Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (/sɜːrf/; born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.
In the early days, Cerf was a manager for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology. When the Internet began to transition to a commercial opportunity during the late 1980s, Cerf moved to MCI where he was instrumental in the development of the first commercial email system (MCI Mail) connected to the Internet.
Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start. He waited a year before stepping forward to join the ICANN Board, and eventually became chairman. He was elected as the president of the Association for Computing Machinery in May 2012, and in August 2013 he joined the Council on CyberSecurity's Board of Advisors.
Cerf is active in many organizations that are working to help the Internet deliver humanitarian value to the world. He is supportive of innovative projects that are experimenting with new approaches to global problems, including the digital divide, the gender gap, and the changing nature of jobs. Cerf is also known for his sartorial style, typically appearing in a three-piece suit—a rarity in an industry known for its casual dress norms.
Vint Cerf at the Royal Society admissions day in 2016
Vinton Gray Cerf
June 23, 1943
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||Stanford University|
|Institutions||IBM, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, UCLA, Stanford University, DARPA, MCI, CNRI, Google,|
|Thesis||Multiprocessors, Semaphores, and a Graph Model of Computation (1972)|
|Doctoral advisor||Gerald Estrin|
Cerf was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Muriel (born Gray), a housewife, and Vinton Thurston Cerf, an aerospace executive. Cerf went to Van Nuys High School in California along with Jon Postel and Steve Crocker; he wrote the former's obituary. Both were also instrumental in the creation of the Internet. While in high school, Cerf worked at Rocketdyne on the Apollo program, including helping to write statistical analysis software for the non-destructive tests of the F-1 engines. Cerf's first job after obtaining his B.S. degree in mathematics from Stanford University was at IBM, where he worked for two years as a systems engineer supporting QUIKTRAN. He left IBM to attend graduate school at UCLA where he earned his M.S. degree in 1970 and his PhD degree in 1972. During his graduate student years, he studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock's data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet, the first node  on the Internet, and "contributed to a host-to-host protocol" for the ARPANet. While at UCLA, he also met Bob Kahn, who was working on the ARPANet hardware architecture. After receiving his doctorate, Cerf became an assistant professor at Stanford University from 1972–1976, where he conducted research on packet network interconnection protocols and co-designed the DoD TCP/IP protocol suite with Kahn. Cerf then moved to DARPA in 1976, where he stayed until 1982.
As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982 to 1986, Cerf led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial email service to be connected to the Internet. In 1986, he joined Bob Kahn at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives as its vice president, working with Kahn on Digital Libraries, Knowledge Robots, and gigabit speed networks. It was during this time, in 1992, that he and Kahn, among others, founded the Internet Society (ISOC) to provide leadership in education, policy and standards related to the Internet. Cerf served as the first president of ISOC. Cerf rejoined MCI during 1994 and served as Senior Vice President of Technology Strategy. In this role, he helped to guide corporate strategy development from a technical perspective. Previously, he served as MCI's senior vice president of Architecture and Technology, leading a team of architects and engineers to design advanced networking frameworks, including Internet-based solutions for delivering a combination of data, information, voice and video services for business and consumer use.
During 1997, Cerf joined the Board of Trustees of Gallaudet University, a university for the education of the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Cerf himself is hard of hearing. He has also served on the university's Board of Associates.
Cerf, as leader of MCI's internet business, was criticized due to MCI's role in providing the IP addresses used by Send-Safe.com, a vendor of spamware that uses a botnet in order to send spam. MCI refused to terminate the spamware vendor. At the time, Spamhaus also listed MCI as the ISP with the most Spamhaus Block List listings.
Cerf has worked for Google as a Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist since October 2005. In this function he has become well known for his predictions on how technology will affect future society, encompassing such areas as artificial intelligence, environmentalism, the advent of IPv6 and the transformation of the television industry and its delivery model.
Since 2010, Cerf has served as a Commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, a UN body which aims to make broadband internet technologies more widely available.
Cerf joined the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in 1999, and served until November 2007. He was chairman from November 2000 to his departure from the Board.
Cerf was a member of Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov's IT Advisory Council (from March 2002 – January 2012). He is also a member of the Advisory Board of Eurasia Group, the political risk consultancy.
Cerf is also working on the Interplanetary Internet, together with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other NASA laboratories. It will be a new standard to communicate from planet to planet, using radio/laser communications that are tolerant of signal degradations including variable delay and disruption caused, for example, by celestial motion.
On February 7, 2006, Cerf testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation's hearing on network neutrality. Speaking as Google's Chief Internet Evangelist, Cerf noted that nearly half of all consumers lacked meaningful choice in broadband providers and expressed concerns that without network neutrality government regulation, broadband providers would be able to use their dominance to limit options for consumers and charge companies like Google for their use of bandwidth.
Cerf currently serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound science in American government. He also serves on the advisory council of CRDF Global (Civilian Research and Development Foundation) and was on the International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) International Advisory Board.
Cerf is chairman of the board of trustees of ARIN, the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) of IP addresses for United States, Canada, and part of the Caribbean. Until Fall 2015, Cerf chaired the board of directors of StopBadware, a non-profit anti-malware organization that started as a project at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Cerf is on the board of advisors to The Liquid Information Company Ltd of the UK, which works to make the web more usefully interactive and which has produced the Mac OS X utility called 'Liquid'. Vint Cerf is a member of the CuriosityStream Advisory Board.
During 2008, Cerf chaired the Internationalized domain name (IDNAbis) working group of the IETF. In 2008 Cerf was a major contender to be designated the US's first Chief Technology Officer by President Barack Obama. Cerf is the co-chair of Campus Party Silicon Valley, the US edition of one of the largest technology festivals in the world, along with Al Gore and Tim Berners-Lee. From 2009 to 2011, Cerf was an elected member of the Governing Board of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). SGIP is a public-private consortium established by NIST in 2009 and provides a forum for businesses and other stakeholder groups to participate in coordinating and accelerating development of standards for the evolving Smart Grid. Cerf was elected to a two-year term as President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) beginning July 1, 2012. In 2015 Cerf co-founded (with Mei Lin Fung), and is currently chairman of, People-Centered Internet (PCI). On January 16, 2013, US President Barack Obama announced his intent to appoint Cerf to the National Science Board.
Cerf is also among the 15 members of governing council of International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad.
Since at least 2015, Cerf has been raising concerns about the wide-ranging risks of digital obsolescence, the potential of losing much historic information about our time – a digital "dark age" or "black hole" – given the ubiquitous digital storage of text, data, images, music and more. Among the concerns are the long-term storage of, and continued reliable access to, our vast stores of present-day digital data and the associated programs, operating systems, computers and peripherals required to access such.
Cerf has received a number of honorary degrees, including doctorates, from the University of the Balearic Islands, ETHZ in Zurich, Switzerland, Capitol College, Gettysburg College, Yale University, George Mason University, Marymount University, Bethany College (Kansas), University of Pisa, University of Rovira and Virgili (Tarragona, Spain), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Luleå University of Technology (Sweden), University of Twente (Netherlands), Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Tsinghua University (Beijing), Brooklyn Polytechnic, UPCT (University of Cartagena, Spain), Zaragoza University (Spain), University of Reading (United Kingdom), Royal Roads University (Canada), MGIMO (Moscow State University of International Relations), Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (Argentina), Polytechnic University of Madrid, Keio University (Japan), University of South Australia (Australia), University of St Andrews (Scotland), University of Pittsburgh and  Gallaudet University (United States). Other awards include:
“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
|Awards and achievements|
| IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
with Bob Kahn
Adam Dunkels is a Swedish entrepreneur, programmer and founder of Thingsquare.
His father was Andrejs Dunkels, professor in Mathematics. His mother was Kerstin Vännman also professor. His work is mainly focused on networking technology and distributed communication for small embedded devices and wireless sensor networks on the Internet. Dunkels is best known to the embedded community as the author of the uIP (micro-IP) and lwIP TCP/IP protocol stacks. He is also the creator of protothreads and author of the Contiki operating system. The MIT Technology Review placed him on the TR35 list of world's top 35 innovators under 35, in 2009.His book Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP - the Next Internet, co-authored with Jean-Philippe Vasseur and with a foreword by Vint Cerf, was published in 2010.He is a founder of the IPSO Alliance, who promotes IP networking for smart objects such as embedded systems and wireless sensors, and author of the alliance's white paper.Dunkels received the 2008 EuroSys Roger Needham PhD Award for his PhD thesis "Programming Memory-Constrained Networked Embedded Systems".Bob Kahn
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.Cerf (surname)
Cerf or Le Cerf is a French-language surname, derived from cerf, meaning "hind", "hart" or "deer". It is common for both Christians and Jews, an equivalent of Naphtali, to which the meaning of "hind" is attributed , and is thus also the equivalent of the same name translated into other European languages, for example Hirsch in German and Jellinek in Czech.
Notable people with this surname include the following:
Bennett Cerf (1898–1971), publisher and co-founder of Random House
Jonathan Cerf, his son, author of Big Bird's Red Book and the 1980 world champion of Othello, the board game
Camille Cerf (journalist) (a man, 1862 - 1936), Belgian journalist and camera operator who worked for the Lumière brothers as of 1895
Camille Cerf (a woman, born 1994), recipient of the Miss France 2015 award
Cécile Cerf (1916–1973), French resistance fighter
Christopher Cerf (musician and television producer) (born 1941), American author, composer-lyricist, and record and television producer
Christopher Cerf (school politician and businessman) (born 1960), New Jersey educator
Ferdinand Le Cerf (1881–1945), French entomologist
Gustav Zerffi, born Cerf or Hirsch (1820–1892), Hungarian Jewish journalist, revolutionary and spy
Jean Cerf (born 1928), French mathematician who worked in differential topology and symplectic geometry, pioneer of Cerf theory
Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de La Viéville (1674–1707), musicographer
Karl Friedrich Cerf (1782–1845), German theatrical manager
Muriel Cerf (1950–2012), French novelist and travel writer
Nicolas J. Cerf (born 1965), a Belgian theoretical physicist working on quantum information theory
Phyllis Cerf (1916–2006), American actress, journalist, and children's book publisher, and the co-founder of Beginner Books
Vint Cerf (born 1943), American computer scientist, often referred to as one of the founding fathers of the InternetFederal Networking Council
Informally established in the early 1990s, the Federal Networking Council (FNC) was later chartered by the US National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (CCIC) to continue to act as a forum for networking collaborations among US federal agencies to meet their research, education, and operational mission goals and to bridge the gap between the advanced networking technologies being developed by research FNC agencies and the ultimate acquisition of mature version of these technologies from the commercial sector. The FNC consisted of a group made up of representatives from the United States Department of Defense (DoD), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), among others.By October 1997, the FNC advisory committee was de-chartered and many of the FNC activities were transferred to the Large Scale Networking group of the Computing, Information, and Communications (CIC) R&D subcommittee of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development program, or the Applications Council.On October 24, 1995, the Federal Networking Council passed a resolution defining the term Internet:
Resolution: The Federal Networking Council (FNC) agrees that the following language reflects our definition of the term ``Internet. ``Internet refers to the global information system that - (i) is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons; (ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii) provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein.'Some notable members of the council advisory committee included: Henriette Avram, Matt Blaze, Vint Cerf, John Gage, Robert Kahn, Paul Mockapetris, Ike Nassi, Stewart Personick and Stephen Wolff.Hyperwords
Hyperwords or liquid information refers to text that can be sent to programs or services (such as emails, dictionaries, online translators) through a simple set of commands. The concept has been implemented as a server plug-in and as a plug-in for the Firefox, Flock, Chrome and Safari web browsers. It is a selection-based interface which can be used for references, searches, blogging, emailing, copying, conversions and language translation.
The project grew out of a research project at University College London. It was taken on by The Hyperwords Company, renamed to The Liquid Information Company in 2012, where it was then developed and maintained from its London, UK offices until its dissolution in 2014. Frode Hegland was the head of the company. The original development of Liquid (OS X) was by Daoxin Z. in China, followed by Konstantin R. (TIANI Studio) in Poland and Zuzex in Russia. The Liquid Browser add-ons for Firefox, Chrome, and Safari were developed by Mikhail S. and Alex V. in Russia, and Tobias H. in Germany, until it was discontinued.The company's advisory board included Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, Vint Cerf, Dave Farber, Bruce Horn and Douglas Rushkoff.InterPlaNet
InterPlaNet (IPN), not to be confused with InterPlanetary Network, is a computer networking protocol designed to operate at interplanetary distances, where traditional protocols such as the Internet Protocol break down. It is the base for Interplanetary Internet. It has been under development by Vint Cerf and NASA since 1998 and a permanent network link to Mars was planned by 2008 until the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter was canceled in 2005. The protocol was expected to be space-qualified and ready for use by around 2010.Internet Experiment Note
An Internet Experiment Note (IEN) is a sequentially numbered document in a series of technical publications issued by the participants of the early development work groups that created the precursors of the modern Internet.
After DARPA began the Internet program in earnest in 1977, the project members were in need of communication and documentation of their work in order to realize the concepts laid out by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf some years before. The Requests for Comments (RFC) series was considered the province of the ARPANET project and the Network Working Group (NWG) which defined the network protocols used on it. Thus, the members of the Internet project decided on publishing their own series of documents, Internet Experiment Notes, which were modeled after the RFCs.
Jon Postel became the editor of the new series, in addition to his existing role of administering the long-standing RFC series. Between March, 1977, and September, 1982, 206 IENs were published. After that, with the plan to terminate support of the Network Control Program (NCP) on the ARPANET and switch to TCP/IP, the production of IENs was discontinued, and all further publication was conducted within the existing RFC system.Internet Protocol
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.
IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.
Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.
The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), has been growing in adoption for the last years, reaching almost 25% of the Internet traffic as of October, 2018.John A. Adam
John A. Adam (born 1949) is an American writer and editor, based in Washington, D.C.
Assignments have taken him from Southwest Asia to the backwaters of the Amazon. He has profiled numerous leaders in science and technology, including Internet pioneers Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf, pacemaker inventor Wilson Greatbatch, and earth scientist Marcia McNutt. Among his investigative reports: cryptography, stealth aircraft, arms control verification, Brazil's power, and the Gulf War.
His first book, forthcoming, draws on a communications theme to portray the founding of the United States through the life of Benjamin Franklin. The non-fiction epic narrative is based on more than ten years of research, mostly at the U.S. Library of Congress.
His journalism has appeared in the New York Times and Washington Post as well as Scientific American, ARTnews and Discover. He was honored four times in the National Magazine Awards while a staff writer at IEEE Spectrum. Awards were for reporting (1993 winner, with Glenn Zorpette); for public service (finalist, 1988); and twice for special issues (1986 and 1990).Jon Postel
Jonathan Bruce Postel (; August 6, 1943 – October 16, 1998) was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to standards. He is known principally for being the Editor of the Request for Comment (RFC) document series, for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and for administering the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) until his death. In his lifetime he was known as the "god of the Internet" for his comprehensive influence on the medium.
The Internet Society's Postel Award is named in his honor, as is the Postel Center at Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California. His obituary was written by Vint Cerf and published as RFC 2468 in remembrance of Postel and his work. In 2012, Postel was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society. The Channel Islands' Domain Registry building was named after him in early 2016.Jonathan B. Postel Service Award
The Jonathan B. Postel Service Award is an award named after Jon Postel. The award has been presented every year since 1999 by the Internet Society to "honor a person who has made outstanding contributions in service to the data communications community."
The first recipient of the award was Jon Postel himself (posthumously).
The award was created by Vint Cerf as chairman of the Internet Society and announced in "I remember IANA" published as RFC 2468.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2016
This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society who were elected on 29 April 2016.List of Internet pioneers
Instead of a single "inventor", the Internet was developed by many people over many years. The following are some Internet pioneers who contributed to its early development. These include early theoretical foundations, specifying original protocols, and expansion beyond a research tool to wide deployment.MCI Mail
MCI Mail was one of the first ever commercial email services in the United States and one of the largest telecommunication services in the world. Operated by MCI Communications Corp. from 1983 to 2003, MCI Mail offered its customers a low cost and effective solution for sending and receiving electronic mail.Peter Dengate Thrush
Peter Dengate-Thrush (born 1956), aka "PDT", is a New Zealand barrister specialising in Internet law. In November 2007 he was appointed Chairman of the Board of ICANN, taking over the role from Vint Cerf.Dengate Thrush was made an InternetNZ Fellow at the InternetNZ annual meeting in August 2008 in recognition of his contributions to Internet policy issues both in New Zealand and internationally.After his Term at ICANN ended in June 2011, Dengate Thrush switched to TLDh Top Level Domain Holdings, the parent company of Minds+Machines, where he was appointed Executive Chairman.SIGCOMM Award
The SIGCOMM Award recognizes lifetime contribution to the field of communication networks.
The award is presented in the annual SIGCOMM Technical Conference.
The awardees have been:
2018 Jennifer Rexford
2017 Raj Jain
2016 Jim Kurose
2015 Albert Greenberg
2014 George Varghese
2013 Larry Peterson
2012 Nick McKeown
2011 Vern Paxson
2010 Radia Perlman
2009 Jon Crowcroft
2008 Don Towsley
2007 Sally Floyd
2006 Domenico Ferrari
2005 Paul Mockapetris
2004 Simon S. Lam
2003 David Cheriton
2002 Scott Shenker
2001 Van Jacobson
2000 Andre Danthine
1999 Peter Kirstein
1998 Larry Roberts
1997 Jon Postel
1997 Louis Pouzin
1996 Vint Cerf
1995 David J. Farber
1994 Paul Green
1993 Robert Kahn
1992 Sandy Fraser
1991 Hubert Zimmerman
1990 David D. Clark
1990 Leonard Kleinrock
1989 Paul BaranSalamander Syncope
Salamander Syncope (1971) 24-minute work directed and produced by Hamid Naficy on 2-inch, color videotape and 16mm film for his Master of Fine Arts thesis at University of California, Los Angeles. Naficy produced the work in conjunction with the UCLA computer department. He collaborated over two years with six computer engineering students including internet pioneer Vint Cerf.
Long ignored in scholarly circles, the film has begun to be discussed as an early example of computer-generated cinema, specifically experimental and countercultural cinema produced in the United States by an Iranian immigrant.Sputnik Observatory
Sputnik Observatory (SPTNK) is an educational non-profit organization that specializes in the study of contemporary culture. SPTNK documents, archives and disseminates ideas that are shaping modern thought. SPTNK has a website designed by Jonathan Harris that interconnects ideas in fields as diverse as quantum physics, mathematics, neuroscience, biology, economics, architecture, digital art, video games, computer science and music. Conversations include such people as physicist Freeman Dyson, game designer Will Wright, venture capitalist Jacques Vallée, biologist Lynn Margulis, aerospace entrepreneur Robert Bigelow, architect Lars Spuybroek and computer scientist Vint Cerf..
Sputnik Observatory was established and funded in New York City in 2003 by the principals of Sputnik Inc. Its goal is to encourage lifelong learning within a democratic space where people can listen and engage with ideas that inform contemporary history. Board Members include John Perry Barlow, Hiro Yamagata, Bruce Odland and Dorion Sagan.Steve Crocker
Stephen D. Crocker (born October 15, 1944 in Pasadena, California) is the inventor of the Request for Comments series, authoring the very first RFC and many more. He attended Van Nuys High School, as did Vint Cerf and Jon Postel. Crocker received his bachelor's degree (1968) and PhD (1977) from the University of California, Los Angeles. Crocker was appointed as chair of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN in 2011.Steve Crocker has worked in the Internet community since its inception. As a UCLA graduate student in the 1960s, he was part of the team that developed the protocols for the ARPANET which were the foundation for today's Internet. For this work, Crocker was awarded the 2002 IEEE Internet Award.While at UCLA Crocker taught an extension course on computer programming (for the IBM 7094 mainframe computer). The class was intended to teach digital processing and assembly language programming to high school teachers, so that they could offer such courses in their high schools. A number of high school students were also admitted to the course, to ensure that they would be able to understand this new discipline. Crocker was also active in the newly formed UCLA Computer Club.
Crocker has been a program manager at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a senior researcher at USC's Information Sciences Institute, founder and director of the Computer Science Laboratory at The Aerospace Corporation and a vice president at Trusted Information Systems. In 1994, Crocker was one of the founders and chief technology officer of CyberCash, Inc. In 1998, he founded and ran Executive DSL, a DSL-based ISP. In 1999 he cofounded and was CEO of Longitude Systems. He is currently CEO of Shinkuro, a research and development company.
Steve Crocker was instrumental in creating the ARPA "Network Working Group", which later was the context in which the IETF was created.
He has also been an IETF security area director, a member of the Internet Architecture Board, chair of the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, board member and chairman of ICANN, a board member of the Internet Society and numerous other Internet-related volunteer positions.
In 2012, Crocker was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society.
A. M. Turing Award laureates