Violet-backed starling

The violet-backed starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), also known as the plum-colored starling or amethyst starling, is a relatively small species (17cm) of starling in the family Sturnidae. This strongly sexually dimorphic species is found widely in the woodlands and savannah forest edges of mainland sub-Saharan Africa. It is rarely seen on the ground, but instead commonly found in trees and other sources away from the ground.

Violet-backed starling
Violet-backed starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster verreauxi) male
Violet-backed starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster verreauxi) female
both C. l. verreauxi
Damaraland, Namibia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Cinnyricinclus
Lesson, 1840
C. leucogaster
Binomial name
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
(Boddaert, 1783)


The violet-backed starling is a sexually dimorphic species in which the males possess an iridescent violet back while the females are brown. During breeding, the female will incubate 2-4 eggs (these are pale blue with reddish/brown spots) for 12–14 days. The male will help feed chicks until they fledge after about 21 days.


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Cinnyricinclus leucogaster". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.

External links

Angry Birds Stella

Angry Birds Stella, also known as Angry Birds Slingshot Stella, was a puzzle video game and the second spin-off from the Angry Birds series, developed by Rovio Entertainment. The game was marketed to females by using characters that have a spirit of female heroism and friendship, but was intended to appeal to all sexes. Announced on February 13, 2014, Rovio stated that the game would be accompanied by a toy-line with Telepods, and a television series. The game was released on September 4, 2014.This game is based on an Angry Birds character who was first introduced in the Angry Birds Seasons level set "Back to School", which was released in August 2012. It begins with Stella leaving the rest of the Angry Birds flock and setting off to Golden Island to visit four other friends for vacation. However, Gale and an army of pigs steal Stella's photo album, which leads Stella and her friends to embark on a journey to retrieve it.

Bao Bolong Wetland Reserve

Bao Bolong (also Baobolong, Bao Bolon or Baobolon) Wetland Reserve is a national park in The Gambia. Established in 1996 it covers 220 square kilometres.

The Wetland Reserve is located on the north bank of the River Gambia, approximately 100 km (52 nautical miles) from the river mouth. The name is derived from the Bao Bolon tributary that rises in Senegal and enters the River Gambia. It extends from the River Gambia north to the Senegalese border along the Baobolon tributary.

Blouberg Nature Reserve

Blouberg Nature Reserve is a protected area situated close to Vivo, west of Louis Trichardt in the Limpopo Province, of South Africa. It covers an area of 9,360 hectares (23,100 acres) from the eastern portion of the Blouberg mountain range down to the savanna near the Brak River, and is managed and administrated by the Limpopo Provincial Government.

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve is a nature reserve at the western limit of the Bronberg in the east of Pretoria, South Africa. It formerly formed a part of the farm Hartbeespoort 304 which belonged to H. W. Struben. On old aerial photographs it is apparent that the flood plain was utilized for crop fields, while the remainder was used for cattle grazing. The reserve constitutes the western part of the Bronberg conservation area, which was declared in 1980. Its highest point is Renosterkop (1,468 m) in the northern part of the reserve.

Gale (given name)

Gale is a given name. It has seen masculine and feminine use consecutively in the United States.

Gale as a man's name is from an English surname, ultimately from Middle English gaile "jovial".

As a woman's name, it is a short form of the biblical name Abigail. It can also be used as a form of the name Galen, a name derived from that of the ancient Greek physician, meaning "tranquil."

It was almost exclusively a masculine name before 1935; in the later 1930s, it became a popular variant of the feminine name Abigail. Feminine usage surpassed masculine usage in 1940, leading to a further decline in masculine usage, and Gale was predominantly a feminine name when it peaked in popularity in the later 1950s. Its popularity decreased rapidly in the 1960s, falling below rank 1,000 in 1971. In the 1990 census, it was ranked 4,209.

Gorilla Falls Exploration Trail

The Gorilla Falls Exploration Trail (formerly known as Pangani Forest Exploration Trail from August 1998 to May 2016) is a walkway next to Kilimanjaro Safaris at the Disney's Animal Kingdom in the Walt Disney World Resort, Florida, from which visitors can see African animals. It is about three-eighths of a mile in length. There are "research students" positioned at most locations to give information about the animals and answer questions.

The attraction originally opened on April 22, 1998 as Gorilla Falls Exploration Trail, but the name was changed to Pangani Forest Exploration Trail in August 1998. The attraction reverted to its original name on May 27, 2016.

Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens

The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, located in Jacksonville, Florida, sits at the mouth of the Trout River, near where it flows into the St. Johns River. The zoo occupies approximately 117 acres (47 ha) and has over 2,000 animals and 1,000 plants in its collection. The zoo has grown from its modest beginnings in Springfield to be considered one of the city's premier attractions, with more than one million visitors in the past year.

The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens' marquee attractions are the Range of the Jaguar, which won the 2005 AZA Exhibit of the year award and the Land of the Tiger, which opened in 2014 and features an innovative walk-through trail system for the two Sumatran and three Malayan tigers. Also included in the Land of the Tiger are wreathed and wrinkled hornbills, Visayan warty pigs, babirusas, and Asian small-clawed otters. The zoo's other exhibits include the Plains of East Africa, highlighting African savanna animals, including three Southern white rhinoceri; the Australian Outback, including lorikeets, cassowaries, and wallabies; African Forest, featuring two of the four genera of great apes, as well as several species of lemurs; and Wild Florida, which features animals native to the state, such as North American river otters, American black bears, Florida panthers, and others.

The zoo is active in animal conservation, participating in more than 50 national and international conservation initiatives and more than 95 Species Survival Plans. In 2004, the zoo reached an agreement with the nation of Guyana to help promote conservation in that country, particularly the Iwokrama Forest. Additionally, since 1999 the zoo has been home to a large breeding colony of wild wood storks. Though not endangered, this bird is a rare find on the North American continent, and has, in this case, taken up permanent residence in a tree overlooking the Plains of Africa.

Krantzkloof Nature Reserve

The Krantzkloof Nature Reserve, managed by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, conserves 668 ha of the Molweni (Zulu: 'mutual greetings') and Nkutu River gorges that incise the sandstone Kloof plateau in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The reserve conserves coastal scarp forest, sourveld grassland, a cliff face biotope, and aquatic environments along its rivers. Scarp forest is a threatened forest type, protected by South Africa's forests act of 1998, while the grassland is classified as KwaZulu-Natal sandstone sourveld, the most threatened terrestrial habitat in the Durban metropole. The reserve was established in 1950 and was augmented by land donations as late as 1999.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Lesotho

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Lesotho. The avifauna of Lesotho include a total of 358 species, of which 60 are rare or accidental and four have been introduced by humans. One species has been extirpated. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of iGoTerra.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Lesotho

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Lesotho as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Lesotho although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of the Gambia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Gambia. The avifauna of the Gambia include a total of 576 species, one of which has been introduced by humans and two of which are globally threatened. The country, which is very small and almost completely surrounded by Senegal, has no endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species will fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Gambia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Gambia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of protected areas of Tanzania

Protected areas in Tanzania are extremely varied, ranging from sea habitats over grasslands to the top of the Kilimanjaro, the tallest mountain in Africa. About a third of the country's total area is protected to a certain degree as a national park, game reserve, marine park, forest reserve or the like.

The following list gives an overview on the various protected areas in Tanzania including their predominant habitat, wildlife and flora. Especially remarkable species (endemics or those occurring in unusually large numbers) are set in bold.


Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red. It is similar to violet, but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a secondary color made by combining red and blue. The complementary color of purple in the RYB color model is yellow.According to surveys in Europe and North America, purple is the color most often associated with rarity, royalty, magic, mystery, and piety. When combined with pink, it is associated with eroticism, femininity, and seduction.Purple was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, and later by Roman Catholic bishops. Similarly in Japan, the color is traditionally associated with the emperor and aristocracy.

San Antonio Zoo

The San Antonio Zoo is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited zoo in Midtown San Antonio, Texas, United States. It is located in the city's Brackenridge Park. The 35-acre (14 ha) zoo has a collection of over 3,500 animals representing 750 species. The zoo's annual attendance exceeds 1,000,000. It also runs non-animal attractions, such as the 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge San Antonio Zoo Eagle train ride, which first opened in 1956 and utilizes three Chance Rides C.P. Huntington locomotives.The Richard Friedrich Aquarium was opened in 1948. It was the only aquarium in the city until SeaWorld San Antonio was opened in 1988.

Sedgwick County Zoo

The Sedgwick County Zoo is an AZA-accredited wildlife park and major attraction in Wichita, Kansas. Founded in 1971 with the help of the Sedgwick County Zoological Society, the zoo has quickly become recognized both nationally and internationally for its support of conservation programs and successful breeding of rare and endangered species. Having over 3,000 animals of nearly 400 different species, the zoo has slowly increased its visitors and now ranks as the number one outdoor tourist attraction in the state.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.


Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings are native to Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitats with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the common starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific, the common myna is indeed common.

Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for prey such as grubs by "open-bill probing", that is, forcefully opening the bill after inserting it into a crevice, thus expanding the hole and exposing the prey; this behaviour is referred to by the German verb zirkeln (pronounced [ˈtsɪɐ̯kl̩n]).Plumage of many species is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes and lay blue or white eggs.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls and are the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

Toledo Zoo

The Toledo Zoo and Aquarium, located in Toledo, Ohio, is a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), and is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), through the year 2022. The Toledo Zoo and Aquarium houses over 10,000 individual animals that cover 720 different species. With a large focus on conservation efforts, the Toledo Zoo and Aquarium currently participates in over 80 species survival programs.

The Toledo Zoo and Aquarium has over 57,000 members and welcomes over 1 million visitors a year.

Violet (color)

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet. Violet color has a dominant wavelength of approximately 380-450 nanometers. Light with a shorter wavelength than violet but longer than X-rays and gamma rays is called ultraviolet. In the color wheel historically used by painters, it is located between blue and purple. On the screens of computer monitors and television sets, a color which looks similar to violet is made, with the RGB color model, by mixing red and blue light, with the blue twice as bright as the red. This is not true violet, for it does not match the color of a single wavelength shorter than that of blue light.

The color's name is derived from the violet flower. Violet and purple look similar, but violet is a spectral color, with its own set of wavelengths on the spectrum of visible light. Purple is a dichromatic color, made by combining blue and red. Amethyst is a notable violet crystal, its colour arising from iron and other trace elements in quartz.

In history, violet and purple have long been associated with royalty and majesty. The emperors of Rome wore purple togas, as did the Byzantine emperors. During the Middle Ages violet was worn by bishops and university professors and was often used in art as the color of the robes of the Virgin Mary. In Chinese painting, the color violet represents the "unity transcending the duality of Yin and yang" and "the ultimate harmony of the universe". In Hinduism and Buddhism violet is associated with the Crown Chakra. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, violet is the color people most often associate with extravagance and individualism, the unconventional, the artificial, and ambiguity.


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