Vittorio Alfieri

Count Vittorio Alfieri (Italian: [vitˈtɔːrjo alˈfjɛːri]; 16 January 1749 – 8 October 1803) was an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy."[1]

Vittorio Alfieri
Alfieri painted in Florence, 1793
Alfieri painted in Florence, 1793
BornVittorio Amedeo Alfieri
16 January 1749
Asti, Kingdom of Sardinia
Died8 October 1803 (aged 54)
Florence
Resting placechurch of Santa Croce, Florence
Occupationdramatist, poet
Genretragedy

Signature
Alfieri firma

Early life

Alfieri was born at Asti, Kingdom of Sardinia, now in Piedmont.

His father died when he was very young, and he was brought up by his mother, who married a second time, until, at the age of ten, he was placed in the academy of Turin. After a year at the academy, he went on a short visit to a relative at Coni (mod. Cuneo). During his stay there he composed a sonnet chiefly borrowed from lines in Ariosto and Metastasio, the only poets he had at that time read. At thirteen, Alfieri began the study of civil and canon law, but this only made him more interested in literature, particularly French romances. The death of his uncle, who had taken charge of his education and conduct, left him free, at the age of fourteen, to enjoy his paternal inheritance, augmented by the addition of his uncle's fortune. He began to attend a riding-school, where he acquired an enthusiasm for horses and equestrian exercise that continued for the rest of his life.[2]

Having obtained permission from the king to travel abroad, he departed in 1766, under the care of an English tutor. Seeking novelty in foreign cultures, and being anxious to become acquainted with the French theatre, he proceeded to Paris, but he appears to have been completely dissatisfied with everything he witnessed in France and did not like the French people. In the Netherlands he fell in love with a married woman, but she went with her husband to Switzerland. Alfieri, depressed by the incident, returned home and again began studying literature. Plutarch's Lives inspired him with a passion for freedom and independence. He recommenced his travels; and his only gratification, in the absence of freedom among the continental states, came from contemplating the wild and sterile regions of the north of Sweden, where gloomy forests, lakes and precipices encouraged his sublime and melancholy ideas. In search of an ideal world, Alfieri passed quickly through various countries. During a journey to London he engaged in an intrigue with Lady Penelope Ligonier, a married woman of high rank. The affair became a widely publicised scandal and ended in a divorce that ruined Lady Ligonier and forced Alfieri to leave the country. He then visited Spain and Portugal, where he became acquainted with the Abbe Caluso, who remained through life the most attached and estimable friend he ever possessed. In 1772, Alfieri returned to Turin. This time he fell for the Marchesa Turinetti di Prie, but it was another doomed affair. When she fell ill, he spent his time dancing attendance on her, and one day wrote a dialogue or scene of a drama, which he left at her house. When the couple quarreled, the piece was returned to him, and being retouched and extended to five acts, it was performed at Turin in 1775, under the title of Cleopatra.[2]

Literary career

Alfieri - Opere, 1809 - 5992622 RAVE003586 00008
Frontispiece for Works by Alfieri, 1809 edition

From this moment Alfieri was seized with an insatiable thirst for theatrical fame, to which he devoted the remainder of his life. His first two tragedies, Filippo and Polinice, were originally written in French prose. When he came to versify them in Italian, he found that, because of many dealings with foreigners, he was poor at expressing himself. With the view of improving his Italian, he went to Tuscany and, during an alternate residence at Florence and Siena, he completed Filippo and Polinice, and had ideas for other dramas. While thus employed, he became acquainted with Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, also known as the Countess of Albany, who was living with her husband, Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"), at Florence. For her he formed a serious attachment. With this motive, to remain at Florence, he did not wish to be bound to Piedmont. He therefore ceded his whole property to his sister, the countess Cumiana, keeping for himself an annuity that was about half his original income. Louise, motivated by the ill-treatment she received from her husband, sought refuge in Rome, where she at length received permission from the Pope to live apart from him. Alfieri followed her to Rome, where he completed fourteen tragedies, four of which were published at Siena.[2]

For the sake of Louise's reputation, he left Rome, and, in 1783, travelled through different states of Italy, publishing six additional tragedies. The interests of his love and literary glory had not diminished his love of horses. He went to England solely for the purpose of purchasing a number of these animals, which he took back to Italy. On his return he learned that Louise had gone to Colmar in Alsace, where he joined her, and they lived together for the rest of his life. They chiefly passed their time between Alsace and Paris, but at length took up their abode entirely in that metropolis. While here, Alfieri made arrangements with Didot for an edition of his tragedies, but was soon after forced to quit Paris by the storms of the French Revolution. He recrossed the Alps with the countess, and finally settled at Florence. The last ten years of his life, which he spent in that city, seem to have been the happiest of his existence. During that long period, his tranquillity was only interrupted by the entrance of the Revolutionary armies into Florence in 1799. Though an enemy of kings, the aristocratic feeling of Alfieri rendered him also a decided foe to the principles and leaders of the French Revolution. He rejected with contempt advances made to bring him over to their cause. He spent the concluding years of his life studying Greek literature and perfecting a series of comedies. His labor on this subject exhausted his strength and made him ill. He eschewed his physicians prescriptions in favor of his own remedies, which made the condition worse. He died in Florence in 1803.[3] His last words were "Clasp my hand, dear friend, I am dying."

Character

Alfieri's character may be best appreciated from the portrait he drew of himself in his own Memoirs of his Life.[4][5] He was evidently of an irritable, impetuous, and almost ungovernable temper. Pride, which seems to have been a ruling sentiment, may account for many apparent inconsistencies of his character. But his less amiable qualities were greatly softened by the cultivation of literature. His application to study gradually tranquillized his temper and softened his manners, leaving him at the same time in perfect possession of those good qualities he inherited from nature: a warm and disinterested attachment to his family and friends, united to a generosity, vigour and elevation of character, which rendered him not unworthy to embody in his dramas the actions and sentiments of Grecian heroes.[6]

Contribution to Italian literature

It is to his dramas that Alfieri is chiefly indebted for the high reputation he has attained. Before his time the Italian language, so harmonious in the Sonnets of Petrarch and so energetic in the Commedia of Dante, had been invariably languid and prosaic in dramatic dialogue. The pedantic and inanimate tragedies of the 16th century were followed, during the Iron Age of Italian literature, by dramas of which extravagance in the sentiments and improbability in the action were the chief characteristics. The prodigious success of the Merope of Maffei, which appeared in the commencement of the 18th century, may be attributed more to a comparison with such productions than to intrinsic merit. In this degradation of tragic taste the appearance of the tragedies of Alfieri was perhaps the most important literary event that had occurred in Italy during the 18th century.[6]

On these tragedies, it is difficult to pronounce a judgment, as the taste and system of the author underwent considerable change and modification in the intervals between the three periods of their publication. An excessive harshness of style, an asperity of sentiment and total want of poetical ornament are the characteristics of his first four tragedies, Filippo, Polinice, Antigone, and Virginia. These faults were in some measure corrected in the six tragedies he wrote some years after, and in those he published along with Saul, the drama that enjoyed the greatest success of all his productions. This popularity is partly attributable to Alfieri's severe and unadorned style, which fit the patriarchal simplicity of the age. Though there is a considerable difference in his dramas, there are certain qualities common to them all. None of the plots are of his own invention, but are founded either on mythological fable or history. Most of them had been previously treated by the Greek dramatists or by Seneca. Rosmunda, the only one that could be of his own contrivance, and which is certainly the least happy effusion of his genius, is partly founded on the eighteenth novel of the third part of Bandello and partly on Prevost's Memoires d'un homme de qualite.[6]

Another characteristic common to every Alfieri's tragedy is that the main character is always a tragic "hero of freedom", whose ambition and need of revolution push him to fight tyranny and oppression wherever they exist. Usually, this is accomplished in the most radical manner, up to killing the tyrant and face the death himself afterwards. This desire of freedom always bring the hero in a dimension of solitude, pessimism and internal torment, but he keeps going despite knowing that the majority of the people around him can't understand or share his views and struggles, or that his goals are almost impossible to reach. This concept is called titanism.

But whatever subject he chooses, his dramas are always formed on the Grecian model, and breathe a freedom and independence worthy of an Athenian poet. Indeed, his Agide and Bruto may rather be considered oratorical declamations and dialogues on liberty than tragedies. The unities of time and place are not so scrupulously observed in his as in the ancient dramas, but he has rigidly adhered to a unity of action and interest. He occupies his scene with one great action and one ruling passion, and removes from it every accessory — event or feeling. In this excessive zeal for the observance of unity he seems to have forgotten that its charm consists in producing a common relation between multiplied feelings, and not in the bare exhibition of one, divested of those various accompaniments that give harmony to the whole. Consistently with the austere and simple manner he thought the chief excellence of dramatic composition, he excluded from his scene all coups de theatre, all philosophical reflexions, and that highly ornamented versification so assiduously cultivated by his predecessors. In his anxiety, however, to avoid all superfluous ornament, he has stripped his dramas of the embellishments of imagination; and for the harmony and flow of poetical language he has substituted, even in his best performances, a style that, though correct and pure, is generally harsh, elaborate and abrupt; often strained into unnatural energy or condensed into factitious conciseness. The chief excellence of Alfieri consists in powerful delineation of dramatic character. In his Filippo he has represented, almost with the masterly touches of Tacitus, the sombre character, the dark mysterious counsels, the suspensa semper et obscura verba, of the modern Tiberius. In Polinice, the characters of the rival brothers are beautifully contrasted; in Maria Stuarda, that unfortunate queen is represented unsuspicious, impatient of contradiction and violent in her attachments. In Mirra, the character of Ciniro is perfect as a father and king, and Cecri is a model of a wife and mother. In the representation of that species of mental alienation where the judgment has perished but traces of character still remain, he is peculiarly happy. The insanity of Saul is skilfully managed; and the horrid joy of Orestes in killing Aegisthus rises finely and naturally to madness in finding that, at the same time, he had inadvertently slain his mother.[6]

Whatever may be the merits or defects of Alfieri, he may be considered as the founder of a new school in the Italian drama. His country hailed him as her sole tragic poet; and his successors in the same path of literature have regarded his bold, austere and rapid manner as the genuine model of tragic composition.[6]

Besides his tragedies, Alfieri published during his life many sonnets, five odes on American independence, one tramelogedia (Abele) and the poem of Etruria, founded on the assassination of Alexander, duke of Florence. Of his prose works the most distinguished for animation and eloquence is the Panegyric on Trajan, composed in a transport of indignation at the supposed feebleness of Pliny's eulogium. The two books entitled La Tirannide and the Essays on Literature and Government are remarkable for elegance and vigour of style, but are too evidently imitations of the manner of Machiavelli. His Antigallican, which was written at the same time with his Defence of Louis XVI, comprehends an historical and satirical view of the French Revolution. The posthumous works of Alfieri consist of satires, six political comedies and the Memoirs of his Life, work that will always be read with interest, in spite of the cold and languid gravity he applies to the most interesting adventures and strongest passions of his agitated life.[6]

Death

Alfieri caught a "chill on his stomach" while out driving on 3 October 1803. His health deteriorated and he died in his chair on 8 October. He was buried in the church of Santa Croce, Florence. Louise arranged for Antonio Canova to erect a monument in his memory. This took 6 years to be executed, being finally installed in Santa Croce in the autumn of 1810.[7][a]

Notes

  1. ^ Louise died on 29 January 1824 and was also buried in Santa Croce, with a monument by Charles Percier.[8]

Sources

Vaughan, Herbert M, The Last Stuart Queen, 1st edition, Brentano's, 1911

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Beach, Chandler B., ed. (1914). "Alfieri" . The New Student's Reference Work . Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.
  2. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911, p. 580.
  3. ^ Chisholm 1911, pp. 580-581.
  4. ^ "Memoirs of the life and writings of Victor Alfieri; written by himself. Translated from the Italian". London: Henry Colburn. 1810.
  5. ^ "Review of Vita di Vittorio Alfieri, &c. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Victor Alfieri, written by himself and The Tragedies of Vittorio Altieri, translated by Charles Lloyd". The Quarterly Review. 14: 333–368. January 1816.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, p. 581.
  7. ^ Vaughan, pp 246-252
  8. ^ Vaughan, p 338

References

Attribution:

External links

Abele (opera)

Abele is an Italian play inspired on the first Bible's chapters by Vittorio Alfieri (1749–1803) which he described as a tramelogedia. It was written in 1786 and first published after Alfieri's death in 1804 in London. The play's characters can be divided in two groups:

The first group includes the firsts earth's residents after the creation (Adam, Eva, Cain and Abel) and the second group represents the spiritual beings (God, Beelzebub, Sin, Envy, Death, Angels and Demons).

Alfieri

Alfieri is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alex Alfieri (born 1971), Italian neurosurgeon and professor

Anastase Alfieri (1892–1971), Italian entomologist

Benedetto Alfieri (1700–1767), Italian architect

Carmine Alfieri (born 1943), Italian Camorra boss

Cesare Alfieri di Sostegno (1799–1869), Italian politician and diplomat

Dino Alfieri (1886–1966), Italian fascist politician

Edoardo Alfieri (1913–1998), Italian sculptor

Blessed Enrichetta Alfieri (1891-1951) - Italian Roman Catholic professed religious

Francesco Alfieri, 17th-century master of swordsmanship

Giulio Alfieri (1924–2002), Italian automobile engineer

Martino Alfieri (1590–1641), Apostolic Nuncio to Cologne from 1634 to 1639Nick Alfieri, American football linebacker

Pietro Alfieri (1801–1863), Roman Catholic priest and Camaldolese monk

Richard Alfieri (born 1948), American playwright, screenplay writer, novelist, producer, and actor

Victor Alfieri (born 1971), American actor and writer

Vittorio Alfieri (1749–1803), Italian dramatist and poet

Vittorio Luigi Alfieri (1863–1918), Italian military officer

Asti

Asti (UK: AST-ee, US: AH-stee, Italian: [ˈasti] (listen); Piedmontese: Ast [ˈɑst]) is a city and comune of 76,164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about 55 kilometres (34 miles) east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River. It is the capital of the province of Asti and it is deemed to be the modern capital of Montferrat.

Benedetto Alfieri

Benedetto Innocenzo Alfieri (8 June 1699 - 9 December 1767) was an Italian architect, a representative of the late-Baroque or Rococo style.

Bianca Milesi

Bianca Milesi Mojon (May 22, 1790 – June 8, 1849) was an Italian patriot, writer and painter.

Bianca Milesi was born into a family of wealthy merchants in Milan, daughter of Giovan Battista Milesi and Elena Viscontini. She had four sisters, Antoinette, Francesca, Agostina, Louise, and a brother, Charles, who would join in marriage with his cousin Elena Viscontini, sister of Matilda. She was brought up from six to ten years in a convent in Florence, in Milan in the monasteries of St. Sophia and the Holy Spirit, and finally with a governess. A journey made together with her mother in Tuscany and Switzerland gave her the opportunity to broaden her horizons and study the philosophy of the Enlightenment.

Even after returning to Milan, she continued to travel, periodically visiting Florence and Rome. In Florence he met the Countess of Albany Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, who had been the mistress of Vittorio Alfieri. In Rome she came into relationship with Antonio Canova and the German painter Sophie Reinhard.

She had a leading role in the Carbonari uprisings in Milan in 1821. She later went on to become a drawer and painter, and taught at schools, particularly training girls to become interested in the arts. She died in Paris on June 8, 1849.

Charles Lloyd (poet)

Charles Lloyd II (12 February 1775 – 16 January 1839), poet, was a friend of Charles Lamb, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Thomas de Quincey. His best-known poem is "Desultory Thoughts in London".

Diodata Saluzzo Roero

Diodata Saluzzo Roero (1774–1840) was an Italian poet, playwright and author of prose fiction. Her work drew praise from such figures as Tommaso Valperga di Caluso, Giuseppe Parini, Ludovico di Breme, Alessandro Manzoni, Vittorio Alfieri and Ugo Foscolo, and her life served as an inspiration for the protagonist in Germaine de Staël's 1807 Corinne.Diodata Saluzzo was born in Turin to Jeronima Cassotti di Casalgrasso and Giuseppe Angelo Saluzzo di Monesiglio, a well-known scientist. In 1795 She became one of the first women to be admitted to the Accademia degli Arcadi, and the following year released her first collection of poems. In 1799 she married the count Massimiliano Roero di Revello, but on his death three years later returned to live with her family. A collection of her romantic short stories on historical themes was published in 1830. Of these the best known is Il Castello di Binasco, a novella based on the second marriage and execution of Beatrice di Tenda, first published in Raccoglitore in 1819.Diodata Saluzzo Roero died in Turin in 1840.

François-Xavier Fabre

François-Xavier Fabre (1 April 1766 – 16 March 1837) was a French painter of historical subjects.

Born in Montpellier, Fabre was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David, and made his name by winning the Prix de Rome in 1787.During the French Revolution, Fabre went to live in Florence, becoming a member of the Florentine Academy, where he taught painting. The friends he made in Italy included the dramatist, Vittorio Alfieri, whose widow, Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Countess of Albany, he is said to have married. On Louise's death in 1824, he inherited her fortune, which he used to found an art school in his home town. On his own death, he bequeathed his own art collection to the town, forming the basis of the Musée Fabre.Fabre began his training in the Montpellier's art academy, where he spent several years prior to joining Jacques-Louis David's studio in Paris. His studies were paid for by the financier and art collector, Philippe-Laurent de Joubert. Philippe-Laurent was the father of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert. Fabre painted a portrait of Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert, which is now in the Getty Museum. Fabre gained popularity in Florence. The city's Italian aristocrats and tourists were drawn to his elegance, realism, and precision of his portraits. This popularity earned Fabre a place in the Florentine Academy. He became an art teacher, art collector, and art dealer in Florence.Fabre's works include The Dying Saint Sebastian (1789), The Judgment of Paris (1808), and The Death of Narcissus (1814).

Among his pupils in Florence was Emilio Santarelli.

Gaetano Polidori

Gaetano Fedele Polidori (1763–1853) was an Italian writer and scholar living in London. He was the son of Agostino Ansano Polidori (1714–78), a physician and poet who lived and practised in his native Bientina, near Pisa, Tuscany.

Polidori studied law at the University of Pisa. He became secretary to the tragedian Vittorio Alfieri in 1785 and remained with him four years.

He came to England from Paris in 1790 after resigning as Alfieri's secretary. He settled in London, working as an Italian teacher and translator. He translated various literary works, notably, John Milton's Paradise Lost and Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, besides other writings of Milton and Lucan. He wrote prolifically, producing his own fiction, poetry, criticism, and tragedies.

He also set up a private press at his home in London, where amongst other works (mostly his own), he printed the first editions of some poems by his grandchildren, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Christina Rossetti.

He also printed an edition of the poem Osteologia, which his father Agostino Ansano Polidori had written in 1763.

He retired to a house in Holmer Green, Buckinghamshire in 1836.

Giovanni Andolfati

Giovanni Andolfati was a 19th-century Italian actor, active in northern Italy, including Bologna, Parma, and Milano. He was the son of Pietro Andolfati.

His wife Natalina was often an artist in the same plays. Even his father played a role in some of his plays. They played at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan; the Teatro del Corso and of Arena del Sole in Bologna; the Obizzi theater in Padua; as well as theaters in Perugia and Faenza. His company specialized in comedies by Carlo Goldoni, and plays such as La moglie saggia, Le tre Zelinde, Pamela nubile, in Ottavia and in Antigone by Vittorio Alfieri and the Galeotto Manfredi by Vincenzo Monti. Giovanni, through excessive gambling, became penniless, and his company broke up by 1827. Giovanni and his wife were reduced to work for the company of the actress Carolina Internari. Natalina soon died of typhus after 1828. Andolfati also worked for the company of N. Medoni in 1834, as did his daughter Annetta.

Italian Neoclassical and 19th-century art

From the second half of the 18th century through the 19th century, Italy went through a great deal of socio-economic changes, several foreign invasions and the turbulent Risorgimento, which resulted in the Italian unification in 1861. Thus, Italian art went through a series of minor and major changes in style.

The Italian Neoclassicism was the earliest manifestation of the general period known as Neoclassicism and lasted more than the other national variants of neoclassicism. It developed in opposition to the Baroque style around c.1750 and lasted until c.1850. Neoclassicism began around the period of the rediscovery of Pompeii and spread all over Europe as a generation of art students returned to their countries from the Grand Tour in Italy with rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. It first centred in Rome where artists such as Antonio Canova and Jacques-Louis David were active in the second half of the 18th century, before moving to Paris. Painters of Vedute, like Canaletto and Giovanni Paolo Panini, also enjoyed a huge success during the Grand Tour. Neoclassical architecture was inspired by the Renaissance works of Palladio and saw in Luigi Vanvitelli and Filippo Juvarra the main interpreters of the style.

Classicist literature had a great impact on the Risorgimento movement: the main figures of the period include Vittorio Alfieri, Giuseppe Parini, Vincenzo Monti and Ugo Foscolo, Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni (nephew of Cesare Beccaria), who were also influenced by the French Enlightenment and German Romanticism. The virtuoso violinist Paganini and the operas of Rossini, Donnizetti, Bellini and, later, Verdi dominated the scene in Italian classical and romantic music.

The art of Francesco Hayez and especially that of the Macchiaioli represented a break with the classical school, which came to an end as Italy unified (see Italian modern and contemporary art). Neoclassicism was the last Italian-born style, after the Renaissance and Baroque, to spread to all Western Art.

Montferrat

Montferrat (UK: , US: ; Italian: Monferrato [moɱferˈraːto]; Piedmontese: Monfrà [mʊŋˈfrɑ]; Latin: Mons Ferratus) is part of the region of Piedmont in Northern Italy. It comprises roughly (and its extent has varied over time) the modern provinces of Alessandria and Asti. Montferrat is one of the most important wine districts of Italy. It also has a strong literary tradition, including the 18th century Asti-born poet and dramatist Vittorio Alfieri and the Alessandrian Umberto Eco.

The territory is cut in two by the river Tanaro. The northern part (the Basso Monferrato, "Low Montferrat"), which lies between that river and the Po, is an area of rolling hills and plains. The southern part (the Alto Monferrato, "High Montferrat") rises from the banks of the Tanaro into the mountains of the Apennines and the water divide between Piedmont and Liguria.

On 22 June 2014, Montferrat was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Oriani-class destroyer

The Oriani class (also known as the Poeti class), were a group of four destroyers built for the Italian Navy in the late 1930s. They were a repeat of the Maestrale-class destroyers, but had increased machinery power and a different anti-aircraft armament. The increase in power, however, disappointed in that there was only a marginal speed improvement. The obsolete 40 mm/39 pom-pom anti-aircraft guns were finally discontinued, being replaced by extra 13.2 mm (0.52 in) machine guns; otherwise armament was unchanged. Significant upgrades were made to the weapons systems of the two ships that survived Matapan, similar to those made to the Maestrales. One torpedo tube mounting was replaced by two 37 mm (1.5 in)/54 guns; 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon, a 120 mm star-shell gun and depth charge throwers were also installed. Before the end of the war, one ship, Oriani had German Seetakt radar and an additional 20 mm cannon.

Piazza Santa Croce

Piazza Santa Croce is one of the main plazas or squares located in the central neighborhood of Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

It is located near piazza della Signoria and the National Central Library, and takes its name from the Basilica of Santa Croce that overlooks the square.

Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern

Princess Louise Maximilienne Caroline Emmanuele of Stolberg-Gedern (20 September 1752 – 29 January 1824) was the wife of Charles Edward Stuart, the Jacobite claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. She is commonly called the Countess of Albany.

Saul (Alfieri)

Saul is a theatrical tragedy in five acts, written by Vittorio Alfieri in 1782, in which the eponymous protagonist simultaneously embodies the tragic heroism of both tyrant and victim. This play marks the high point of Italian tragedy and pre-romantic poetry.

Teatro Alfieri, Castelnuovo di Garfagnana

The Teatro Alfieri is a 19th-century theatre and opera house in the town of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, region of Tuscany, Italy.

The theater was erected in 1860, commissioned by the local Counts Luigi and Giovanni Carli. The latter also aided in the design along with Antonio Vittoni. It was originally dedicated to Vittorio Emanuele II, and it acquired its present name, in honor of the playwright Vittorio Alfieri, following the establishment of the republic after the war. Another Alfieri theater was once found in Florence, and another in Asti. At one time, the theater sponsored regular opera seasons, but then changed to film performances after the War, and finally closed. It was purchased by the Town Council of Castelnuovo, and reopened in 2006.

Torre dei Gianfigliazzi

The Torre dei Gianfigliazzi is a Romanesque-style medieval tower-residence located on Via de' Tornabuoni #1 in central Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. It can be seen rising adjacent to the left of the church of Santa Trinita. It now hosts a hotel.

Vittorio

Vittorio is an Italian male given name taken from the male name Victor.

People with the given name Vittorio include:

Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, pretender to the former Kingdom of Italy

Vittorio Adorni, professional road racing cyclist

Vittorio Alfieri, dramatist and poet

Vittorio Brambilla (1937–2001) Italian Formula One racing driver

Vittorio Caprioli, actor, director and screenwriter

Vittorio Cecchi Gori (born 1942), Italian film producer and politician

Vittorio Cottafavi, director and screenwriter

Vittorio De Seta, director and screenwriter

Vittorio De Sica (1901–1974), Italian director and actor

Vittorio Gallinari, basketball player

Vittorio Gassman, actor and director

Vittorio Giannini, neoromantic composer of operas

Vittorio Giardino, comic artist

Vittorio Goretti, astronomer

Vittorio Grigolo, operatic tenor

Vittorio Grilli, Italian economist and academic

Vittorio Gui, conductor and composer

Vittorio Iannuzzo, motorcycle racer

Vittorio Marzotto, racing driver

Vittorio Mezzogiorno, actor

Vittorio Missoni, Italian fashion designer and former CEO of Missoni

Vittorio Monti, composer, violinist and conductor

Vittorio Mussolini, film critic and producer

Vittorio Pozzo, football coach

Vittorio Sentimenti, Italian football player

Vittorio Sgarbi, art critic and politician

Vittorio Storaro, cinematographer

Vittorio Taviani, director and screenwriter

Vittorio Vidali, politician

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