Voiced bilabial fricative

The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨β⟩ (or more properly ⟨⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is B. The symbol ⟨β⟩ is the Greek letter beta.

This letter is also often used to represent the bilabial approximant, though that is more clearly written with a lowering diacritic, that is ⟨β̞⟩. Theoretically, it could also be transcribed as an advanced labiodental approximantʋ̟⟩, but this symbol is hardly ever, if at all, used so. It has been proposed that either a turned ⟨β⟩ or reversed ⟨β⟩ be used as a dedicated symbol for the bilabial approximant, but despite occasional usage this has not gained general acceptance.[1]

It is extremely rare for a language to make a phonemic contrast between the voiced bilabial fricative and the bilabial approximant. The Mapos Buang language of New Guinea contains this contrast. Its bilabial approximant is analyzed as filling a phonological gap in the labiovelar series of the consonant system rather than the bilabial series.[2]

The bilabial fricative is diachronically unstable and is likely to shift to [v].[3]

The sound is not used in English dialects except for Chicano English, but it can be produced by approximating the normal English [v] between the lips.

Voiced bilabial fricative
β
IPA number127
Encoding
Entity (decimal)β
Unicode (hex)U+03B2
X-SAMPAB
KirshenbaumB
Braille⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced bilabial approximant
β̞
Audio sample
source · help

Features

Features of the voiced bilabial fricative:

Occurrence

Voiced bilabial fricative

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Akei [βati] 'four'
Alekano hanuva [hɑnɯβɑ] 'nothing'
Angor fufung [ɸuβuŋ] 'horn'
Bengali ভিসা [βisa] 'Visa' See Bengali phonology
Berta [βɑ̀lɑ̀ːziʔ] 'no'
Min Dong Chinese Fuzhou[4] / chĕ̤ báik [t͡sœ˥˧βaiʔ˨˦] 'eighth day of the month' Allophone of /p/ and /pʰ/ in certain intervocalic positions.[4]
Comorian Contrasts with both [v] and [w]
Dahalo[5] [koːβo] 'to want' Weak fricative or approximant. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /b/, and may be simply a plosive [b] instead.[5]
English Chicano very [βɛɹi] 'very' May be realized as [b] instead.
Ewe[6] Eʋe [èβe] 'Ewe' Contrasts with both [v] and [w]
German[7][8] aber [ˈaːβɐ] 'but' Intervocalic and pre-lateral allophone of /b/ in casual speech.[7][8] See Standard German phonology
Hebrew אבל ['äˈβal] 'however'
Hopi tsivot [tsi:βot] 'five'
Kabyle bri [βri] 'to cut'
Kinyarwanda abana [aβana] 'children'
Korean /Jeonhwa/ [ˈt͡ɕɘːnβwa̠] 'telephone' Allophone of /h/. See Korean phonology
Luhya Nabongo [naβongo] 'king' Title of the king like Nabongo Mumia from the Wanga Dialect
Mapos Buang[2] venġévsën [βəˈɴɛβt͡ʃen] 'prayer' Mapos Buang has both a voiced bilabial fricative and a bilabial approximant as separate phonemes. The fricative is transcribed as {v}, and the approximant as {w}.[2]
Portuguese European[9][10] bado [ˈsaβɐðu] 'Saturday' Allophone of /b/. See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Colognian wing [βɪŋ] 'wine' Allophone of syllable-initial /v/ for some speakers; can be [ʋ ~ w ~ ɰ] instead. See Colognian phonology
Sardinian Logudorese dialect[11] paba [ˈpäːβä]  'pope' Intervocalic allophone of /b/ as well as word-initial /p/ when the preceding word ends with a vowel and there is no pause between the words.[11]
Turkish[12] vücut [βy̠ˈd͡ʒut̪] 'body' Allophone of /v/ before and after rounded vowels.[12] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen watan [βatan] 'country'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] Allophone of /b/

Bilabial approximant

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Amharic[14] አበባ [aβ̞əβ̞a] 'flower' Allophone of /b/ medially between sonorants.[14]
Basque[15] alaba [alaβ̞a] 'daughter' Allophone of /b/
Catalan[16] rebost [rəˈβ̞ɔst] 'larder' Approximant or fricative. Allophone of /b/. Mainly found in betacist (/b/ and /v/ merging) dialects. See Catalan phonology
Japanese[17] 神戸市/be-shi [ko̞ːβ̞e̞ ɕi] 'Kobe' Allophone of /b/ only in fast speech between vowels. See Japanese phonology
Limburgish[18][19] wèlle [ˈβ̞ɛ̝lə] 'to want' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lombard el nava via [el 'naβ̞a 'β̞ia] 'he was going away' Regular pronunciation of /v/ when intervocalic. Used also as an allophone for other positions.
Mapos Buang[2] wabeenġ [β̞a.ˈᵐbɛːɴ] 'kind of yam' Mapos Buang has both a voiced bilabial fricative and a bilabial approximant as separate phonemes. The fricative is transcribed as {v}, and the approximant as {w}.[2]
Occitan Gascon la-vetz [laβ̞ets] 'then' Allophone of /b/
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[20] sjwaam [ʃβ̞aːm] 'smoke' Weakly rounded; contrasts with /v/.[20]
Spanish[21] lava [ˈläβ̞ä] 'lava' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[22] Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[23] aber [ˈɑːβ̞eɾ] 'problem' Allophone of /b/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[24] вона [β̞oˈnɑ] 'she' An approximant; the most common prevocalic realization of /w/. Can vary with labiodental [ʋ].[24] See Ukrainian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See for example Ball, Martin J.; Howard, Sara J.; Miller, Kirk (2018). "Revisions to the extIPA chart". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 48 (2): 155–164. doi:10.1017/S0025100317000147.
  2. ^ a b c d e Mose Lung Rambok and Bruce Hooley (2010). Central Buang‒English Dictionary (PDF). Summer Institute of Linguistics Papua New Guinea Branch. ISBN 9980 0 3589 7.
  3. ^ Picard (1987:364), citing Pope (1966:92)
  4. ^ a b Zhuqing (2002:?)
  5. ^ a b Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  7. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  8. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013.. This source mentions only intervocalic [β].
  9. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  10. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
  11. ^ a b (Italian) http://www.antoninurubattu.it/rubattu/grammatica-sarda-italiano-sardo.html Archived 2015-01-01 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6)
  13. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  14. ^ a b Hayward & Hayward (1999:48)
  15. ^ Hualde (1991:99–100)
  16. ^ Wheeler (2005:10)
  17. ^ Okada (1999:118)
  18. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:155)
  19. ^ Peters (2006:117)
  20. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  21. ^ Martínez-Celdrán et al. (2003:257)
  22. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  23. ^ Engstrand (2004:167)
  24. ^ a b Žovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121–122)

References

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Engstrand, Olle (2004), Fonetikens grunder (in Swedish), Lund: Studenlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-04238-8
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hayward, Katrina; Hayward, Richard J. (1999), "Amharic", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 45–50, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-05655-7
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Maddieson, Ian; Spajić, Siniša; Sands, Bonny; Ladefoged, Peter (1993), "Phonetic structures of Dahalo", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 25–65
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana María; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Picard, Marc (1987), "On the Palatalization and Fricativization of W", International Journal of American Linguistics, 53 (3): 362–365, doi:10.1086/466063
  • Pope, Mildred (1966), From Latin to Modern French, Manchester: Manchester University Press
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1, archived from the original on 2015-09-19, retrieved 2015-09-09
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Zhuqing, Li (2002), Fuzhou Phonology and Grammar, Springfield, VA: Dunwoody Press, ISBN 9781881265931
  • Žovtobrjux, M.A.; Kulyk, B.M. (1965), Kurs sučasnoji ukrajins’koji literaturnoji movy. Častyna I., Kiev: Radjans’ka škola

External links

B with flourish

B with flourish (Ꞗ, ꞗ) is the modern name for the third letter of the Middle Vietnamese alphabet, sorted between B and C. The B with flourish has a rounded hook that starts halfway up the stem (where the top of the bowl meets the ascender) and curves about 180 degrees counterclockwise, ending below the bottom-left corner. It represents the voiced bilabial fricative /β/, which in modern Vietnamese merged with the voiced labiodental fricative, written as the letter V in the Vietnamese alphabet. (In Middle Vietnamese, V represented the labio-velar approximant /w/.)

Be (Cyrillic)

Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the voiced bilabial plosive /b/, like the English pronunciation of ⟨b⟩ in "bee". It should not be confused with the Cyrillic letter Ve (В в), which is shaped like Latin capital letter B but represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/.

The Cyrillic letter Б (Be) is romanized using the Latin letter B.

Beta

Beta (UK: , US: ; uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ; Ancient Greek: βῆτα, translit. bē̂ta or Greek: βήτα vita) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨B⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩.

Betacism

In historical linguistics, betacism (UK: , US: ) is a sound change in which [b] (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and [v] (the voiced labiodental fricative [v], as in vane) are confused. The final result of the process can be both /b/ > [v] or /v/ > [b]. Betacism is a fairly common phenomenon; it has taken place in Hokkien, Greek, Hebrew and some Iberian Romances, such as Spanish.

Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips.

Klon language

Kelon, or Klon, (pronounced [kəlon]) is a Papuan language of the western tip of Alor Island in the Alor archipelago of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Kwomtari language

Kwomtari is the eponymous language of the Kwomtari family of Papua New Guinea. It is spoken in six villages in Amanab District, Sandaun Province.

Spencer (2008) is a short grammar of Kwomtari. The language has an SOV constituent order and nominative–accusative alignment. Both subjects and objects are marked suffixally on the verb. Verbs are inflected for status (mood) rather than for tense or aspect.

Labial approximant

Labial approximant is the name of a class of consonants.

Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental. The voiceless bilabial fricative, voiced bilabial fricative, and the bilabial approximant do not exist in English, but they occur in many languages. For example, the Spanish consonant written b or v is pronounced, between vowels, as a voiced bilabial approximant.

Lip rounding, or labialization, is a common approximant-like co-articulatory feature. English /w/ is a voiced labialized velar approximant, which is far more common than the purely labial approximant [β̞]. In the languages of the Caucasus, labialized dorsals like /kʷ/ and /qʷ/ are very common.

Very few languages, however, make a distinction purely between bilabials and labiodentals, making "labial" usually a sufficient specification of a language's phonemes. One exception is Ewe, which has both kinds of fricatives, but the labiodentals are produced with greater articulatory force.

Labial fricative

A labial fricative is a fricative consonant, whose articulation involves the lips. Several kinds can be distinguished based on whether the articulation involves only the lips or either the teeth or the tongue:

Bilabial fricatives (articulated with both lips)

Voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ]

Voiced bilabial fricative [β]

Labiodental fricatives (articulated with the lower lip touching against the upper teeth

Voiceless labiodental fricative [f]

Voiced labiodental fricative [v]

Linguolabial fricatives (articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue against the upper lip:

Voiceless linguolabial fricative [θ̼] or [ɸ̺]

Voiced linguolabial fricative [ð̼] or [β̺]

Labialized velar consonant

A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation. Common examples are [kʷ, ɡʷ, xʷ, ŋʷ], which are pronounced like a [k, ɡ, x, ŋ], with rounded lips, such as the labialized voiceless velar plosive [kʷ]. Such sounds occur across Africa and the Americas, in the Caucasus, etc.

Mapos Buang language

Mapos Buang, also known as Mapos or Central Buang, is an Oceanic language in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

Naming conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) requires specific names for the symbols and diacritics used in the alphabet.

It is often desirable to distinguish an IPA symbol from the sound it is intended to represent, since there is not a one-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound in broad transcription. The symbol's names and phonetic descriptions are described in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. The symbols also have nonce names in the Unicode standard. In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. For example, IPA calls ɛ "epsilon", but Unicode calls it "small letter open E".

Phonetic Symbol Guide

The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions. It was published in 1986, with a second edition in 1996, by the University of Chicago Press. Symbols include letters and diacritics of the International Phonetic Alphabet and Americanist phonetic notation, though not of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. The Guide was consulted by the International Phonetic Association when they established names and numerical codes for the International Phonetic Alphabet and was the basis for the characters of the TIPA set of phonetic fonts.

SAMPA chart

The following show the typical symbols for consonants and vowels used in SAMPA, an ASCII-based system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that SAMPA is not a universal system as it varies from language to language.

Voiced bilabial affricate

A voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.

Yaminawa language

Yaminawa (Yaminahua) is a Panoan language of western Amazonia. It is spoken by the Yaminawá and some related peoples.

Yaminawa constitutes an extensive dialect cluster. Attested dialects are two or more Brazilian Yaminawa dialects, Peruvian Yaminawa, Chaninawa, Chitonawa, Mastanawa, Parkenawa (= Yora or "Nawa"), Shanenawa (Xaninaua, = Katukina de Feijó), Sharanawa (= Marinawa), Shawannawa (= Arara), Yawanawá, Yaminawa-arara (obsolescent; very similar to Shawannawa/Arara), Nehanawa†).Very few Yaminawá speak Spanish or Portuguese, though the Shanenawa have mostly shifted to Portuguese.

Image
Voiced bilabial fricative (vector)
IPA topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.