Voiced alveolar fricative

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.

  • The symbol the alveolar sibilant is ⟨z⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z. The IPA letter ⟨z⟩ is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants in narrow transcription unless modified by a diacritic (⟨⟩ and ⟨⟩ respectively).
  • The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ɹ̝⟩.
Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental Denti-
alveolar
Alveolar Post-alveolar
Retracted Retroflex Palato-
alveolar
Alveolo-
palatal
Sibilant plain z̠̠ ʐ ʒ ʑ
Non-sibilant ð ð̠/ð̠̠/ɹ̝ ɻ̝
tapped ɾ̞/ɹ̝̆

Voiced alveolar sibilant

Voiced alveolar sibilant
z
IPA number133
Encoding
Entity (decimal)z
Unicode (hex)U+007A
X-SAMPAz
Kirshenbaumz
Braille⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
Listen
source · help
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Encoding
Entity (decimal)z​̺
Unicode (hex)U+007A U+033A

The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia.

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [z]:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] զարդ [z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ]  'decoration'
Azerbaijani[3] z [z̪o̞ɣ] 'sprout'
Belarusian[4] база [ˈbäz̪ä] 'base' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5] езеро [ˈɛz̪ɛro] 'lake' Contrasts with palatalized form.
Czech[6] zima [ˈz̪ɪmä] 'winter' See Czech phonology
English Multicultural London[7] zoo [z̪ʏˑy̯] 'zoo' See English phonology
French[8][9] zèbre [z̪ɛbʁ] 'zebra' See French phonology
Hungarian[10] zálog [ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ] 'pledge' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[11]
Kazakh[12] заң/zan' [z̪ɑŋ] 'law'
Kyrgyz[13] заң [z̪äŋ] 'law'
Latvian[14] zars [z̪ärs̪] 'branch' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15] зошто [ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ] 'why' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese daprendizaige [d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)] 'learning' Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[1][16] zero [ˈz̪ɛrɔ]  'zero' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most Brazilian speakers Estados Unidos [isˈt̪ad̪uz̪‿ʉˈnid͡zᶶ(ˢ)] 'United States' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[17] zar [z̪är] 'dice' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] заезжать/zaezžat' [z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ]  'to pick up' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20] zima [z̪ǐːmä] 'winter' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak zima [ˈz̪imä] 'winter'
Slovene[21] zima [ˈz̪ìːma] 'winter'
Turkish[8][22] z [ɟø̞̈z̪] 'eye' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23] зуб [z̪ub] 'tooth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24] koza [ˈkoz̪ä] 'goat' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[25]
Vietnamese Hanoi[26] da [z̪äː] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe зы [ˈzə]  'one'
Albanian zjarr [zjar] 'fire'
Arabic Standard[27] زائِر [ˈzaːʔir] 'visitor' See Arabic phonology
Assamese লকীয়া [zɔlɔkija] 'chili'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܙܓ [ziɡa] 'bell'
Bengali নামা [namaz] 'Salah' See Bengali phonology
Breton iliz [iliz] 'church'
Chechen зурма / zurma [zuɾma] 'music'
Dutch[28][29] zaad [z̻aːt̻] 'seed' Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[28][29] See Dutch phonology
English zoo [zuː] 'zoo' Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Esperanto kuzo [ˈkuzo] 'cousin' See Esperanto phonology
Georgian[30] არი [ˈzɑɾi] 'bell'
Greek Athens dialect[31] ζάλη/záli [ˈz̻ali] 'dizziness' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew זאב [zeˈʔev] 'wolf' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi ज़मीन [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[32] caso [ˈkäːz̺ʲo] 'case' Palatalized apical;[32] may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.[32] See Italian phonology
Japanese[33] 全部/zenbu [zembɯ] 'everything' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian зы [ˈzə]  'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Ya zilamiz [zilʌmiz] 'go'
Kashmiri ज़ानुन/زانُن [zaːnun] 'to know'
Malay beza [bezə] 'difference'
Maltese żelu [zelu] 'zeal'
Marathi [zər] 'if' See Marathi phonology.
Occitan Limousin jòune [ˈzɒwne] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Persian گوز [guz] 'fart'
Portuguese[34] casa [ˈkazɐ] 'house' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ [zɪnˈd̪əgi] 'life'
Spanish Andalusian comunismo [ko̞muˈnizmo̞] 'Communism' Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Mexican zapato [zäˈpät̪o̞] 'shoe' Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Swahili lazima [lɑzimɑ] 'must'
Urdu زمین [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
West Frisian[35] sizze [ˈsɪzə] 'to say' It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Yi /ssy [zɿ˧] 'generation'
Yiddish zien [zin] 'son'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[36] guanaz [ɡʷanaz] 'went to grab'

Retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[37][38] zel [ˈz̺ɛɫ] 'zeal' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galician mesmo [ˈme̞z̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪].
Greek[39] μάζα/za [ˈmɐz̠ɐ] 'mass' See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Central Italy[40] caso [ˈkäːz̠o] 'case' Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[40] most of Umbria[40] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[40] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[40]
Northern Italy[41][42] Apical.[43] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[44][45] See Italian phonology
Sicily[40] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[40]
Low German[46]
Maldivian zaraafaa [z̺aˈraːfaː] 'giraffe'
Mirandese eisistir [e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ] 'to exist' Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ⟨ch⟩ //, ⟨x⟩ /ʃ/, ⟨g⟩/⟨j⟩ /ʒ/, ⟨c⟩/⟨ç⟩ //, ⟨z⟩ /z̪/, ⟨s⟩/-⟨ss⟩- //, -⟨s⟩- /z̺/
Occitan Gascon casèrna [kaz̺ɛrno] 'barracks' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien ser [bez̺e] 'to see'
Portuguese Coastal Northern European Merges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland Northern European Apical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Spanish Andean mismo [ˈmiz̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪]. See Spanish phonology
Castilian
Paisa Region

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[47] sauber [ˈzäʊ̯bɐ] 'clean' Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Standard German phonology
Italian Standard[48] caso [ˈkäːzo] 'case' Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] See Italian phonology
Ticino[43] Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[49] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[43] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
ð̠
ð͇
ɹ̝
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ð​̠
Unicode (hex)U+00F0 U+0320
Listen
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Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
ɾ̞
ɹ̝̆
IPA number124 430
Listen
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The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ð͇⟩ (retracted or alveolarized [ð], respectively), ⟨ɹ̝⟩ (constricted [ɹ]), or ⟨⟩ (lowered [d]).

Few languages also have the voiced alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. This can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show full occlusion did not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[50]

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese Pyrenean[51] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; common realization of /ɾ/.[51]
Czech[52] čtyři [ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ] 'four' May be a trill fricative[52] or a tap fricative instead.[53] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Dahalo[54] [káð̠i] 'work' Apical; only weakly fricated. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̠/, and may be an approximant [ð̠˕] or simply a plosive [d] instead.[55]
Danish[56] Few speakers[57] ved [ve̝ð̠] 'at' Laminal.[56] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; much more often realized as an approximant.[57] See Danish phonology
Dutch[58] voor [vöːɹ̝] 'for' One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[59] maid [meɪð̠] 'maid' Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[60][61] round [ɹ̝æʊ̯nd] 'round' Apical,[61] present in some urban dialects.[60] See South African English phonology
Icelandic[62][63] bróðir [ˈprou̯ð̠ir] 'brother' Usually apical,[62][63] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Italian Bologna[43] caso [ˈkäːð̠o] 'case' Laminal; a hypercorrective variant of /z/ for some young speakers. Either non-sibilant, or "not sibilant enough".[43] See Italian phonology
Sicily[64] terra [ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä] 'earth' Apical; corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[64] See Italian phonology
Manx mooar [muːɹ̝] 'big' Common word-final realization of /r/.
Spanish[65] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; possible realization of /ɾ/.[65] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[66][67] vandrare [²vän̪ːd̪ɹ̝äɹɛ] 'wanderer' Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology
Tacana[68] Tapped.[68]
Turkish[69] rüya [ˈɾ̞ÿjä] 'dream' Tapped; word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[69] See Turkish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  3. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 136, 139-142.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  6. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  7. ^ "english speech services | Accent of the Year / sibilants in MLE". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  8. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  10. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  12. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  17. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  18. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  23. ^ Buk, Solomija; Mačutek, Ján; Rovenchak, Andrij (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics (16): 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198. Bibcode:2008arXiv0802.4198B.
  24. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38, 39.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  26. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 5 and 7.
  27. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  28. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999), p. 75.
  29. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  30. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  31. ^ Adams (1975), p. 283.
  32. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  33. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  34. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  35. ^ Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  36. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  37. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  38. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  39. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Adams (1975), p. 286.
  41. ^ Adams (1975), pp. 285-286.
  42. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71-72.
  43. ^ a b c d e Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  44. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  45. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  46. ^ Adams (1975), p. 289.
  47. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  48. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  49. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  50. ^ Laver (1994), p. 263.
  51. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 104, 112.
  52. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228-230 and 233.
  53. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226.
  54. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  55. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:28, 34)
  56. ^ a b Jespersen (1897–1899:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
  57. ^ a b Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish - as from the stage of the Royal Theater - do we get a fricative."
  58. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors do not say where exactly it is used.
  59. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352-353.
  60. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  61. ^ a b Ogden (2009), p. 92.
  62. ^ a b Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  63. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:139)
  64. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 64-65.
  65. ^ a b Mott (2007), p. 112.
  66. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 141.
  67. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  68. ^ a b "UPSID r[F". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  69. ^ a b Yavuz & Balcı (2011), p. 25.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants () are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh, or retroflex. To disambiguate, the bridge ([s̪, t̪, n̪, l̪], etc.) may be used for a dental consonant, or the under-bar ([s̠, t̠, n̠, l̠], etc.) may be used for the postalveolars. Note that [s̪] differs from dental [θ] in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. [s̠] differs from postalveolar [ʃ] in being unpalatalized. The bare letters [s, t, n, l], etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. The language may not make such distinctions, such that two or more coronal places of articulation are found allophonically, or the transcription may simply be too broad to distinguish dental from alveolar. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used: [s͇, t͇, n͇, l͇], etc., though that could also mean extra-retracted. The letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called 'alveolar', and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.

(The Extended IPA diacritic was devised for speech pathology and is frequently used to mean "alveolarized", as in the labioalveolar sounds [p͇, b͇, m͇, f͇, v͇], where the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge.)

Alveolar fricative

The alveolar fricative may refer to:

Voiced alveolar fricative, a consonant sound written as ⟨z⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet

Voiceless alveolar fricative, a consonant sound written as ⟨s⟩ in the International Phonetic Alphabet

Braille pattern dots-2346

The Braille pattern dots-2346 ( ⠮ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the top right, middle left, and both bottom dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the top right, upper-middle left, and both lower-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+282e, and in Braille ASCII with an exclamation mark: !.

Catalan phonology

The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation. Although there are two standard dialects, one based on Eastern Catalan and one based on Valencian, this article deals with features of all or most dialects, as well as regional pronunciation differences. Various studies have focused on different Catalan varieties; for example, Wheeler (1979) and Mascaró (1976) analyze Central Eastern varieties, the former focusing on the educated speech of Barcelona and the latter focusing more on the vernacular of Barcelona, and Recasens (1986) does a careful phonetic study of Central Eastern Catalan.Catalan is characterized by final-obstruent devoicing, lenition, and voicing assimilation; a set of 7 or 8 phonemic vowels, vowel assimilations (including vowel harmony), many phonetic diphthongs, and vowel reduction, whose precise details differ between dialects. Several dialects have a dark l, and all dialects have palatal l (/ʎ/) and n (/ɲ/).

Central consonant

A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. The class contrasts with lateral consonants, in which air flows over the sides of the tongue rather than down its center.

Examples of central consonants are the voiced alveolar fricative (the "z" in the English word "zoo") and the palatal approximant (the "y" in the English word "yes"). Others are the central fricatives [θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ], the central approximants [ɹ ɻ j ɥ ɰ w ʍ], the trills [r ʀ], and the central flaps [ɾ ɽ].

The term is most relevant for approximants and fricatives (for which there are contrasting lateral and central consonants - e.g. [l] versus [ɹ] and [ɮ] versus [z]). Stops that have "lateral release" can be written in the International Phonetic Alphabet using a superscript symbol, e.g. [tˡ], or can be implied by a following lateral consonant, e.g. [tɬ]. The labial fricatives [f v] often—perhaps usually—have lateral airflow, as occlusion between the teeth and lips blocks the airflow in the center, but nonetheless they are not considered lateral consonants because no language makes a distinction between the two.

In some languages, the centrality of a phoneme may be indeterminate. In Japanese, for example, there is a liquid phoneme /r/, which may be either central or lateral, resulting in /ro/ produced as either [ɾo] or [lo].

Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is ⟨r⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R, rolling R, or trilled R. Quite often, ⟨r⟩ is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. That is partly for ease of typesetting and partly because ⟨r⟩ is the letter used in the orthographies of such languages.

In most Indo-European languages, the sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions include Albanian, Spanish, Cypriot Greek, and a number of Armenian and Portuguese dialects, which treat them as distinct phonemes. In a few languages, such as Batsbi, the tap is the vastly preferred allophone, to such a degree that it is treated as a phoneme whilst the trill is not.

People with ankyloglossia may find it exceptionally difficult to articulate the sound because of the limited mobility of their tongues.

Hasselt dialect

Hasselt dialect or Hasselt Limburgish (natively Essels or Hessels, Standard Dutch: Hasselts [ˈɦɑsəlts]) is the city dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Belgian city of Hasselt alongside the Dutch language. All of its speakers are bilingual with standard Dutch.

IPA Extensions

IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Both modern and historical characters are included, as well as former and proposed IPA signs and non-IPA phonetic letters. Additional characters employed for phonetics, like the palatalization sign, are encoded in the blocks Phonetic Extensions (1D00–1D7F) and Phonetic Extensions Supplement (1D80–1DBF). Diacritics are found in the Spacing Modifier Letters (02B0–02FF) and Combining Diacritical Marks (0300–036F) blocks.

With the ability to use Unicode for the presentation of IPA symbols, ASCII-based systems such as X-SAMPA or Kirshenbaum are being supplanted. Within the Unicode blocks there are also a few former IPA characters no longer in international use by linguists.

Kala language

Kala, also known as Kela, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 2200 people (in 2002) in several villages along the south coast of the Huon Gulf between Salamaua Peninsula and the Paiawa River, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The principal villages from north to south are: Manindala (also known as Kela), Lambu (also known as Logui), Apoze (also known as Laukanu), Kamiali (also known as Lababia), Alẽso (also known as Buso), and Kui. There are four dialects of Kala. The three southern villages share a dialect with very minor differences found in the village of Kui while each of the northern villages has its own dialect. Linguistically, Kala belongs to the North Huon Gulf languages and Kala-speakers appear to have arrived on the southern coast of the Gulf relatively recently, beginning perhaps as late as the 17th century (Bradshaw 1997).

SAMPA chart

The following show the typical symbols for consonants and vowels used in SAMPA, an ASCII-based system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that SAMPA is not a universal system as it varies from language to language.

Swenglish

Swenglish is a colloquial term meaning either:

The English language spoken or written heavily influenced by Swedish vocabulary, grammar, or syntax

The English language spoken with a heavy Swedish accent

Tinigua

Tinigua are the indigenous people who inhabited the river basin Yari, Caguan and today Caquetá Department of Colombia. In their language, Tinigua refers to the ancestors: tini probably meant “word of the ancients.”

Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is ⟨ɮ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is K\.

Zayin

Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin , Hebrew 'Zayin ז, Yiddish Zoyen ז, Aramaic Zain , Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound [z].

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek zeta (Ζ), Etruscan z , Latin Z, and Cyrillic Ze З.

Ze (Cyrillic)

Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiced alveolar fricative /z/, like the pronunciation of ⟨z⟩ in "zoo".

Ze is romanized using the Latin letter ⟨z⟩.

The shape of Ze is very similar to the Arabic numeral three ⟨3⟩ and the Cyrillic letter E ⟨Э⟩.

Zeni (letter)

Zeni (asomtavruli Ⴆ, nuskhuri ⴆ, mkhedruli ზ) is the 7th letter of the three Georgian scripts.In the system of Georgian numerals it has a value of 7.Zeni commonly represents the voiced alveolar fricative /z/, like the pronunciation of ⟨z⟩ in "zebra".

Ḏāl

Ḏāl (ذ, also be transcribed as dhāl) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being ṯāʾ, ḫāʾ, ḍād, ẓāʾ, ġayn). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents /ð/. In name and shape, it is a variant of dāl (د). Its numerical value is 700 (see abjad numerals). The Arabic letter ذ is named ذال ḏāl. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:

The South Arabian alphabet retained a symbol for ḏ, .

When representing this sound in transliteration of Arabic into Hebrew, it is written as ד׳.

This sound is found in English, as in the words "those" or "then". In English the sound is normally rendered "dh" when transliterated from foreign languages, but when it occurs in English words it is one of the pronunciations occurring for the letters "th".

IPA topics

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