Visakhapatnam-class destroyer

The Visakhapatnam class (Project 15B) is a class of stealth guided missile destroyers currently under construction for the Indian Navy. The class comprises four ships - Visakhapatnam, Mormugao, Imphal and Porbandar all of which are being built by the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in India, and will be the largest destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy.[8][4]

The destroyers are an improved version of the Kolkata-class (Project 15A) and will feature enhanced stealth characteristics. The first ship is expected to enter service in 2021.

Launching of INS Visakhapatnam - 4
INS Visakhapatnam, first ship in class
Class overview
Name: Visakhapatnam class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: Kolkata class
Cost: 29,340 crore (US$4 billion)
Planned: 4
Building: 4
General characteristics
Type: Stealth guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons)[1]
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Draft: 6.5 m (21 ft)
Propulsion:
  • Combined gas and gas system: Twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants with 4 × DT-59 reversible gas turbines and 2 × RG-54 gearboxes
  • 2 × Bergen/GRSE KVM-diesel engines, 9,900 hp (7,400 kW) each
  • 4 × 1 MWe Wärtsilä WCM-1000 generator sets driving Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1 MV AC generators
Speed: In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)[2]
Crew: 300 (50 officers and 250 sailors)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Kavach chaff system
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 2 × Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities:

Development

In January 2011, the Cabinet Committee on Security approved for a follow-on class of the earlier Project 15A Kolkata-class destroyers. The aim of the follow-on class was to retain the same hull as the earlier class but incorporate significant changes in the superstructure and improve the ship's stealth characteristics. A total of four destroyers were ordered under Project 15B with a total cost of 29,340 crore (US$4 billion).[9][10]

Construction

Construction for the class began in 2013 and the keel of the first ship was laid in October 2013.[11] The build time for the class is expected to be shorter than the Kolkata class, as no major re-designing involved. Due to this, each warship is expected to save US$1 billion in costs. The first ship was launched on 20 April 2015 and is expected to join the Indian Navy by 2021, with the follow on ships being delivered annually.[8][12]

Design and description

The Visakhapatnam class shares similar dimensions to the previous Kolkata class, however it incorporates a flush deck, a better acoustic signature and infrared signature reduction systems. The class has a displacement of 7,400 tonnes (or 7,300 long tons).[1][13] It has been designed by Indian Navy's in-house unit Directorate of Naval Design. Saint Petersburg's Northern Design Bureau was consulted during the design phase to reduce the size of design's superstructure. Russia's Baltic Shipyard was contracted to provide four sets of line shafts while the Zorya gas turbines of the ship were sourced in Ukraine.[14][15][13][16][17]L&T has been contracted to provide Integrated Platform Management System, Automated Power Management System, main switchboard, degaussing system and DA local control panels. According to the Indian Navy, 65 percent of the class will be indigenously sourced, including eleven of its weapon and sensor systems.[18][4]

The class have a length of 163 m (535 ft), a beam of 17.4 m (57 ft) and a draught of 6.5 m (21 ft) and a maximum speed of over 30 knots.[19] Aviation facilities include an enclosed deck and is capable of operating two helicopters simultaneously. The class will be fitted with the Nirbhay land-attack cruise missile, 8-16 supersonic BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles and 32 Barak 8-ER SAMs. All the missiles will be fitted into a Universal Vertical Launcher Module (UVLM). Four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) will provide the ship with close-in-defence capability. Twin tube torpedo launchers and RBU-6000 Smerch-2 rocket launchers will provide anti-submarine warfare capability.[20][4] The primary radar sensor of the class is the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multi-mission AESA. It is also equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar.[4] Each ship of the class will have a complement of 50 officers and 250 sailors.[21]

Difference with Kolkata class

There is little difference in the external appearance of Project 15A Kolkata class and the Project 15B Visakhapatnam as they share the same hull design. However, they differ in internal fitments that separates the two destroyer classes.[22][23][4]

  • The class will be armed with a 127 mm main gun
  • The sonar will be relocated from hull to the bow
  • A revised bridge layout and mast design to reduce radar cross-section
  • A rail-less helicopter traversing system to secure the helicopter
  • A network-centric layout with a Ship Data Network (SDN), an Automatic Power Management System (APMS) and a Combat Management System (CMS)

Ships in class

Name Pennant Yard No Builder Laid down Launched Commissioning Homeport Status
INS Visakhapatnam 12704 Mazagon Dock Limited 12 October 2013[24][25] 20 April 2015[26] 2021 (expected)[12] Launched
INS Mormugao 12705 4 June 2015[27] 17 September 2016[28] 2022 (expected) Launched
INS Imphal[29] 12706 19 May 2017[30] 20 April 2019[29] 2023 (expected) Launched
INS Porbandar[22] 12707 19 July 2018[31] 2024 (expected) Under construction[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "INS Visakhapatnam', First Ship of Project 15B launched". indiannavy.nic.in. Indian Navy (News). Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  2. ^ Vishakapatnam class
  3. ^ a b c d Bedi, Rahul. "India launches first-of-class Project 15B destroyer". IHS Jane's Navy International. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Gady, Franz-Stefan. "China Beware: Here Comes India's Most Powerful Destroyer". The Diplomat. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  5. ^ Israel ship missile test for India, The Telegraph, 28 November 2015
  6. ^ Gen Next missile defence shield built by Israel and India clears first hurdle, The Times of India, 28 November 2015
  7. ^ Pandit, Rajat (29 September 2016). "Operational gaps handicap military on several fronts". The Times of India.
  8. ^ a b Sheshrao, Vishnudas (15 April 2015). "Indigenously built warship ready for launch". freepressjournal. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  9. ^ Unnithan, Sandeep (18 March 2009). "Govt okays construction of 4 more stealth destroyers". India Today. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  10. ^ "INS Visakhapatnam: 11 things you need to know about India's latest destroyer warship". dna. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  11. ^ "Keel Laid For Yard 12704 (1st ship of P15 Bravo)" (PDF). mazagondock.gov.in. 12 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  12. ^ a b Ghaswalla, Amrita Nair (27 December 2017). "Advanced guided missile destroyers delayed by 3 years". The Hindu Business Line. Mumbai: The Hindu Group.
  13. ^ a b "Project 15B". Global Security. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  14. ^ "Russia to help India build 4 guided-missile destroyers". Indrus. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  15. ^ "Directorate of Naval Design (DND (SSG))". Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  16. ^ "Navy's Next Destroyer Line Christened Visakhapatnam-class, 1st Launch Next Week". LiveFist defence. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  17. ^ "INS Visakhapatnam: 11 things you need to know about India's latest destroyer warship". dna. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  18. ^ "L&T marine" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Indian Navy launches Mormugao, 2nd warship of Visakhapatnam class, in Mumbai". Livemint. PTI. 17 September 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  20. ^ "Navy warms up to launch stealth destroyer Visakhapatnam". OneIndia. 4 May 2015.
  21. ^ "2nd 'Made In India' warship launched in Mazagon - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  22. ^ a b Som, Vishnu (17 April 2015). "All About the INS Visakhapatnam, Navy's Most Powerful Destroyer". NDTV. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  23. ^ Anand, Deevakar (17 April 2015). "Navy to launch its largest destroyer INS Vishakhapatnam". DNA India. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  24. ^ "Keel Laid for P15 Bravo Ships". The Times of India. Mumbai. 25 October 2013.
  25. ^ "Mazagon Dock Keel Laying Ceremony" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014.
  26. ^ "First Indian Navy Project 15B - Visakhapatnam-class Destroyer Launched". 21 April 2015.
  27. ^ "Mazagon Dock News" (PDF). mazagondock.gov.in. Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2016.
  28. ^ "Second warship of Visakhapatnam class launched in Mumbai". The Hindu Business Line. PTI. 17 September 2016.
  29. ^ a b Sagar, Pradip (20 April 2019). "Indian Navy launches new stealthy guided missile destroyer — INS Imphal". The Week.
  30. ^ "Keel laid for the third ship of P15B class destroyers". The Free Press Journal. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  31. ^ a b "MDL Stats Production of 4th Destroyer of Visakhapatnam Class". Retrieved 18 July 2018.

External links

Arleigh Burke-class destroyer

The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers (DDGs) is a United States Navy class of destroyer built around the Aegis Combat System and the SPY-1D multifunction passive electronically scanned array radar. The class is named for Admiral Arleigh Burke, an American destroyer officer in World War II, and later Chief of Naval Operations. The class leader, USS Arleigh Burke, was commissioned during Admiral Burke's lifetime.

These warships were designed as multimission destroyers, able to fulfill the strategic land strike role with Tomahawk missiles; antiaircraft warfare (AAW) role with powerful Aegis radar and surface-to-air missiles; antisubmarine warfare (ASW) with towed sonar array, anti-submarine rockets, and ASW helicopter; and antisurface warfare (ASuW) with Harpoon missile launcher. With upgrades to their AN/SPY-1 phased radar systems and their associated missile payloads as part of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, the ships of this class have also begun to demonstrate some promise as mobile antiballistic missile and anti-satellite weaponry platforms. Some versions of the class no longer have the towed sonar, or Harpoon missile launcher. Their hull and superstructure were designed to have a reduced radar cross-section.The first ship of the class was commissioned on 4 July 1991. With the decommissioning of the last Spruance-class destroyer, USS Cushing, on 21 September 2005, the Arleigh Burke-class ships became the U.S. Navy's only active destroyers, until the Zumwalt class became active in 2016. The Arleigh Burke class has the longest production run for any post-World War II U.S. Navy surface combatant. Besides the 62 vessels of this class (comprising 21 of Flight I, 7 of Flight II and 34 of Flight IIA) in service by 2016, up to a further 42 (of Flight III) have been envisioned.

With an overall length of 505 to 509 feet (154 to 155 m), displacement ranging from 8,315 to 9,200 tons, and weaponry including over 90 missiles, the Arleigh Burke class are larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers.

BrahMos

The BrahMos (designated PJ-10) is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land. It is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world. It is a joint venture between the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya and India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace. It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks cruise missile and other similar sea-skimming Russian cruise missile technology. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.

It is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0, which is being upgraded to Mach 5.0. The land-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service, with the air and submarine-launched versions currently in the testing phase. An air-launched variant of BrahMos appeared in 2012. A hypersonic version of the missile, BrahMos-II, is also presently under development with a speed of Mach 7-8 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It is expected to be ready for testing by 2020.India wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like the P-700 Granit. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and missile guidance has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is expected to reach a total order US$13 billion.In 2016, as India became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), India and Russia are now planning to jointly develop a new generation of Brahmos missiles with 600 km-plus range and an ability to hit protected targets with pinpoint accuracy. In 2019, India upgraded the missile with a new range of 500 km.

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against powerful short range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.Before World War II, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships and cruisers. This resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.

At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations (United States and Russia) operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, and are capable of carrying nuclear-tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet (160 m) long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, and with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are actually larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers.

Some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion.

EL/M-2248 MF-STAR

The EL/M-2248 MF-STAR is a multifunction active electronically scanned array naval radar system developed by IAI Elta for maritime installation on warships. It is capable of tracking both air and surface targets and providing fire control guidance. MF-STAR is an acronym of Multi-Function Surveillance, Track And Guidance Radar.

Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

INS Visakhapatnam

INS Visakhapatnam is the lead ship of the Visakhapatnam-class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She is being constructed at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), and has been launched on 20 April 2015. The ship is expected to be commissioned by 2021.

Otobreda 127/64

The Oto Melara 127/64 Lightweight (LW) naval gun mount is a rapid fire gun mount suitable for installation on large and medium size ships, intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.

The gun can fire all standard 127 mm (5 inch) ammunition including the new Vulcano long range guided ammunition.

Modular automatic feeding magazines allow the firing of up to four different and immediately selectable types of ammunition; the magazines (four drums, each with one shell ready to fire and 13 other ammunitions on store) can be reloaded while the mount is in operation.

An ammunition manipulator system is available to transport projectiles and propelling charges from the main ammunition store to the feeding magazines, which are automatically reloaded. Ammunition flow is reversible. Rounds can be automatically unloaded from the gun. Digital and analog interfaces are available for any Combat Management System, also according to COBRA protocol.

The 127/64 LW naval gun mounts includes a Vulcano module, which acts twofold:

Programmer for ammunition's fuse and guidance system

Mission Planning and Execution for Naval Fire Support Action (firing solutions, selection of ammunition, definition of trajectories and firing sequences, ballistic computations accounting for ammunition type, etc.), as a standalone or in interaction with ship's Network Centric System

RBU-6000

The RBU-6000 Smerch-2 (Реактивно-Бомбовая Установка, Reaktivno-Bombovaja Ustanovka; reaction engine-bomb installation & Смерч; waterspout) is a 213 mm caliber Soviet anti-submarine weapon rocket launcher. It is similar in principle to the Royal Navy Hedgehog system used during the Second World War. The system entered service in 1960-61 and is fitted to a wide range of Russian surface vessels. It consists of a horseshoe shaped arrangement of twelve launch barrels, that are remotely directed by the Burya fire control system (that can also control the shorter ranged RBU-1000). It fires RGB-60 unguided depth charges. The rockets are normally fired in salvos of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 12 rounds. Reloading is automatic, with individual rounds being fed into the launcher by the 60UP loading system from a below deck magazine. Typical magazine capacity is either 72 or 96 rounds per launcher. It can also be used as a shore bombardment system.

The RPK-8 system is an upgrade of the RBU-6000 system, firing the 90R rocket, which is actively guided in the water. This allows it to home in on targets at depths of up to 1,000 meters. The warhead is a 19.5 kg shaped charge, which enables it to punch through the hulls of submarines. It can also be used against divers and torpedoes. System response time is reported to be 15 seconds and a single-salvo has a kill probability of 0.8. RPK-8 entered service in 1991 and mounted on Project 1154 and 11356 frigates. Serial production of the upgraded 90R1 rocket was launched in 2017.

RBU-6000 were the most widespread anti-submarine rocket launchers in the Soviet Navy, used on many ship classes.

Stealth ship

A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.

These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction (Acoustic quieting) are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is a fairly new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or even millennia.

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