Vlajka

Vlajka means flag in Czech. You may be after the flag article, or the flag of the Czech Republic.
Vlajka

Český národně socialistický tábor — Vlajka
LeaderJan Rys-Rozsévač
FounderMiloš Maixner
Founded1928
Dissolved1942 (banned)
NewspaperVlajka
Paramilitary wingSvatopluk's Guard
IdeologyCzech nationalism
National Socialism
Fascism
Antisemitism
Collaborationism
Political positionFar-right
Colours        

Český národně socialistický tábor — Vlajka (Czech National Socialist Camp — Vlajka) or simply Vlajka (in Czech The Flag) was the name of a small Czech fascist, antisemitic and nationalist movement, and its corresponding publication. The publication itself was founded in 1928, its first editor being Miloš Maixner. During the time of German occupation the organisation collaborated with the Nazis for which it was banned and its members were punished after the liberation.

History of Vlajka

The movement became politically active in the 1930s in the period of the Great depression, but never gained popularity as there were more established fascist parties in Czechoslovakia, such as the NOF, which even gained some seats in Parliament.

After the German occupation the organisation closely collaborated with the Nazi police institutions, such as the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst in order to eliminate communists, Jews and people closely connected with the previous Czechoslovak establishment. For that the organisation's existence was tolerated by Germans until 1942, even though there was only one officially permitted Czech political organisation, the National Partnership. The Vlajka became politically unacceptable after another traitor, Emanuel Moravec, was appointed the Minister of Education in the government of Protectorate in January 1942. He was often and openly criticized and fiercely denounced by Vlajka members for being a former legionary, an officer of the Czechoslovak Army and an alleged Freemason. At the end of 1942, Vlajka was disbanded and some of its leaders, including Jan Rys-Rozsévač, were held in the Dachau concentration camp as privileged prisoners. Though the party no longer existed, its former members continued to collaborate with the Gestapo and SD. Towards the end of the war they even formed the so called Voluntary Company of St. Wenceslaus, the only Waffen-SS unit composed of volunteers of Czech ethnicity (which nevertheless was never involved in the fight).

After the war, the leaders of Vlajka were subject to punishment of 5-20 years of imprisonment according to Beneš decree No. 16/1945 Coll.; mere membership was punishable by up to 1 year of imprisonment according to decree No. 138/1945 Coll. Four leaders of Vlajka and many other Vlajka members who caused the death of people through denunciation, were executed.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-CxE_tZV-13A/T8-tEHf1DpI/AAAAAAAAFRg/x_Cr2G7aVS4/s1600/Vlajka+Znaky.JPG

Further reading

  • Nakonečný, Milan (2001). Vlajka - K historii a ideologii českého nacionalismu. Praha: Chvojkovo nakladatelství. ISBN 80-86183-24-6.

External links

Alois Vocásek

Alois Vocásek (13 April 1896 – 9 August 2003) was the last surviving Czechoslovakian veteran of the First World War and the last survivor of the Battle of Zborov in Ukraine. He was one of thousands of Czechs and Slovaks who broke with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy to fight for the future Czechoslovak state as members of the Czechoslovak Legions. He was later controversial because of his membership in the Czech fascist/nationalist organisation Vlajka in the 1930s.He was the oldest member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the Czech Republic. He is buried at the Olšany Cemetery.

Balšić family tree

Paternal Balšić family members in bold.

Balša I (fl. 1356–1362)

Stracimir

Đurađ II Balšić

Balša III

Jelena (married herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača)

Vladislav Hercegović

Petar

Matija

Miklos

Ivan

Andrija

Tomaš

Unknown Daughter

Unknown Daughter

Vladislav Hercegović

Katarina, married King of Bosnia Stephen Thomas

Sigismund (Šimun) Kotromanić (converted to Islam and changed his name to Ishak-beg Kraljević (Ishak-bey Kraloglu))

Katarina Kotromanić

Vlatko Hercegović

Marija

Jovan Hercegović

Isabella

Sava

Vlatko

Giovanni

Vlatko

Elisabeta

Ferante

Unknown Son

Teodora (Dorotea)

Đurađ I with Olivera Mrnjavčević (first wife) and Teodora Dejanović Dragaš (second wife)

Jelisaveta (or Jelisanta)

Unknown Child

Jelena

Nikola

Jakov

Monćino

Dabiživ Monetić

Goisava

Jevdokija (Eudokia), married Esau de' Buondelmonti, ruler of Epirus 1385–1411)

Giorgio de' Buondelmonti, ruler of Epirus 1411

Konstantin (Košta) (married Helena Thopia, a daughter of Karl Thopia)

Stefan Balšić "Maramonte" (fl. 1419–40), pretender to Zeta

Đorđe

Đorđe

Another son

Jelena

Đurađ (illegitimate), his son Stefan Strez Balšić married Vlajka Kastrioti (Skanderbeg's sister) and had two sons: Ivan and Gojko who in 1444 were among the founders of the League of Lezhe.

Balša II married Comita Muzaka († 1392), daughter of Andrea II Muzaka, Despot of Berat)

Ruđina

Vojislava, married Karl Topia, the "Prince of Albania", with whom she had one son, Gjergj Thopia, Duke of Durazzo, and two daughters, Elena Thopia, Lady of Krujë, married Konstantin Balšić, and Vojislava

Czech tramping music

Tramping music (Czech: trampská hudba) and tramping song (Czech: trampská píseň, trampská písnička) are the styles of music and songs associated with Czech tramping recreational activity. Their sound is basically American country music transplanted into Czech language and culture, blended with Czech folk songs. In particular, Czech bluegrass music is a significant component of the tramping style.The style originated in the early 1900s, right after World War I, together with the tramping movement. While originally intended for singing on trail and by camp fire, concerts of tramp songs are popular both in various music venues and in private gatherings "off nature".

The CD series Nejhezčí české trampské písničky ("The Best Czech Tramping Songs") provides a selection of classic and popular songs in this style.

The unofficial "tramping anthem" of the old times is the song Vlajka ("The Flag", full title: Vlajka vzhůru letí, "The Flag Flies High") by Jenda Korda. The modern "tramping anthem" is Rosa na kolejích ("Dew on the Tracks") by Wabi Daněk.

Donika Kastrioti

Donika Kastrioti (née Andronika Arianiti-Muzaka) was an Albanian noblewoman and the spouse of George Kastrioti Skanderbeg. She was the daughter of Gjergj Arianiti, one of the greatest leaders in the Albanian war against the Ottoman Empire for more than two decades.

Flag of Moravia

An official appearance of the flag of Moravia, unlike the provincial Moravian coat of arms, does not exist, because such a flag has never been granted to Moravia. However, there are several documented variants of Moravian flags used in the past. The first recorded version dates from the mid-13th century.

Flag of Slovakia

The current form of the national flag of Slovakia (Slovak: Vlajka Slovenska) was adopted by Slovakia's Constitution, which came into force on 3 September 1992. The flag, in common with other Slavic nations, uses the colors white, blue, and red.

Flag of the Czech Republic

The national flag of the Czech Republic (Czech: státní vlajka České republiky) is the same as the flag of former Czechoslovakia. Upon the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic kept the Czechoslovak flag while Slovakia adopted its own flag. The first flag of Czechoslovakia was based on the flag of Bohemia and was white over red. This was almost identical to the flag of Poland (only the proportion was different), so a blue triangle was added at the hoist in 1920. The flag was banned by the Nazis in 1939, and a horizontal tricolour of white, red, and blue was enforced. The 1920 flag was restored in 1945.

František Mareš

František Mareš (October 20, 1857 – February 6, 1942) was a Czechoslovak professor of physiology and philosophy, and nationalist politician. He was rector of the Charles University in 1920-21, and member of the National Democrats.

Gojko Balšić

Gojko Balšić (Serbian: Гојко Балшић, Albanian: Gojko Balsha, Latin: Coico Balsa; fl. 1444) and his brothers George Strez and John were the lords of Misia, a coastal area from the White Drin towards the Adriatic. The brothers were members of the Serbian noble house of Balšić, which earlier held the Lordship of Zeta. They participated in founding the League of Lezhë, an alliance led by their maternal uncle Skanderbeg. Gojko supported Skanderbeg until the latter's death in 1468, and then continued to fight against the Ottomans within Venetian forces.

House of Kastrioti

The House of Kastrioti (Albanian: Dera e Kastriotit) was an Albanian royal and noble family, active in the 14th and 15th centuries as the rulers of the Principality of Kastrioti. The first Kastrioti mentioned in historical documents was a kephale of Kaninë in 1368. At the beginning of the 15th century the family controlled the region around Debar (modern westernmost North Macedonia and easternmost Albania) at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century. The most notable member was Skanderbeg, a magnate and general, regarded as an Albanian national hero. After the fall of the Principality and Skanderbeg's death in 1468 the Kastrioti family gave their allegiance to the Kingdom of Naples and were given control over the Duchy of San Pietro in Galatina and the County of Soleto in the Province of Lecce, Italy, where a maternal branch of the family still exists today as part of the Sanseverino family.

Jan Rys-Rozsévač

Jan Rys-Rozsévač (1 November 1901 in Bílsko u Hořic, Kingdom of Bohemia - 27 June 1946 in Pankrác Prison in Prague) was a Czechoslovakian journalist and politician and leader of fascist organisation Vlajka.

Jan Rozsévač began to study medicine at a university but didn't finish his studies. In 1936 he joined Vlajka (in Czech the flag), a nationalistic organisation founded in 1930. At the time he adopted pen name Jan Rys. Under this name he published books "Židozednářství - metla lidstva" (Jewish freemasonry - the scourge of humankind, 1938) and "Hilsneriáda a TGM" (Hilsner Affair and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, 1939). After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Vlajka was officially disbanded and Rys-Rozsévač imprisoned. He was released just before the rest of Czechoslovakia was occupied (15 March 1939) to become leader of Vlajka.

Rys-Rozsévač attempted to establish a mass fascist organization and helped to move Vlajka from traditional anti-German chauvinism to collaboration with Nazis and Gestapo. During 1939 - 1940 Vlajka organized mass meetings against politicians of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia as represented by Masaryk and Beneš. The German occupational authorities nevertheless decided to support a group of collaborators around Emanuel Moravec, his political competitor. Because of constant propaganda attacks on Moravec, Vlajka was disbanded at the end of 1942 and the leaders, including Rys-Rozsévač, were sent as privileged prisoners into the Dachau concentration camp and transferred to Tyrol at the end of the war, where he was liberated in early May 1945.

After the war Rys-Rozsévač and three his coworkers (Josef Burda, Jaroslav Čermák and Otakar Polívka) were sentenced to death, and several others to were sentenced to long term imprisonment. Rys-Rozsévač was hanged in Pankrác Prison.

List of fascist movements by country A–F

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

National Fascist Community

The National Fascist Community (Czech: Národní obec fašistická, NOF, sometimes translated as National Fascist League) was a Czechoslovak Fascist movement led by Radola Gajda, and based on the Fascism of Benito Mussolini.

National Unification (Czechoslovakia)

The National Unification (Czech: Národní sjednocení) was a political party created on 27 October 1934 in Czechoslovakia. The party was established by a merger of the Czechoslovak National Democracy and two marginal parties, National League and National Front.Party politically cooperated with the Vlajka movement. After German occupation of Czechoslovakia, party was merged into Party of National Unity.

Stanisha Kastrioti

Stanisha Kastrioti (Latin: Stanissa; fl. 1421–45) was an Albanian nobleman, a member of the Kastrioti family, and older brother of Skanderbeg.

His father Gjon Kastrioti was an Albanian lord who had possessions in the Mat region. His mother was Voisava, whose origin is disputed. It is unknown when Stanisha and his brothers were born, while his younger brother Skanderbeg is taken to have been born in 1405. He also had brothers Reposh and Kostandin, and five sisters, Mara, Jelena, Angelina, Vlajka and Mamica. The names of Stanisha and most of his siblings are Slavic. His father became an Ottoman vassal at the end of the 14th century, and as such, paid tribute and provided military services (like in the Battle of Ankara in 1402). In 1409, one of the brothers, believed by Anamali and Frashëri to have been Stanisha, was sent to the Ottoman court as a hostage, to ensure loyalty of Gjon Kastrioti as an Ottoman vassal to the sultan. Gjon accepted the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice in 1413, but was again in Ottoman vassalage by 1415. In the 1419–26 period Gjon was an ally of Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarević, who was also an Ottoman vassal, and had informed the Republic of Venice during the Second Scutari War (1419–23) between Venice and Serbia that he was compelled to give his son as a hostage to Despot Stefan. According to Fan Noli it was Stanisha who was sent by his father, together with auxiliary forces, to help the Serbians against the Venetians at Scutari.Gjon issued a charter in Old Serbian to the Serbian Orthodox Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos in 1425–26, in which he donated the two villages of Radostuša (which included a church) and Trebište to the Hilandar, and mentioned his four sons by name. In a charter issued by Hilandar between 1426 and 1431, the monastery granted the temporary purchase by Gjon and his sons, except Stanisha, to four adelphates (rights to reside on monastic territory and receive subsidies from monastic resources) of the St. George tower (later named the "Albanian tower" in their honour). Scholars have noticed that Stanisha was not mentioned in this second charter, and considered that he was Turkified immediately after 1426, likely around 1428. That claim is however not supported by documents. It was also believed that he "disappeared", however, it was found that he was mentioned as the son of deceased Gjon Kastrioti in a Venetian document dated 12 February 1445. That document does not bring any conclusion as to the possible Turkification of Stanisha. The Venetian government confirmed the earlier duties held by the father of Skanderbeg and Stanisha, and promised them Venetian citizenship and shelter if they were to be expelled from their lands.

Stefan Maramonte

Stefan Balšić (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Балшић; fl. 1419-40), known as Stefan Maramonte, was a Zetan nobleman. He was the son of Konstantin Balšić and Helena Thopia. After Konstantin's death (1402), Helena entered the Republic of Venice and then lived with her sister Maria. Since Maria was married to Phillip Maramonte, the Venetians and Ragusans often referred to Stefan Balšić with the name Maramonte. He was initially a close associate to Zetan lord Balša III (r. 1403-1421), being his vassal. Balša III and Stefan fought against the Republic of Venice, and Stefan helped in the administration of the land as co-ruler with Balša III, he did however not succeed Balša III. Balša III, who died on 28 April 1421, had decided to pass the rule of Zeta to his uncle, the Serbian Despot Stefan Lazarević. When the Second Scutari War between Venice and Despot Stefan began, he [...]. Stefan left Apulia in the summer of 1426, seeking to take Zeta. During the 1427–28 conflict, Maramonte went to the Ottoman court where he sought the support of Sultan Murad II for his appointment as the Lord of Zeta. There, he met Skanderbeg, who was a hostage at the Ottoman court. Maramonte married Vlajka Kastrioti, the sister of Skanderbeg. Supported by the Ottomans, Maramonte, accompanied by Gojčin Crnojević and Little Tanush, plundered the region around Scutari and Ulcinj, and attacked Drivast in 1429, but failed to capture it. Since his attempts failed, Maramonte surrendered to the Venetians and served as their military officer in the campaigns in Flanders and Lombardia.

Viktor Dyk

Viktor Dyk (Czech pronunciation: [ˈvɪktor ˈdɪk]) (31 December 1877 – 14 May 1931) was a nationalist Czech poet, prose writer, playwright, politician and political writer. He was sent to jail during the First World War for opposing the Austro-Hungarian empire. He was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of Czech writers. Dyk co-founded a political party and entered politics. He died at age 53, leaving his many poems, plays and writings.

Voisava

Voisava (fl. 1402–05) was the wife of Gjon Kastrioti (fl. 1386–d. 1437), an Albanian nobleman with whom she had nine children, one of whom was the most powerful Albanian nobleman in history, regarded a national hero, George Kastrioti "Skanderbeg" (1405–1468). She is mentioned in passing in two sources from the start of the 16th century. The first source, a biography on her son, mentions her as the daughter of a "Triballian nobleman", which is interpreted as her being Serbian, modern scholars pointing to the Branković dynasty. Her name is Slavic, as are several of her children's names.

Đurađ I Balšić

Đurađ Balšić (Serbian Cyrillic: Ђурађ Балшић), also known as Đurađ I (Ђурађ I) was the Lord of Zeta between 1362 and 13 January 1378. He was the eldest of the three sons of Balša I, and belonged to the Balšić family.

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