Vision Zero

Vision Zero is a multi-national road traffic safety project that aims to achieve a highway system with no fatalities or serious injuries involving road traffic. It started in Sweden and was approved by their parliament in October 1997.[1] A core principle of the vision is that 'Life and health can never be exchanged for other benefits within the society' rather than the more conventional comparison between costs and benefits, where a monetary value is placed on life and health, and then that value is used to decide how much money to spend on a road network towards the benefit of decreasing how much risk.[2]

Principles

Vision Zero is based on an underlying ethical principle that "it can never be ethically acceptable that people are killed or seriously injured when moving within the road transport system."[4] As an ethics-based approach, Vision Zero functions to guide strategy selection and not to set particular goals or targets. In most road transport systems, road users bear complete responsibility for safety. Vision Zero changes this relationship by emphasizing that responsibility is shared by transportation system designers and road users.[4]

Speed limits

Vision Zero suggests the following "possible long term maximum travel speeds related to the infrastructure, given best practice in vehicle design and 100% restraint use".[5] These speeds are based on human and automobile limits. For example, the human tolerance for a pedestrian hit by a well-designed car is approximately 30 km/h (19 mph). If a higher speed in urban areas is desired, the option is to separate pedestrian crossings from the traffic. If not, pedestrian crossings, or zones (or vehicles), must be designed to generate speeds of a maximum of 30 km/h (19 mph). Similarly, the inherent safety of well-designed cars can be anticipated to be a maximum of 70 km/h (43 mph) in frontal impacts, and 50 km/h (31 mph) in side impacts. Speeds over 100 km/h (62 mph) can be tolerated if the infrastructure is designed to prevent frontal and side impacts.

Possible Maximum Travel Speeds
Type of infrastructure and traffic Possible travel speed (km/h)
Locations with possible conflicts between pedestrians and cars 30 km/h (19 mph)
Intersections with possible side impacts between cars 50 km/h (31 mph)
Roads with possible frontal impacts between cars, including rural roads[6] 70 km/h (43 mph)
Roads with no possibility of a side impact or frontal impact (only impact with the infrastructure) 100 km/h (62 mph)+

"Roads with no possibility of a side impact or frontal impact" are sometimes designated as Type 1 ( motorways/freeways/Autobahns ), Type 2 ("2+2 roads") or Type 3 ("2+1 roads").[7] These roadways have crash barriers separating opposing traffic, limited access, grade separation and prohibitions on slower and more vulnerable road users. Undivided rural roads can be quite dangerous even with speed limits that appear low by comparison. In 2010, German rural roads, which are generally limited to 100 km/h (62 mph), had a fatality rate of 7.7 deaths per billion-travel-kilometers, higher than the 5.2 rate on urban streets (generally limited to 50 km/h (31 mph)), and far higher than the autobahn rate of 2.0; autobahns carried 31% of motorized road traffic while accounting for 11% of Germany's traffic deaths.[8]

Implementation

Canada

In December 2015, the Canadian injury prevention charity Parachute presented the Vision Zero concept, with Road Safety Strategist Matts Belin of Sweden, to nearly 100 road safety partners.[9]

In November 2016, Parachute hosted a one-day national road safety conference focused on Vision Zero goals and strategies, attended by leaders in health, traffic engineering, police enforcement, policy and advocacy.[10]

From that, the Parachute Vision Zero Network was formed, comprising more than 250 road safety advocates and practitioners, law enforcement, government and municipalities.[11] The network serves to provide a one-stop Canadian destination to connect these stakeholders with one other, and with information and resources to help communities address road safety challenges, using proven solutions.[12]

The second Parachute Vision Zero Summit was held in October 2017, attended by network members and politicians, including Ontario Transportation Minister Steven Del Duca.[13]

Another organization, Vision Zero Canada (visionzero.ca) launched their national campaign in December 2015.[14]

Efforts in Canadian cities:

  • Edmonton: On September 22, 2015 Edmonton City Council announced that it was "the first Canadian city to officially adopt Vision Zero." Its Road Safety Strategy 2016-2020 moves "towards zero fatal and major-injury collisions" but does not include a target of zero deaths or major injuries. The targets for the strategy are decreased rates of 1) overall injury collisions, and 2) collisions at intersections.[15]
  • Vancouver: On April 5, 2016 Vancouver City Council endorsed Vision Zero by directing staff to report back on a strategy for zero traffic-related fatalities and serious injuries.[16]
  • Toronto: On June 13, 2016 Toronto Mayor John Tory announced a plan to reduce the number of people killed and seriously injured in traffic by 20 per cent within a decade. In the face of public outcry, he recanted later in the day, and agreed to strive for zero deaths within five years.[17]
  • Ottawa: On July 5, 2017, Ottawa ordered its transportation committee to produce a report with an updated action plan using principles set out in Vision Zero.[18]
  • Surrey: On November 27, 2017, Public Safety Committee endorsed adoption of the Vision Zero philosophy as a basis for Surrey's Safe Mobility Plan.[19]

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the sustainable safety approach differs from Vision Zero in that it acknowledges that in the majority of accidents humans are to blame, and that roads should be designed to be "self-explaining" thus reducing the likelihood of crashes. Self-explaining roads are easy to use and navigate, it being self-evident to road users where they should be and how they should behave.[20] The Dutch also prevent dangerous differences in mass, speeds and/or directions from mixing. Roundabouts create crossings on an otherwise 50 or 50 km/h (31 mph) road that are slow enough, 30 km/h (19 mph), to permit pedestrians and cyclists to cross in safety. Mopeds, cyclists and pedestrians are kept away from cars on separate paths above 30 km/h (19 mph) in the built up area. Buses are also often given dedicated lanes, preventing their large mass from conflicting with low mass ordinary cars.

More recently the Dutch have introduced the idea that roads should also be "forgiving", i.e. designed to lessen the outcome of a traffic collision when the inevitable does occur, principles which are at the core of both the Dutch and Swedish policies.[21]

Sweden

In 1997 the Swedish Parliament introduced a "Vision Zero" policy that requires that fatalities and serious injurious are reduced to zero by 2020. This is a significant step change in transport policy at the European level. All new roads are built to this standard and older roads are modified.

Fatalities in Sweden
source Eurostat[22]

United Kingdom

Transport appraisal in the United Kingdom is based on New Approach to Appraisal which was first published in 1998 and updated in 2007. In 2006 the Stockholm Environment Institute wrote a report at the request of the UK Department for Transport titled 'Vision zero: Adopting a Target of Zero for Road Traffic Fatalities and Serious Injuries'.[23] In 2008 the Road Safety Foundation published a report proposing on UK road safety which referenced Vision Zero.[21] The Campaign for Safe Road Design is a partnership between 13 UK major road safety stakeholders that is calling for the UK Government to invest in a safe road infrastructure which in their view could cut deaths on British roads by 33%. In 2007 Blackpool was the first British City to declare a vision zero target. In 2014 Brighton & Hove adopted vision zero in its 'Safer Roads' strategy, predicated on the safe systems approach, alongside the introduction of an ISO accredited road traffic safety management system to ISO:39001. Edinburgh adopted a Road Safety Action Plan: Working Towards Vision Zero in May 2010 which "commits to providing a safe and modern road network where all users are safe from the risk of being killed or seriously injured".[24] Northern Ireland's DOE has a Share the road to zero" policy for zero deaths. Bristol adopted a safe systems approach in March 2015. Transport For London (TfL) say they are working towards zero KSI. UK Vision Zero campaigns include Vision Zero London and Vision Zero UK. A Vision Zero UK all day conference is planned for 19 January 2016 at Camden Town Hall with Landor LINKS conferences. On 5th June 2019, a public consultation on imposing a 20mph speed limit on all central London roads, which are managed by Transport for London (TfL), was launched and it will close on 10th July 2019.[25]

United States (cities/regions/states)

  • Chicago: In May 2012, the "Chicago Forward Action Agenda Plan" was introduced aiming to reduce transport deaths to zero in 10 years[26]
  • New York City: In January 2014, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced adoption of New York City's Vision Zero plan and enumerated a long list of initiatives to reduce fatalities on city streets, including pushing for changes in the state legislature to allow the city more local control in the administration of traffic safety measures, such as speed reduction.[27] In the first four years of the plan's implementation, traffic injuries and traffic crashes in New York City have been increasing, though deaths have decreased.[28]
  • San Francisco: In January 2014, San Francisco District Supervisors Jane Kim, Norman Yee, and John Avalos introduced Vision Zero plan for San Francisco, where there were 25 pedestrian and bicyclist deaths in 2013 alone. San Francisco's Vision Zero plan calls for investing in engineering, enforcement, and education, and focusing on dangerous intersections.[29]
  • Los Angeles: In September 2014, Mayor Eric Garcetti and the Los Angeles Department of Transportation released a strategic plan with a Vision Zero goal to eliminate all traffic deaths by 2025.[30][31]
  • Austin: In November 2014, the Austin City Council voted unanimously to form a Vision Zero Task Force to develop an action plan to direct City departments toward policies aligned with safer roadways.[32][33]
  • San Mateo: In February 2015, the San Mateo City Council passed a Sustainable Streets Plan that includes Vision Zero.[34][35]
  • Portland: In February 2015, Portland's Director of Transportation Leah Treat announced a ten-year plan to end traffic fatalities in the city as part of the Portland Bureau of Transportation's 2-year work plan.[36][37]
  • Seattle: Feb. 2015: Seattle launches Vision Zero plan to end traffic deaths and injuries by 2030[38][39]
  • San Jose: On May 12, 2015, San Jose's 11-member City Council unanimously adopted Vision Zero San Jose[40]
  • Santa Barbara: In May 2015, the Santa Barbara City Council embraced the goal of zero traffic fatalities within city limits.[41]
  • San Diego: On June 22, 2015, San Diego Mayor Kevin Faulconer announced his support for Vision Zero at a press conference with Mayor Pro Tem Marti Emerald and Council Member Mark Kersey[42]
  • Fort Lauderdale: In November 2015, the Fort Lauderdale City Commission passed Vision Zero Fort Lauderdale to commit to reduce all pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities to zero. In passing Vision Zero Fort Lauderdale, the City has become the first City in the state of Florida and the first City in the Southeastern United States to become a Vision Zero City.[43]
  • Boston: Boston launched Vision Zero in December 2015.[44]
  • Washington, D.C.: In December 2015, Washington, D.C.'s Department of Transportation announced an initiative to eliminate traffic fatalities. This initiative was endorsed by Mayor Murlel Bowser. Press coverage has focused on high traffic fines (up to $1,000) for speeding.[45]
  • Denver, Colorado In February 2016, the city and county of Denver announced its commitment to Vision Zero.[46] As one of 20 Vision Zero cities at the time, Denver set a goal of zero deaths by 2030.[47] The Denver Streets Partnership coalition organizes periodic Denver Streets Congress meetings to present, discuss and plan Vision Zero policy, funding and implementation of people-friendly street programs.
  • North Carolina: In October 2016, North Carolina implemented the NC Vision Zero initiative, using data-driven strategies, to take one step further in completely eliminating roadway deaths.
  • North Dakota: On January 18, 2018, Governor Doug Burgum announced the Vision Zero goal for North Dakota in his State of the State address using the slogan "Zero Fatalities, Zero Excuses."[48]
  • Tempe, Arizona: On February 8, 2018, Mayor Mark Mitchell and the Tempe city council unanimously committed to Vision Zero [49]
  • Boulder, Colorado: March 2018 formal adoption[50][51]
  • Denver, Colorado regional plan: August 2019 by the Denver Regional Council of Governments[52][53] representing 56 municipalities and counties.

India:

Not yet adopted but in the works

Other safety initiatives

EuroRAP

Across Europe EuroRAP, the European Road Assessment Programme is bringing together a partnership of motoring organisations, vehicle manufacturers and road authorities to develop protocols for identifying and communicating road accident risk and to develop tools and best practice guidelines for engineering safer roads.[59] EuroRAP aims to support governments in meeting their Vision Zero targets.

The "Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area" issued in 2011 by the European Commission states in point 2.5 (9): "By 2050, move close to zero fatalities in road transport. In line with this goal, the EU aims at halving road casualties by 2020."[60]

United Nations

The United Nations has more modest goals. Its "Decade of Action for Road Safety" is founded on a goal to "stabilize and then reduce" road traffic fatalities by 2020. It established the Road Safety Fund "to encourage donor, private sector and public support for the implementation of a Global Plan of Action.[61]

Outcomes

Despite some countries borrowing some ideas from the Vision Zero project, it has been noted that the richer countries have been making outstanding progress in reducing traffic deaths while the poorer countries tend to see an increase in traffic fatalities due to increased motorization.[3] Some locales have seen divergent results between the number of accidents and injuries on the one hand, and the number of deaths; in the first four years of the plan's implementation in New York City, for example, traffic injuries and traffic crashes have been increasing, though deaths have decreased.[28]

Country[62] 1980 Killed 2013 Killed 2013/1980 percent 2013 Killed per million Population 2013 Killed per 100 Billion Vehicle Kilometers
Australia 3,272 1,185 36.2 51 496
Austria 2,003 455 22.7 54 583
Belgium 2,396 723 30.2 65 707
Canada 5,462 2,255 41.3 65
Czech Republic 1,261 655 52.9 62 1,573
Denmark 690 191 27.7 34 386
Finland 551 258 46.8 48 476
France 13,636 3,268 24.0 51
Germany 15,050 3,339 22.2 41 460
Greece 1,446 874 60.4 79
Hungary 1,630 591 36.3 60
Ireland 564 190 33.7 41 396
Italy 9,220 3,385 36.7 57
Japan 11,388 5,152 45.2 40 694
Luxembourg 98 45 45.9 84
Netherlands 1,996 476 23.8 28 374
Norway 362 187 51.7 37 426
Poland 6,002 3,357 55.9 87
Portugal 2,850 637 23.4 61
Slovenia 558 125 22.4 61
South Korea 6,449 5,092 79.0 101 1,720
Spain 6,522 1,680 25.7 36
Sweden 848 260 30.7 27 337
Switzerland 1,209 269 22.2 33 429
United Kingdom 6,182 1,770 28.6 28 348
United States 51,091 32,719 64.0 104 680
Tués-europe-par-milliard-km
Fatalities by billions kilometers traveled by country

Norway

Norway adopted its version of Vision Zero in 1999. In 2008, a staff engineer at the Norwegian Public Roads Administration said "The zero vision has drawn more attention to road safety, but it has not yielded any significant short-term gains so far."[63]

Sweden

Sweden, which initiated Vision Zero, has had somewhat better results than Norway. With a population of about 9.6 million, Sweden has a long tradition in setting quantitative road traffic safety targets. In the mid-1990s a 10-year target was set at a 50% reduction for 2007. This target was not met; the actual ten-year reduction was 13% to 471 deaths. The target was revised to 50% by 2020 and to 0 deaths by 2050. In 2009 the reduction from 1997 totals was 34.5% to 355 deaths.

Number of fatalities on Swedish roads [64][65][66]
Accident Year Fatalities
1997 541
1998 531
1999 580
2000 591
2001 583
2002 532
2003 529
2004 480
2005 440
2006 445
2007 471
2008 396
2009 355
2010 266
2011 319
2012 285
2013 260
2014 270
2015 259
2016 270
2017 253

Traffic volume in Sweden increased steadily over the same period.[67]

Dominican Republic

Vision Zero has influenced other countries, such as the Dominican Republic. The country, despite having the deadliest traffic in the world, has managed to get to a point where only forty Dominicans die per 100,000 Dominicans each year by following a set of guidelines based on the similar goal of reducing traffic fatalities.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Goodyear, Sarah (November 20, 2014). "The Swedish Approach to Road Safety: 'The Accident Is Not the Major Problem'" (Written account of Goodyear's interview with Matts-Åke Belin, traffic safety strategist with the Swedish Transport Administration and one of its key architects of the original Vision Zero program). CityLab. Washington, D.C.: The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  2. ^ See for example, Ezra Hauer, "Computing what the Public wants: Some issues in road safety cost-benefit analysis", Accident Analysis and Prevention, January 2011
  3. ^ a b c "explains: Why Sweden has so few road deaths". The Economist. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
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  8. ^ http://www.bast.de (September 2016). "Traffic and Accident Data: Summary Statistics – Germany" (PDF). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
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  18. ^ "Minutes of the Ottawa Transportation Committee, July 5, 2017".
  19. ^ "Public Safety Committee Minutes" (PDF).
  20. ^ J. Theeuwes and H. Godthelp, “Self-explaining roads,” Saf. Sci., vol. 19, no. 2–3, pp. 217–225, 1995
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  28. ^ a b NYC traffic injuries are up despite drop in fatalities
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  32. ^ "Resolution No. 20141120-103" (PDF). Austintexas.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
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  34. ^ Boone, Andrew (February 20, 2015). "San Mateo Adopts Vision Zero and LOS Reform With Sustainable Streets Plan". Streetsblog San Francisco. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  35. ^ "Sustainable Streets San Mateo —". Sustainablestreetssanmateo.com. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  36. ^ Amelia Templeton. "Portland Transportation Leaders Set Goal To End All Traffic Fatalities In the City . News". OPB. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  37. ^ "Portland Progress: A 2-Year Workplan | The City of Portland, Oregon". Portlandoregon.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
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  42. ^ Cavanaugh, Maureen (2015-06-23). "Eliminating Traffic Deaths: San Diego Vision Zero Goal For 2025". KPBS. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
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  48. ^ "2018 State of the State Address, North Dakota Office of the Governor". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  49. ^ "Vision Zero Tempe". tempe.gov.
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  54. ^ "City council files motion for pedestrian safety program". www.local12.com. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
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External links

Corey Johnson (politician)

Corey Johnson (born April 28, 1982) is an American politician from the Democratic Party. He is the Speaker of the New York City Council, and a City Council member for the 3rd District. The district includes Hell’s Kitchen, Chelsea, the West Village, and parts of Flatiron, SoHo and the Upper West Side in Manhattan. He briefly served as acting New York City Public Advocate in 2019.

Before being elected Speaker, Johnson was frequently named as a potential candidate and perceived as a leading contender. In mid-December 2017, with the public support of Mayor de Blasio, the concession of other front runners, and backing of the Bronx and Queens Democratic Parties, Johnson corralled the requisite number of votes to become the presumptive favorite for the position, with the full Council voting on January 3, 2018.

David G. Greenfield

David G. Greenfield is an American politician, law professor, and nonprofit organization executive. Greenfield served as a Democrat in the New York City Council from the 44th district from 2010 to 2017. The district includes Bensonhurst, Borough Park, Gravesend, Kensington, Midwood and Sheepshead Bay in Brooklyn.

Eastern Parkway

Eastern Parkway is a major boulevard that runs through a portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, it was the world's first parkway, having been built between 1870 and 1874. At the time of its construction, Eastern Parkway went to the eastern edge of Brooklyn, hence its name.

The road begins at Grand Army Plaza (the main entrance to Prospect Park) and extends east to Ralph Avenue, along the crest of the moraine that separates northern from southern Long Island. This section runs parallel to Atlantic Avenue and is aligned with the Crown Heights street grid. East of Ralph Avenue, it turns to the northeast, still following the moraine, until it terminates at Bushwick Avenue near the Evergreen Cemetery, where the moraine climbs steeply toward a peak at Ridgewood Reservoir. The initial portion of Eastern Parkway, west of Ralph Avenue, contains landscaped medians and is officially called by that name. The part east of Ralph Avenue is narrower and is officially known as Eastern Parkway Extension.

Eastern Parkway was built with the expectation that it would be the centerpiece of a neighborhood with "first-class" housing. Ultimately, the resulting development encompassed a variety of building styles including single-family homes, mansions, and apartment buildings. The parkway extension east of Ralph Avenue was built in the late 1890s. The neighborhoods around the parkway developed into a "Doctor's Row" in the late 19th century, and further settlement occurred with the opening of the New York City Subway's Eastern Parkway Line in 1920. The section of Eastern Parkway west of Ralph Avenue is a New York City designated landmark and on the National Register of Historic Places.

Management systems for road safety

Progress in the area of prevention is formulated in an environment of beliefs, called paradigms as can be seen in the next table. Some of them can be referred to as professional folklore, i.e. a widely supported set of beliefs with no real basis. For example, the “accident-prone driver” was a belief that was supported by the data in the sense that a small number of drivers do participate in a disproportionate number of accidents, it follows that the identification and removal of this drivers will reduce crashes. A more scientific analysis of the data indicate that this phenomenon can be explained simply by the random nature of the accidents, and not for a specific error-prone attitude of such drivers.

From: OECD Road Transport Research

McGuinness Boulevard

McGuinness Boulevard is a boulevard in Greenpoint, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It runs between Interstate 278 to the south to the Pulaski Bridge in the north, which connects to Queens and Jackson Avenue (NY 25A). South of Driggs Avenue, it is called McGuinness Boulevard South.

A major street going through Greenpoint, it was formerly known as Oakland Street, which went from Driggs Avenue to the Newtown Creek. The road was widened considerably in 1954 after the Pulaski Bridge opened, replacing the Vernon Avenue Bridge to the west. In 1964, it was renamed after former local Democratic alderman Peter McGuinness.The boulevard has a reputation as a dangerous speedway, with three pedestrians and one cyclist dying on the boulevard between 2008 and 2013. Having one of the highest fatality rates in Brooklyn, it has been compared to Queens Boulevard, Queens's "Boulevard of Death". According to one study, at the intersection with Nassau Avenue alone, drivers violated traffic laws almost four times per minute. As a result, the speed limit was lowered to 25 miles per hour from 30 mph in 2014 as part of Mayor Bill de Blasio's Vision Zero plan. Even so, locals are requesting speed cameras and left-turn traffic lights.Other controversies have arisen on the street, including a planned homeless shelter at 400 McGuinness Boulevard, which was temporarily canceled due to neighborhood opposition. Its opening was delayed to September 2012.

Nagarro

Nagarro is a global software development and technology consulting company that provides services for digital disruption to Fortune 500 companies and leading ISVs. Nagarro specializes in solving complex and strategic services for clients, and is known for agile engineering, co-innovation and high-quality standards. Part of a German technology group, Nagarro has offices in 21 countries and employs over 6000 engineers worldwide. Its largest development center is in Gurgaon, India. Other development centers include Timisoara, Romania; Vienna, Austria; Munich, Germany; Dubai, UAE; Jaipur, India; Valleta, Malta.

Since 2011, Nagarro is a subsidiary of Allgeier SE, a Frankfurt-listed (FWB: AEIN) German IT company.

National Motorists Association

The National Motorists Association (NMA) is for-profit non-stock corporation lobbyist and special interest group in North America, created in 1982. NMA also operates a small non-profit organization, National Motorists Association Foundation, established in 1999.

National Wrestling League

The National Wrestling League, headquartered out of Hagerstown, Maryland, was founded by Dick Caricolfe in 1988. The NWL's Superior Pro Wrestling Training Center (SPWTC) in Hagerstown, Maryland is also the home of the HOUSE of PAIN Wrestling Federation, founded by John Rambo in 1997. The HoPWF holds bi-weekly events in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, along with evening events at the SPWTC.

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission

The New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission (NYC TLC) is an agency of the New York City government that licenses and regulates the medallion taxis and for-hire vehicle industries, including app-based companies. The TLC's regulatory landscape includes medallion (yellow) taxicabs, green or Boro taxicabs, black cars (including both traditional and app-based services), community-based livery cars, commuter vans, paratransit vehicles (ambulettes), and some luxury limousines.

Norwegian Public Roads Administration

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Norwegian: Statens vegvesen) is a Norwegian government agency responsible for national and county public roads in Norway. This includes planning, construction and operation of the national and county road networks, driver training and licensing, vehicle inspection, and subsidies to car ferries.

The agency is led by the Directorate of Public Roads (Vegdirektoratet), and is subordinate to the Ministry of Transport and Communications.

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is divided into five regions and thirty districts, which are subordinate to the directorate. The directorate is based in Oslo.

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is one of the largest government agencies of Norway in terms of budget. In matters concerning national roads, the agency is subordinate to the ministry and in matters concerning county roads subordinate to the county administration.

Ocean Parkway (Brooklyn)

Ocean Parkway is a 4.86-mile (7.82 km) boulevard in the west-central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is inventoried by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) as New York State Route 908H (NY 908H), an unsigned reference route.

Regional Plan Association

The Regional Plan Association is an independent, not-for-profit regional planning organization, founded in 1922, that focuses on recommendations to improve the quality of life and economic competitiveness of a 31-county New York–New Jersey–Connecticut region in the New York metropolitan area. Headquartered in New York City, it has offices in Princeton, New Jersey, and Stamford, Connecticut.

Road diet

A road diet, also called a lane reduction or road rechannelization, is a technique in transportation planning whereby the number of travel lanes and/or effective width of the road is reduced in order to achieve systemic improvements.

Terry L. Bellamy

Terry L. Bellamy is currently the director of public works and transportation for Prince George's County, Maryland. Prior to his current position, he served as director of transportation for the City of Durham, North Carolina and Assistant Director for Transportation Planning for the City of San Antonio. He is an experienced senior public administrator possessing over 30 years of experience advocating for green planning solutions, implementing innovative economic development practices and developing best practices in public policy.

Traffic calming

Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists. It aims to encourage safer, more responsible driving and potentially reduce traffic flow. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for traffic calming, including narrowed roads and speed humps. Such measures are common in Australia and Europe (especially Northern Europe), but less so in North America. Traffic calming is a calque (literal translation) of the German word Verkehrsberuhigung – the term's first published use in English was in 1985 by Carmen Hass-Klau.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Transportation Alternatives

Transportation Alternatives (TransAlt, formerly T.A.) is a non-profit organization in New York City which works to change New York City's transportation priorities to encourage and increase non-polluting, quiet, city-friendly travel and decrease automobile use. TransAlt seeks a transportation system based on a "Green Transportation Hierarchy" giving preference to modes of travel based on their relative benefits and costs to society. To achieve these goals, T.A. works in five areas: Cycling, Walking and Traffic Calming, Car-Free Parks, Safe Streets and Sensible Transportation. Promotional activities include large group bicycle rides.

Vision Zero (New York City)

Vision Zero is a program created by New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2014. Its purpose is to eliminate all traffic deaths and serious injuries on New York City streets by 2024. On January 15, 2014, Mayor de Blasio announced the launch of Vision Zero in New York City, based on a similar program of the same name that was implemented in Sweden. The original Swedish theory hypothesizes that pedestrian deaths are not as much "accidents" as they are a failure of street design. Traffic injuries and traffic crashes in New York City under Mayor de Blasio have been increasing from when the Mayor implemented the plan through 2018, though deaths have decreased.

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