Visual Works (Japanese: 株式会社ヴィジュアルワークス Hepburn: Kabushiki gaisha Vijuaru Wākusu) is a Japan-based CGI animation studio dedicated towards creating video game cut scenes and full-length feature films for Square Enix. Visual Works was founded as the CGI department for Square and was responsible for creating the pre-rendered CG openings for the company, starting with Final Fantasy VII in 1997.
Beginning with Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children (2005) the company began to work on stand-alone CGI films, continuing with Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV (2016). After the acquisition of Taito and Eidos Interactive by Square Enix, Visual Works branched out their functionality to create cinematic scenes for Square Enix's acquired publishing brands, whilst continuing to primarily work on Square Enix's in-house properties. Visual Works are assisting Square Enix with the lighting and cinematic direction of the Kingdom Hearts franchise for the high definition entries.
The corporate logo used by Visual Works.
|Kabushiki gaisha Vijuaru Wākusu|
|Industry||CGI animation for film, CGI animation for video games, Visual effects|
Number of locations
|Kazuyuki Ikumori (director)|
|Products||Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children|
Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV
|Parent||Square Enix Holdings|
Visual Works was founded as a subsidiary CGI production company for Japanese video game developer and publisher Square around 1997. The company's first project was the 1997 Final Fantasy VII. They have continued to produce video game scenes for the company, remaining a subsidiary after the merger of Square and Enix into Square Enix in 2003, and expanding to more video game franchises and genres after the acquisitions by Square Enix of Taito and Eidos Interactive.
In 2005, Visual Works produced their first stand-alone project, the feature-length CGI film Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children. They produced a second stand-alone film, Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV, in 2016.
The studio's creative freedom in creating cutscenes varies from project to project. Director Kazuyuki Ikumori explained in 2015 that some projects allow them complete freedom to decide the direction of the scenes and where they best fit, while others more narrowly define for the studio the length and location of the scene and how it begins and ends. Some projects also consult with the studio on which scenes work better as interactive scenes than passive cutscenes. Visual Works does not try to have different styles based on if a game originates in Japan or Western countries, such as for former Eidos properties, but instead try to match the style of the game series or development studio. Ikumori noted that that for some series, such as those by Crystal Dynamics or IO Interactive, they receive a lot of detail about the feeling of the scenes, which they take as a starting point, but for others such as Final Fantasy they know the series so well that they can easily match the developers' intent. Ikumori credits this last to his previous work as a map and character designer for the Final Fantasy series.
Visual Works uses motion capture to design the movements of their CGI characters; Ikumori has described the process as being "really about the center of balance and that transition of balance" than about the exact motions. Especially for more fantasy-oriented series, they use the motion capture data as a basis to overlay with more exaggerated, "flashy" movements that still reflect the way the characters normally move.
Ah Pook Is Here was a collaboration between author William S. Burroughs and artist Malcolm Mc Neill. It began in 1970, when Burroughs was living in London and Mc Neill was in his final year of art school. It first appeared under the title The Unspeakable Mr. Hart as a comic strip in the English Cyclops. When that magazine ceased publication, Burroughs and Mc Neill decided to develop the concept as a book.
After a year of research and preliminary design the text of the book had expanded from 11 pages to 50, and a complete mockup had been produced. By this point, the work had been renamed Ah Puch Is Here in reference to the Mayan Death God. Straight Arrow Books in San Francisco agreed to publish the proposed work in 1971 as a "Word/Image novel" which was to comprise 120 pages, some of integrated text and image, some of text alone and some which featured only pictures.
In 1973, Mc Neill moved to San Francisco from London to finish the project. However, the small advance offered by the publisher made any more than a few months of working full-time on the project impossible, and when Straight Arrow closed in 1974 the book was without a publisher. Nevertheless, Mc Neill moved to New York in 1975 to rejoin Burroughs and continue the work. They were unable to find another publisher and after seven years on and off, the project was finally abandoned. It was subsequently published in 1979 (by John Calder and Viking Penguin) in text form only under the original title of Ah Pook Is Here.
After 30 years the original visual works were resurrected and restored by Mc Neill for a West Coast showing at Track 16 Gallery in Santa Monica, CA, April 4th to May 2nd, 2009 and a December 2008 showing in New York at Saloman Arts Gallery.
Burroughs reads from Ah Pook Is Here on his 1990 recording Dead City Radio; this recording, in turn, formed the soundtrack to the animated short Ah Pook Is Here directed by Philip Hunt and featured music by John Cale.Aniplex
Aniplex Inc. (株式会社アニプレックス, Kabushiki-gaisha Anipurekkusu) is a Japanese anime and music production company owned by Sony Music Entertainment Japan and established in September 1995. Aniplex has been involved in the planning, production and distribution of several anime series, such as Fullmetal Alchemist, Blood: The Last Vampire, Persona 4: The Animation, Birdy the Mighty, Angel Beats!, Rurouni Kenshin, Charlotte, and Black Butler. Additionally, Aniplex produces and distributes music and soundtrack records, including the original soundtracks for all of Sony Computer Entertainment's computer and video games.
Aniplex is also involved in retail merchandising, producing toys, games, stationery, food and other items featuring popular characters. In addition, Aniplex puts together events to promote their anime franchises. For example, in 2005 Aniplex held the Fullmetal Alchemist Festival which began with the Fullmetal Alchemist Tour at Universal Studios Japan.
Originally known as Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) Visual Works Inc., it was established on September 1995 as a joint-venture between Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and Sony Music Entertainment Japan, and changed its name in January 2001 to Sony Music Entertainment (SME) Visual Works Inc. after becoming a subsidiary completely owned by Sony Music Entertainment Japan. In April 2003, it changed its name to Aniplex Inc.In 2004, Aniplex launched the Sugi Label, which releases the works of Koichi Sugiyama—the composer of the music for Dragon Quest, but since 2009 it was sold to King Records.
In March 2005, the company established its Santa Monica, California-based North American subsidiary Aniplex of America, and later that same year in May 2005, it established its own animation studio called A-1 Pictures.Autores.uy
autores.uy is an author's database, created and maintained by the Uruguayan chapter of Creative Commons, with the support and collaboration of the Biblioteca Nacional de Uruguay, the Biblioteca del Poder Legislativo de Uruguay and the National Museum of Visual Arts of Uruguay. It has been declared of cultural interest by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Uruguay. Its main goal is to provide information regarding the copyright status of Uruguayan authors to identify whose works are in the Public Domain, and to digitize and socialize those works. Likewise, the platform allows online access to written and visual works in the public domain.
As of December 2017, the database had more than 13,000 indexed authors.Copyright infringement
Copyright infringement (colloquially referred to as piracy) is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is typically the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement.
Copyright infringement disputes are usually resolved through direct negotiation, a notice and take down process, or litigation in civil court. Egregious or large-scale commercial infringement, especially when it involves counterfeiting, is sometimes prosecuted via the criminal justice system. Shifting public expectations, advances in digital technology, and the increasing reach of the Internet have led to such widespread, anonymous infringement that copyright-dependent industries now focus less on pursuing individuals who seek and share copyright-protected content online, and more on expanding copyright law to recognize and penalize, as indirect infringers, the service providers and software distributors who are said to facilitate and encourage individual acts of infringement by others.
Estimates of the actual economic impact of copyright infringement vary widely and depend on many factors. Nevertheless, copyright holders, industry representatives, and legislators have long characterized copyright infringement as piracy or theft – language which some U.S. courts now regard as pejorative or otherwise contentious.Dokkiri Doctor
Dokkiri Doctor (どっきりドクター, Dokkiri Dokutā), also known as Startling Doctor or Dr. Dokkiri, is a manga series by Fujihiko Hosono, serialized from 1981 to 1982 in Shōnen Sunday. It was later adapted into a 27-episode anime television series by Studio Pierrot, originally broadcast on Fuji TV from 1998 to 1999 and later translated and broadcast in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South-East Asia, South Asia, and other regions, by the Animax television network.Eyal Sivan
Eyal Sivan (Hebrew: אייל סיון) is an Israeli documentary filmmaker, theoretician and scholar based in Paris, France.Kai Doh Maru
Kai Doh Maru (怪童丸, Kaidōmaru) is an original video animation (OVA) anime directed by Kanji Wakabayashi and produced by the Japanese animation studios Production I.G. and SME Visual Works. It was released on December 19, 2001 in Japan and on July 29, 2003 in the United States by Manga Entertainment. In Australia, it is distributed on DVD by Madman Entertainment.Lee Ranaldo
Lee Mark Ranaldo (born February 3, 1956) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, guitarist, writer, visual artist and record producer, best known as a co-founder of the alternative rock band Sonic Youth. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Ranaldo at number 33 on its "Greatest Guitarists of All Time" list. In May 2012, Spin published a staff selected top 100 guitarist list, ranking Ranaldo and his Sonic Youth bandmate Thurston Moore together at number 1.Lis Rhodes
Lis Rhodes (born 1942) is a British artist and feminist filmmaker, known for her density, concentration, and articulate sense of poetry in her visual works. She has been active in the UK since the early 1970s.List of Dragon Quest media
Dragon Quest is a series of role-playing video games created by Yuji Horii and his studio, Armor Project, which are published by Square Enix (formerly Enix). The first game of the series was released in Japan in 1986 on the Nintendo Entertainment System, and Dragon Quest games have subsequently been localized for markets in North America, Europe and Australia, on over a dozen video game consoles. In addition to traditional role-playing games, the series includes first-person adventure games, portable games, massively multiplayer online role-playing games, and games for mobile phones. Dragon Quest is Square Enix's second most successful franchise internationally behind the Final Fantasy franchise, having sold over 64 million units worldwide to date. It has been termed "Japan's most popular series" and "Japan's favorite series" by many video game publications.The original game in the series, renamed Dragon Warrior outside Japan, was released in 1986 in Japan and 1989 in North America. Dragon Quest games are released in Japan and, until 2004's Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, were later localized for the North American market under the Dragon Warrior title. That game was also the first main series game to be released outside Japan and North America. In addition to the 11 games released as part of the main (numbered) series and their many spin-offs and related titles, the Dragon Quest series has spawned many works in other media including anime, movies, novels and manga, and radio dramas. Many games, particularly the main series, have soundtrack album releases featuring their music in different arrangements. Square Enix has also consistently released companion books for its games, which provide additional backstory and plot information, as well as detailed walkthroughs. The majority of the games and media related to the series have only been released in Japan.Metropolitan Museum of Manila
The Metropolitan Museum of Manila (nicknamed the Met) is one of the major museums in the city located within the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) Complex along Roxas Boulevard in the Malate district of Manila, the Philippines. It bills itself as the country's premier museum for modern and contemporary visual arts by local and international artists.Established in 1976, the Met initially exhibited international artists to expose Filipinos to contemporary visual works in other cultures. By 1986, its focus shifted to local works and extend its reach to more common people by offering bilingual exhibition texts and developing several outreach educational programs like workshops and symposia, thereby promoting local pride and identity. The museum offers free admission on Tuesdays and free guided tours of the main exhibit on Saturday afternoons. Partly subsidized by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the administration of the museum was entrusted to the Metropolitan Museum of Manila Foundation in 1979.The museum's three floors of galleries house a collection of art and historical artifacts loaned by the BSP such as pre-Hispanic goldwork and pottery, religious artwork as well as some artworks by Félix Resurrección Hidalgo. The rest of the museum is dedicated to Philippine contemporary works by various Filipino artists.Read or Die
R.O.D: Read or Die (リード・オア・ダイ, Rīdo Oa Dai) is a series of light novels written by the Japanese author and artist Hideyuki Kurata, published under Shueisha's Super Dash Bunko imprint. Read or Die follows Yomiko Readman, codename "The Paper", an agent for the (fictitional) Special Operations Division of the British Library. There are currently 11 Read or Die novels. In volume 11, a note stated that the series would end with the upcoming volume 12. In of June 2016, it was announced via Twitter that volume 12 would be released in August, and that there would be a volume 13.Along with the novels, Kurata scripted the official R.O.D manga illustrated by Shutaro Yamada, which was originally published in Ultra Jump magazine and later printed into four paperback volumes, and Read or Dream, a manga illustrated by Ran Ayanaga set in the same universe as Read or Die.
The popularity of the Read or Die novels and manga resulted in the production of Read or Die (OVA) in 2001, which was directed by Koji Masunari and produced by SME Visual Works. In 2003, Aniplex produced R.O.D the TV, a 26-episode animated television series, which served as a sequel to the OVA and introduced Read or Dream's characters to those from Read or Die.
25 February 2012, a new manga called R.O.D Rehabilitation started in the Super Dash & Go magazine, the story tells of a city created by Bibliomania, Bibliopolis.On August 22, 2016, the twelfth light novel was announced, slated for release on August 26. The possibility of a new R.O.D anime was also hinted at in the announcement.Russell Haswell
Russell Haswell (born 1970, Coventry) is a multidisciplinary artist.He has exhibited conceptual and wall-based visual works, video art, public sculpture, as well as audio presentations in both art gallery and concert hall contexts. Extreme Computer Music is one specialized area of activity. An ongoing collaboration (2003 +) with Florian Hecker working with Iannis Xenakis' graphic-input 'UPIC Music Composing System' is one project, the recorded results have been presented in the form of multi channel electroacoustic diffusion sessions, for example for the Frieze Art Fair. He has collaborated with: Aphex Twin, Jake and Dinos Chapman, Florian Hecker, Earth, Popol Vuh, Kjetil Manheim, Carsten Höller, Mika Vainio, Carl Michael von Hausswolff, Masami Akita, Peter Rehberg, Zbigniew Karkowski, Gescom, Yasunao Tone and Whitehouse.
In 2002 his debut compact disc Live Salvage 1997–2000 (Mego) received Prix Ars Electronica Honorable Mention for Digital Musics. In 2005 and 2006 he curated two London-based All Tomorrow's Parties club events, entitled 'Easy to Swallow', intended for the "broad-minded" the events showcased: Carl Michael von Hausswolff, Yasunao Tone + Hecker, Mark Stewart and the Maffia, Aphex Twin, Whitehouse, Surgeon + Regis Present: British Murder Boys, Lee Dorrian, Pita, Earth, Autechre, Robert Hood (ex-Underground Resistance).
In 2009 he contributed a cover of the Wild Planet song "Cabasa Cabasa" to the Warp20 (Recreated) compilation.Scene (filmmaking)
In filmmaking and video production, a scene is generally thought of as the action in a single location and continuous time. Due to the ability to edit recorded visual works, it is much shorter than a stage play scene.
Because of their frequent appearance in films, some types of scenes have acquired names, such as love scene, sex scene, nude scene, dream scene, action scene, car chase scene, crash scene, emotional scene, fight scene, tragedy scene etc. There is usually an opening scene and a closing scene.
A scene is a part of a film, as well as an act, a sequence (longer or shorter than a scene), and a setting (usually shorter than a scene). While the terms refer to a set sequence and continuity of observation, resulting from the handling of the camera or by the editor, the term scene refers to the continuity of the observed action - an association of time, place or characters. The term may refer to the division of the film from the screenplay, from the finished film, or it may only occur in the mind of the spectator who is trying to close on a logic of action. For example, parts of an action film at the same location, that play at different times can also consist of several scenes. Likewise, there can be parallel action scenes at different locations usually in separate scenes, except that they would be connected by media such as telephone, video, etc.
In contrast, the traditional movie script was divided into acts, but those categories are less frequently used in the digital technology. The scene is important for the unity of the action of the film, while a stage drama is typically divided into acts. The division of a movie into scenes is usually done in the script. Some action scenes need to be planned very carefully.Square (company)
Square Co., Ltd. (株式会社スクウェア, Kabushiki-gaisha Sukuwea) was a Japanese video game company founded in September 1986 by Masafumi Miyamoto. It merged with Enix in 2003 to form Square Enix. The company also used SquareSoft as a brand name to refer to their games, and the term is occasionally used to refer to the company itself. In addition, "Square Soft, Inc" was the name of the company's American arm before the merger, after which it was renamed to "Square Enix, Inc".São Paulo Museum of Image and Sound
The São Paulo Museum of Image and Sound (in Portuguese, Museu da Imagem e do Som de São Paulo, or MIS) is a public museum of audio-visual works, established in 1970 and located in São Paulo, Brazil. The museum was founded as a result of a project conducted in the 1960s by Brazilian intellectuals, such as Ricardo Cravo Albin, Paulo Emílio Salles Gomes and Rudá de Andrade, with the purpose of endowing the country with institutions devoted to studying and documenting works of the new media that had been ignored by traditional museums.The museum is housed in a 5,000 square meters building in Pinheiros district, inaugurated in 1975. During the 1970s and 1980s, the museum had an active role as a center of artistic diffusion and education-related activities, becoming an important reference for studies on the Brazilian audio-visual production.
The museum's collection includes more than 350,000 entries. It comprises films (shorts, features, and documentaries), videos, records, photographs, works of graphic design, etc. The museum keeps an important program of transcription and documentation of oral tradition and the LabMIS, a research and production center for new media with an artist-in-residence program.