Vladimir Tributs (1900-1977)
|Born||July 28, 1900|
St. Petersburg, Russia
|Died||August 30, 1977 (aged 77)|
|Allegiance|| Russian SFSR|
|Years of service||1918-1961|
|Commands held||Baltic Fleet|
|Battles/wars||Russian Civil War, World War II|
|Awards||Order of Lenin - twice|
Order of the October Revolution
Order of Ushakov - twice
Order of the Red Banner - four times
Order of Nakhimov
Order of the Red Star
Born in 1900 in Saint Petersburg, Tributs joined the Navy in 1918 and during the Russian Civil War participated in combat actions on the Volga and in the Caspian. He graduated and received his commission from M.V. Frunze Higher Naval School in 1926 and graduated from the Naval Academy in 1932. From 1932 to 1936 he served on ships of the Baltic Fleet (the battleships Parizhskaya Kommuna and Marat) and commanded the destroyer Yakov Sverdlov. From February 1938 to April 1939 Tributs served as the Chief of Staff of the Baltic Fleet and from April 1939 to 1947 he commanded it.
As war approached, Tributs observed the growing evidence of hostile German activity with apprehension; in the summer of 1940, he "advanced Baltic Fleet headquarters from its historic seat at the Kronstadt fortress in Leningrad to the port of Tallinn, two hundred miles to the west" despite his worries about security problems and the difficulty of constructing a new base. On June 19 he put the Baltic Fleet up to "Readiness No. 2" state, which meant fueling the ships and putting their crews on alert, and late on the evening of June 21 (the eve of the German invasion) he moved to "Readiness No. 1" state, which was fully operational. On August 17, the defense of Leningrad was placed in his hands.
A leading navy commander during the Siege of Leningrad, Tributs led the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, organized military operations in defense of the ports of Kronstadt and Oranienbaum during 1941-1943, and arranged counterattacks by naval aircraft of the Baltic Fleet defending Leningrad from aerial bombing attacks. His active involvement in the defense of Leningrad helped to save the city from still more destruction, but failed to save the suburban palaces of the Tsars, such as the Peterhof Palace, from destruction by the Nazis.
From March 1946 until May 1947 he commanded the 8th Fleet (Baltic Fleet). On May 28, 1947 he was made Deputy Chief of the troops of the Far East for the Navy. In June 1948, was recalled to Moscow. In September 1948 - January 1949 - The head of the military and naval schools and senior naval officer in Leningrad. In March, 1949 - December 1951 - Head of the Hydrographic Department of the Navy of the USSR. In June and September 1948 and January–March 1949 remained at the disposal of the Commander in Chief.
Tributs retired in February 1961 and, turning to military history after his retirement, he produced over 50 works including military histories of the Baltic Fleet and its operations during the Second World War.
The Baltic Sea Campaigns were conducted by Axis and Allied naval forces in the Baltic Sea, its coastal regions, and the Gulf of Finland during World War II. After early fighting between Polish and German forces, the main combatants were Germany and Finland, opposed by the Soviet Union. Sweden's navy and merchant fleet played important roles, and the British Royal Navy planned Operation Catherine for the control of the Baltic Sea and its exit choke point into the North Sea.
While operations included surface and sub-surface combat, aerial combat, amphibious landings, and support of large-scale ground fighting, the most significant feature of Baltic Sea operations was the scale and size of mine warfare, particularly in the Gulf of Finland. The warring parties laid over 60,000 naval mines and anti-sweep obstacles, making the shallow Gulf of Finland one of the most densely mined waters in the world.Destruction battalions
Destruction battalions, colloquially istrebitels (истребители, "destroyers", "exterminators") abbreviated: istrebki (Russian), strybki (Ukrainian) were paramilitary units under the control of NKVD in the western Soviet Union, which performed tasks of internal security on the Eastern Front and after it. After the Fall of the Soviet Union the battalions were deemed to be a criminal organisation by Estonian government.Eestirand
SS Eestirand (Estonian Coast), built in 1910, was an Estonian steel-hulled cargo steamship. She was one of the largest ships in her class at the time and served as the mother-ship of the first Estonian herring expeditions in the 1930s. In World War II she served as a Soviet Navy transport vessel and was subsequently sunk in 1941 near Prangli Island during the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn.Gulf of Riga campaign
The Gulf of Riga campaign was fought by the Soviet Navy against the Kriegsmarine during Operation Barbarossa in 1941.Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin"
The Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" (Russian: Юбилейная медаль В ознаменование 100-летия со дня рождения Владимира Ильича Ленина») was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on November 5, 1969 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Lenin. Its statute was amended on July 18, 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. It was awarded to eminent members of Soviet society, the military leadership and foreign members of the international communist and labour movements.List of Russian people
This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.
Regardless of ethnicity or emigration, the list includes famous natives of Russia and its predecessor states, as well as people who were born elsewhere but spent most of their active life in Russia. For more information, see the articles Rossiyane, Russians and Demographics of Russia. For specific lists of Russians, see Category:Lists of Russian people and Category:Russian people.Russian Hydrographic Service
The Russian Hydrographic Service, full current official name Department of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Russian: Управление навигации и океанографии Министерства обороны Российской Федерации), is Russia's hydrographic office, with responsibility to facilitate navigation, performing hydrographic surveys and publishing nautical charts.
Since the Russian state is of such a vast size and nature that it includes many different seas, long and indented coastlines and a great number of islands, as well as a complex system of waterways and lakes, surveying has been an indispensable activity for the Russian Navy since its modernization at the time of Czar Peter the Great in the 17th century. The hydrographic service has been historically attached to the Russian Navy and the agents and supervisors of hydrographic works have been largely naval officers throughout its history.
Russia is a member of the International Hydrographic Organization.Siege of Leningrad
The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: Блокада Ленинграда) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad (Modern Saint Petersburg) on the Eastern Front in World War II. The Finnish army invaded from the north, co-operating with the Germans until they had recaptured territory lost in the recent Winter War, but refused to make further approaches to the city.
The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road to the city was severed. Although the Soviet forces managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the siege was not lifted until 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. It was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history, and possibly the costliest in casualties suffered. Some historians classify it as genocide.Soviet evacuation of Tallinn
The Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, also called Tallinn disaster or Russian Dunkirk, was a Soviet operation to evacuate the 190 ships of the Baltic Fleet, units of the Red Army, and pro-Soviet civilians from the fleet's encircled main base of Tallinn in Soviet-occupied Estonia during August 1941.Soviet forces had occupied Estonia in June 1940. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union began on 22 June 1941, German forces advanced rapidly through the Soviet-occupied Baltic states, and by the end of August the Estonian capital of Tallinn was surrounded by German forces, while a large part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet was bottled up in Tallinn harbour.
In expectation of a Soviet breakout, the Kriegsmarine and the Finnish Navy had started on 8 August 1941 to lay minefields off Cape Juminda on the Lahemaa coast. While Soviet minesweepers tried to clear a path for convoys through the minefields, German coastal artillery installed a battery of 150 mm (5.9 in) guns near Cape Juminda and the Finnish navy gathered their 2nd Motor Torpedo Boat Flotilla with patrol boats VMV9, VMV10, VMV11 and VMV17. At the same time the German 3. Schnellbootflottille with E-boats S-26, S-27, S-39, S-40 and S-101 was concentrated at Suomenlinna outside Helsinki. German Junkers Ju 88 bombers from Kampfgruppe 806 based on airfields in Estonia were put on alert. On 19 August the final German assault on Tallinn began.
During the night of 27/28 August 1941 the Soviet 10th Rifle Corps disengaged from the enemy and boarded transports in Tallinn.
The embarkation was protected by smoke screens, however, the mine-sweeping in the days before the evacuation began was ineffective due to bad weather, and there were no Soviet aircraft available for protecting the embarkation. This, together with heavy German shelling and aerial bombardment killed at least 1,000 of the evacuees in the harbour.Yevgeny Nikonov
Yevgeny Alexandrovich Nikonov (Russian: Евге́ний Алекса́ндрович Ни́конов; 18 December 1920 – 19 August 1941, in Harku, Estonia) was a Russian war hero martyred during the Soviet defense of Estonia in 1941. He is a holder of the Hero of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union's highest award.