Viverra

Viverra is a mammalian genus that was first nominated and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 as comprising several species including the large Indian civet (V. zibetha).[1] The genus was subordinated to the viverrid family by John Edward Gray in 1821.[2]

Viverra
Viverra zibetha ras
Illustration of Viverra zibetha
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Viverra

Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Characteristics

Viverra species are distinguished externally from the other genera of the Viverrinae by the structure of the fore feet: the third and fourth digits have lobes of skin, which act as protective sheaths for the retractile claws. The pads the feet are surrounded by hair. They have a long and narrow skull, with narrow, nearly parallel-sided, not strongly constricted waist. Their postorbital processes are small and a little in front of the middle point between the tip of the premaxillae in front and of the occipital crest behind. The sagittal crest is moderately strong in adults. The sub-orbital portion of the cheek is comparatively short. The suture between the anterior bone of the zygomatic arch and the maxilla is much shorter than the median length of the nasals, than half the length of the cheek-teeth, and than the width across the occipital condyles. This width exceeds the length of the compound auditory bulla.[3]

Living species

Name Distribution Image
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha) Linnaeus, 1758 Southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya in Nepal, Bhutan and northeastern India to Southeast Asia[4] Large Indian Civet, Viverra zibetha in Kaeng Krachan national park
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) Gray, 1832 Sumatra, Bangka Island, Borneo, the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago, and the Philippines[5] Malay civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) Blyth, 1862 Western Ghats in India[6]
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila) Blyth, 1862 Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and China[7] Large-spotted Civet (Viverra megaspila)

References

  1. ^ Linnaei, C. (1758). "Viverra". Caroli Linnæi Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. (Editio decima, reformata ed.). Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii. pp. 43–44.
  2. ^ Gray, J. E. (1821). "On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals". London Medical Repository. 15 (1): 296–310.
  3. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Genus Viverra Linnaeus". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 344–354.
  4. ^ Timmins, R. J.; Duckworth, J. W.; Chutipong, W.; Ghimirey, Y.; Willcox, D. H. A.; Rahman, H.; Long, B. & Choudhury, A. (2016). "Viverra zibetha". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41709A45220429. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41709A45220429.en. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  5. ^ Duckworth, J. W.; Mathai, J.; Wilting, A.; Holden, J.; Hearn, A. & Ross, J. (2016). "Viverra tangalunga". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41708A45220284. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41708A45220284.en. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  6. ^ Mudappa, D.; Helgen, K. & Nandini, R. (2016). "Viverra civettina". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T23036A45202281. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T23036A45202281.en. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  7. ^ Timmins, R.; Duckworth, J. W.; WWF-Malaysia; Roberton, S.; Gray, T. N. E.; Willcox, D. H. A.; Chutipong, W. & Long, B. (2016). "Viverra megaspila". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T41707A45220097. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41707A45220097.en. Retrieved 30 October 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Abyssinian genet

The Abyssinian genet (Genetta abyssinica), also known as the Ethiopian genet, is a genet species native to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, and Djibouti. It is listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. It is one of the least-known genet species.

African civet

The African civet (; Civettictis civetta) is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.The African civet is primarily nocturnal and spends the day sleeping in dense vegetation, but wakes up at sunset. It is a solitary mammal with a unique coloration: the black and white stripes and blotches covering its coarse pelage are an effective cryptic pattern. The black bands surrounding its eyes closely resemble those of the raccoon. Other distinguishing features are its disproportionately large hindquarters and its erectile dorsal crest. It is an omnivorous generalist, preying on small vertebrates, invertebrates, eggs, carrion, and vegetable matter. It is capable of killing venomous invertebrates and snakes. Prey is primarily detected by smell and sound rather than by sight. It is the sole member of its genus.

African palm civet

The African palm civet (Nandinia binotata), also known as the two-spotted palm civet, is a small feliform mammal widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Civet

A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which was obtained a musky scent used in perfumery. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

A minority of writers use "civet" to refer only to Civettictis, Viverra and Viverricula civets. But in more common usage in English, the name also covers Chrotogale, Cynogale, Diplogale, Hemigalus, Arctogalidia, Macrogalidia, Paguma, and Paradoxurus civets.

Egyptian mongoose

The Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon), also known as ichneumon, is a mongoose species native to the Iberian Peninsula, coastal regions along the Mediterranean Sea between North Africa and Turkey, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands in Africa. Because of its widespread occurrence, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Genet (animal)

A genet (pronounced or ) is a member of the genus Genetta, which consists of 14 to 17 species of small African carnivorans.

Genet fossils from the Pliocene have been found in Morocco. The common genet is the only genet present in Europe and occurs in the Iberian Peninsula and France.

Large-spotted civet

The large-spotted civet (Viverra megaspila) is a viverrid native to Southeast Asia that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Large Indian civet

The large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha) is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The global population is considered decreasing mainly because of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas, notably in China, and the heavy trade as wild meat.

List of mammals of India

This is a list of mammals found in India. The taxonomic order is based on Wilson and Reeder (1993) and this list is largely based on Nameer (2000)

The mammals of India ranges in size from the Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) to the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Many of the carnivores and larger mammals are restricted in their distribution to forests in protected areas, while others live within the cities in the close proximity of humans.

Some species are common to the point of being considered vermin while others are exceedingly rare. Many species are known from just a few specimens in museums collected in the 19th and 20th centuries. These enigmatic species include nocturnal small mammals such as the Malabar civet (Viverra megaspila). While the status of many of these species is unknown, some are definitely extinct. Populations of many carnivores are threatened. The tiger (Panthera tigris), dhole (Cuon alpinus), fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), Malabar large-spotted civet (Viverra civettina) and Himalayan wolf (Canis himalayensis) are some of the most endangered species of carnivore. Two species of rhinoceros are extinct within the Indian region but the remaining species has its last stronghold within India. The Asiatic cheetah has officially gone extinct in India in the 1950s.

List of species in order Carnivora

This list contains the species in order Carnivora.

List of species protected by CITES Appendix III

This is a list of species of plants and animals protected by Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, commonly abbreviated as CITES. There are no fungi listed in any appendix.

List of species protected by CITES Appendix I

List of species protected by CITES Appendix II

Malabar large-spotted civet

The Malabar large-spotted civet (Viverra civettina), also known as the Malabar civet, is a viverrid endemic to the Western Ghats of India. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the population is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals, with no subpopulation greater than 50 individuals.

In the early 1990s, isolated populations still survived in less disturbed areas of South Malabar but were seriously threatened by habitat destruction and hunting outside protected areas.It is known as Kannan chandu and Male meru in Kerala വെരുക് (veruk) in Malayalam, and in Karnataka as Mangala kutri, Bal kutri and Dodda punugina.

Malayan civet

The Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga), also known as the Malayan civet and Oriental civet, is a viverrid native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago, and the Philippines. It is listed as "Least Concern" by IUCN as it is a relatively widely distributed, appears to be tolerant of degraded habitats, and occurs in a number of protected areas.

Rusty-spotted genet

The rusty-spotted genet (Genetta maculata), also called panther genet and large-spotted genet, is a genet that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is considered common and therefore listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Small Indian civet

The small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.The small Indian civet is a monotypic genus.

Viverra leakeyi

Viverra leakeyi, also known as Leakey's civet or the giant civet, is an extinct species of civet. Its fossils have been found in Africa, from Langebaanweg, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and the Omo Valley.

Viverridae

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids (), comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Members of this family are commonly called civets or genets. Viverrids are found in South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line, all over Africa, and into southern Europe. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Viverrinae

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Extant Carnivora species

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.