Sometimes with [z]
Spanish Most dialects[16] dedo [ˈd̪e̞ð̞o̞] 'finger' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[17] Allophone of /d/. See Spanish phonology
Peninsular[18] jazmín [xäðˈmĩn] 'Jasmine' Fricative. Allophone of /θ/ before voiced consonants, often in free variation with [θ]
Swahili dhambi [ðɑmbi] 'sin' Mostly occurs in Arabic loanwords originally containing this sound.
Swedish Central Standard[19] bada [ˈbɑːð̞ä] 'to take a bath' An approximant;[19] allophone of /d/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Some dialects[12] i [ð̩ʲ˕ː] 'in' A syllabic palatalized frictionless approximant[12] corresponding to /iː/ in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology
Syriac Western Neo-Aramaic ܐܚܕ [aħːeð] 'to take'
Tamil ஒன்பது [wʌnbʌðɯ] 'nine' See Tamil phonology
Tanacross dhet [ðet] 'liver'
Turkmen gaz [ɡäːð] 'goose'
Tutchone Northern edhó [eðǒ] 'hide'
Southern adhǜ [aðɨ̂]
Venetian mezorno [meˈðorno] 'midday'
Welsh bardd [barð] 'bard' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[20] Allophone of /d/

Danish [ð] is actually a weak,[21] velarized[21][22] alveolar approximant.[21][22]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Olson et al. (2010:210)
  2. ^ See for example Ball, Martin J.; Howard, Sara J.; Miller, Kirk (2018). "Revisions to the extIPA chart". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 48 (2): 155–164. doi:10.1017/S0025100317000147.
  3. ^ Thelwall & Sa'Adeddin (1990:37)
  4. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  5. ^ Hualde (1991:99–100)
  6. ^ Watkins (2001:291–292)
  7. ^ Watkins (2001:292)
  8. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:55)
  9. ^ a b Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  10. ^ Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  11. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206–207)
  12. ^ a b c d Vanvik (1979:14)
  13. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  14. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
  15. ^ http://doug5181.wixsite.com/sgdsmaps/blank-wlxn6. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  17. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  18. ^ Cotton & Sharp (1988:19)
  19. ^ a b Engstrand (2004:167)
  20. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  21. ^ a b c Grønnum (2003:121)
  22. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:59 and 63)

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-19-824268-9
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cotton, Eleanor Greet; Sharp, John (1988), Spanish in the Americas, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-0-87840-094-2
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Engstrand, Olle (2004), Fonetikens grunder (in Swedish), Lund: Studenlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-04238-8
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), "Why are the Danes so hard to understand?", in Jacobsen, Henrik Galberg; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.; Thomsen, Pia (eds.), Take Danish - for instance: linguistic studies in honour of Hans Basbøll, presented on the occasion of his 60th birthday, Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag, pp. 119–130
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-05655-7
  • Maddieson, Ian; Spajić, Siniša; Sands, Bonny; Ladefoged, Peter (1993), "Phonetic structures of Dahalo", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 25–65
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Illustrations of the IPA: Castilian Spanish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Adeddin, M. Akram (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122

External links

Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants is ⟨ɹ⟩, a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\.

There is no separate symbol for the dental approximant (as in Spanish nada) in the International Phonetic Alphabet, which most scholars transcribe with the symbol for a voiced dental fricative, ⟨ð⟩.

The most common sound represented by the letter r in English is the postalveolar approximant, pronounced a little more back and transcribed more precisely in IPA as ⟨ɹ̠⟩, but ⟨ɹ⟩ is often used for convenience in its place. For further ease of typesetting, English phonemic transcriptions might use the symbol ⟨r⟩ even though this symbol represents the alveolar trill in phonetic transcription.

Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Among places of articulation, only the coronal consonants can be divided into as many articulation types: apical (using the tip of the tongue), laminal (using the blade of the tongue), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or subapical (using the underside of the tongue) as well as different postalveolar articulations (some of which also involve the back of the tongue as an articulator): palato-alveolar, alveolo-palatal and retroflex. Only the front of the tongue (coronal) has such dexterity among the major places of articulation, allowing such variety of distinctions. Coronals have another dimension, grooved, to make sibilants in combination with the orientations above.

Currah

Currah was a British computer peripheral manufacturer, famous mainly for the speech synthesis ROM cartridges it designed for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, and other 8-bit home computers of the 1980s.

De with breve (Cyrillic)

De with breve (Д̆ д̆; italics: Д̆ д̆) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. Its form is derived from the Cyrillic De (Д д) by adding a breve.

De with breve is used in the Aleut language (Bering dialect), where it represents the voiced dental fricative /ð/, like the pronunciation of ⟨th⟩ in English “they” /ðeɪ/. For example, ‘ад̆аӽ’ /aðɑχ/ – father, ‘чӣд̆аӽ’ /ˈtʃiːðaχ/ – baby bird.

Dental fricative

The dental fricative or interdental fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth. There are several types (those used in English being written as th):

Voiced dental fricative [ð] - as in the English this, [ðɪs].

Voiceless dental fricative [θ] - as in the English thin, [θɪn].

Dental ejective fricative [θʼ]

Dhe (Cyrillic)

Ze with descender (Ҙ ҙ; italics: Ҙ ҙ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is currently unique to the Bashkir language where it represents the voiced dental fricative /ð/, like the pronunciation of ⟨th⟩ in "this". Its form is derived from the Cyrillic letter Ze (З з З з). It is romanized as ⟨ź⟩ or more phonetically, ⟨ð⟩.

Einar Kristinn Guðfinnsson

Einar Kristinn Guðfinnsson (born 2 December 1955) is an Icelandic politician. He was speaker of the Althing, in office 2013 until 2016. He was Iceland's Minister of Fisheries from September 2005, and became Minister of Fisheries and Agriculture when the two ministries merged on 1 January 2008 until 1 February 2009.

Elfdalian alphabet

The Dalecarlian alphabet consists of 32 letters, 25 derived from the Swedish alphabet, and seven additional letters: vowels with an ogonek diacritic, denoting nasality: (Ąą, Ęę, Įį, Ųų, Y̨y̨, and Ą̊ą̊) as well as the consonant Ðð (eð), denoting voiced dental fricative, as 'th' in 'father'. The letters Cc, Qq, Xx and Zz are only used in names and foreign words. The alphabet is used for the Elfdalian language and for other Dalecarlian dialects.

Eth

Eth (, uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian. It was also used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and later d. It is often transliterated as d. The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

In Old English, ð (called ðæt by the Anglo-Saxons) was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th".

Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð (along with đ) began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming strongly preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing".The lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but gradually fell out of use in Middle English, practically disappearing altogether by 1300; þ survived longer, ultimately being replaced by the digraph th.

In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative [ð], which is the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation (and before words beginning with a voiceless consonant) as [ɛθ̠] and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative.

In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears mostly for etymological reasons; however, it does show where most of the Faroese glides are; when ð appears before r, it is, in a few words, pronounced [ɡ]. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d.

In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons.

Ð has also been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, which is normally represented as dd.U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription.U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet.

Pharyngealization

Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩

In English, the digraph ⟨th⟩ represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative /ð/ (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative /θ/ (thing). More rarely, it can stand for /t/ (Thailand, Thames) or, in some dialects, even the cluster /tθ/ (eighth). In compound words, ⟨th⟩ may be a consonant sequence rather than a digraph, as in the /t.h/ of lighthouse.

Swenglish

Swenglish is a colloquial term meaning either:

The English language spoken or written heavily influenced by Swedish vocabulary, grammar, or syntax

The English language spoken with a heavy Swedish accent

TH

Th or TH may refer to:

Taiwan Historica, an academic institution in Nantou County, Taiwan

Technische Hochschule, a Technical University in German-speaking countries

Technische Hogeschool, a Technical University in Dutch-speaking countries

Telegraph Herald, a newspaper in Dubuque, Iowa, US, nickname

Thai Airways Company (former IATA airline designator TH)

Transmile Air Services, Malaysia (IATA airline designator TH)

The

The (listen) is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners or readers. It is the only definite article in English. The is the most commonly used word in the English language, accounting for seven percent of all words. It is derived from gendered articles in Old English which combined in Middle English and now has a single form used with pronouns of either genders. The word can be used with both singular and plural nouns and with a noun that starts with any letter. This is different from many other languages which have different forms of the definite article for different genders or numbers.

Woods Cree

Woods Cree is an autochthonous language spoken in Northern Manitoba and Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. It is part of the Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi dialect continuum. The dialect continuum has around 120,000 speakers; the exact population of Woods Cree speakers is unknown, estimated between 20,000 and 35,000.

Ź

Ź (minuscule: ź) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of an acute accent. It is used in the Polish and Montenegrin alphabets, and in certain other languages:

Slavic languages - usually the palatalized form of /z/Polish language - [ʑ] (voiced alveolo-palatal fricative)

Montenegrin language - along with the digraph "zj"

In the Belarusian Łacinka for зь /zʲ/

Lower Sorbian language [ʑ]In the Romanization of Pashto, it is used to represent voiced alveolar affricate (d͡z).

In Emiliano-Romagnolo alphabet, it is used to represent voiced dental fricative [ð]. Depending on the various dialects, the pronunciation can be [ðz], or, under Italian influence, [dz], but the most common pronunciation is [ð].

West-Germanic language :Wymysorys

Ż

Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Image
Voiced dental fricative (vector)
IPA topics

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