Vint Cerf

Vinton Gray Cerf[2] ForMemRS,[1] (/sɜːrf/; born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of[7] "the fathers of the Internet",[8] sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.[9][10] His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology,[2] the Turing Award,[11] the Presidential Medal of Freedom,[12] the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.

In the early days, Cerf was a manager for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology. When the Internet began to transition to a commercial opportunity during the late 1980s, Cerf moved to MCI where he was instrumental in the development of the first commercial email system (MCI Mail) connected to the Internet.

Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start. He waited a year before stepping forward to join the ICANN Board, and eventually became chairman. He was elected as the president of the Association for Computing Machinery in May 2012,[13] and in August 2013 he joined the Council on CyberSecurity's Board of Advisors.[14]

Cerf is active in many organizations that are working to help the Internet deliver humanitarian value to the world. He is supportive of innovative projects that are experimenting with new approaches to global problems, including the digital divide, the gender gap, and the changing nature of jobs. Cerf is also known for his sartorial style, typically appearing in a three-piece suit—a rarity in an industry known for its casual dress norms.[15][16]

Vint Cerf
Dr Vint Cerf ForMemRS
Vint Cerf at the Royal Society admissions day in 2016
Vinton Gray Cerf

June 23, 1943 (age 75)
Alma materStanford University
Known forTCP/IP
Internet Society
Scientific career
InstitutionsIBM,[2] International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad,[2][3] UCLA,[2] Stanford University,[2] DARPA,[2] MCI,[2][4] CNRI,[2] Google,[5]
ThesisMultiprocessors, Semaphores, and a Graph Model of Computation (1972)
Doctoral advisorGerald Estrin[6]
Signature of Vint Cerf

Life and career

Vint Cerf - 2010
Vinton Cerf in Vilnius, September 2010

Cerf was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Muriel (born Gray), a housewife, and Vinton Thurston Cerf, an aerospace executive.[17][18] Cerf went to Van Nuys High School in California along with Jon Postel and Steve Crocker; he wrote the former's obituary. Both were also instrumental in the creation of the Internet. While in high school, Cerf worked at Rocketdyne on the Apollo program, including helping to write statistical analysis software for the non-destructive tests of the F-1 engines.[19] Cerf's first job after obtaining his B.S. degree in mathematics from Stanford University was at IBM, where he worked for two years as a systems engineer supporting QUIKTRAN.[2] He left IBM to attend graduate school at UCLA where he earned his M.S. degree in 1970 and his PhD degree in 1972.[6][20] During his graduate student years, he studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock's data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet,[21] the first node [21] on the Internet, and "contributed to a host-to-host protocol" for the ARPANet.[22] While at UCLA, he also met Bob Kahn, who was working on the ARPANet hardware architecture.[22] After receiving his doctorate, Cerf became an assistant professor at Stanford University from 1972–1976, where he conducted research on packet network interconnection protocols and co-designed the DoD TCP/IP protocol suite with Kahn.[22] Cerf then moved to DARPA in 1976, where he stayed until 1982.

Vinton Cerf-20070512
Cerf playing Spacewar! on the Computer History Museum's PDP-1, ICANN meeting, 2007

As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982 to 1986, Cerf led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial email service to be connected to the Internet. In 1986, he joined Bob Kahn at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives as its vice president, working with Kahn on Digital Libraries, Knowledge Robots, and gigabit speed networks. It was during this time, in 1992, that he and Kahn, among others, founded the Internet Society (ISOC) to provide leadership in education, policy and standards related to the Internet. Cerf served as the first president of ISOC. Cerf rejoined MCI during 1994 and served as Senior Vice President of Technology Strategy. In this role, he helped to guide corporate strategy development from a technical perspective. Previously, he served as MCI's senior vice president of Architecture and Technology, leading a team of architects and engineers to design advanced networking frameworks, including Internet-based solutions for delivering a combination of data, information, voice and video services for business and consumer use.

During 1997, Cerf joined the Board of Trustees of Gallaudet University, a university for the education of the deaf and hard-of-hearing.[23] Cerf himself is hard of hearing.[24] He has also served on the university's Board of Associates.[25]

Cerf, as leader of MCI's internet business, was criticized due to MCI's role in providing the IP addresses used by, a vendor of spamware that uses a botnet in order to send spam. MCI refused to terminate the spamware vendor.[26][27] At the time, Spamhaus also listed MCI as the ISP with the most Spamhaus Block List listings.[28]

Cerf has worked for Google as a Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist since October 2005.[5] In this function he has become well known for his predictions on how technology will affect future society, encompassing such areas as artificial intelligence, environmentalism, the advent of IPv6 and the transformation of the television industry and its delivery model.[29]

Since 2010, Cerf has served as a Commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, a UN body which aims to make broadband internet technologies more widely available.

Cerf joined the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in 1999, and served until November 2007.[30] He was chairman from November 2000 to his departure from the Board.

Cerf was a member of Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov's IT Advisory Council (from March 2002 – January 2012). He is also a member of the Advisory Board of Eurasia Group, the political risk consultancy.[31]

Cerf is also working on the Interplanetary Internet, together with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other NASA laboratories. It will be a new standard to communicate from planet to planet, using radio/laser communications that are tolerant of signal degradations including variable delay and disruption caused, for example, by celestial motion.[32]

On February 7, 2006, Cerf testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation's hearing on network neutrality. Speaking as Google's Chief Internet Evangelist, Cerf noted that nearly half of all consumers lacked meaningful choice in broadband providers and expressed concerns that without network neutrality government regulation, broadband providers would be able to use their dominance to limit options for consumers and charge companies like Google for their use of bandwidth.[33]

Cerf currently serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound science in American government.[34] He also serves on the advisory council of CRDF Global (Civilian Research and Development Foundation) and was on the International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) International Advisory Board.[35]

Cerf is chairman of the board of trustees of ARIN, the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) of IP addresses for United States, Canada, and part of the Caribbean.[36] Until Fall 2015, Cerf chaired the board of directors of StopBadware, a non-profit anti-malware organization that started as a project at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society.[37][38] Cerf is on the board of advisors to The Liquid Information Company Ltd of the UK, which works to make the web more usefully interactive and which has produced the Mac OS X utility called 'Liquid'.[39] Vint Cerf is a member of the CuriosityStream Advisory Board.[40]

During 2008, Cerf chaired the Internationalized domain name (IDNAbis) working group of the IETF.[41] In 2008 Cerf was a major contender to be designated the US's first Chief Technology Officer by President Barack Obama.[42] Cerf is the co-chair of Campus Party Silicon Valley, the US edition of one of the largest technology festivals in the world, along with Al Gore and Tim Berners-Lee.[43] From 2009 to 2011, Cerf was an elected member of the Governing Board of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). SGIP is a public-private consortium established by NIST in 2009 and provides a forum for businesses and other stakeholder groups to participate in coordinating and accelerating development of standards for the evolving Smart Grid.[44] Cerf was elected to a two-year term as President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) beginning July 1, 2012.[45] In 2015 Cerf co-founded (with Mei Lin Fung), and is currently chairman of, People-Centered Internet (PCI).[46] On January 16, 2013, US President Barack Obama announced his intent to appoint Cerf to the National Science Board.[47]

Cerf is also among the 15 members of governing council of International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad.[48]

In June 2016, his work with NASA led to Delay-tolerant networking being installed on the International Space Station with an aim towards an Interplanetary Internet.[49]

Since at least 2015, Cerf has been raising concerns about the wide-ranging risks of digital obsolescence, the potential of losing much historic information about our time – a digital "dark age" or "black hole" – given the ubiquitous digital storage of text, data, images, music and more. Among the concerns are the long-term storage of, and continued reliable access to, our vast stores of present-day digital data and the associated programs, operating systems, computers and peripherals required to access such.[50][51][52][53]

Awards and honors

Cerf and Bob E. Kahn being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush
Cerf and Bulgarian President Parvanov being awarded the St. Cyril and Methodius in the Coat of Arms Order

Cerf has received a number of honorary degrees, including doctorates, from the University of the Balearic Islands, ETHZ in Zurich, Switzerland, Capitol College, Gettysburg College, Yale University, George Mason University, Marymount University, Bethany College (Kansas), University of Pisa, University of Rovira and Virgili (Tarragona, Spain), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Luleå University of Technology (Sweden), University of Twente (Netherlands), Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Tsinghua University (Beijing), Brooklyn Polytechnic, UPCT (University of Cartagena, Spain), Zaragoza University (Spain), University of Reading (United Kingdom), Royal Roads University (Canada), MGIMO (Moscow State University of International Relations), Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (Argentina), Polytechnic University of Madrid, Keio University (Japan), University of South Australia (Australia), University of St Andrews (Scotland), University of Pittsburgh and [54] Gallaudet University (United States). Other awards include:

  • In 2018, Vinton Cerf was awarded Catalonia's International Award[73]

See also

Partial bibliography

Cerf at 2007 Los Angeles ICANN meeting
Vint Cerf ARO2017
Vint Cerf, before his talk in memory of Dr. John Niparko at the 2017 MidWinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology in Baltimore


  • Zero Text Length EOF Message (RFC 13, August 1969)
  • IMP-IMP and HOST-HOST Control Links (RFC 18, September 1969)
  • ASCII format for network interchange (RFC 20, October 1969)
  • Host-host control message formats (RFC 22, October 1969)
  • Data transfer protocols (RFC 163, May 1971)
  • PARRY encounters the DOCTOR (RFC 439, January 1973)
  • 'Twas the night before start-up (RFC 968, December 1985)
  • Report of the second Ad Hoc Network Management Review Group, RFC 1109, August 1989
  • Internet Activities Board, RFC 1120, September 1989
  • Thoughts on the National Research and Education Network, RFC 1167, July 1990
  • Networks, Scientific American Special Issue on Communications, Computers, and Networks, September 1991
  • Guidelines for Internet Measurement Activities, October 1991
  • A VIEW FROM THE 21ST CENTURY, RFC 1607, April 1, 1994
  • An Agreement between the Internet Society and Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the Matter of ONC RPC and XDR Protocols, RFC 1790, April 1995
  • I REMEMBER IANA, RFC 2468, October 17, 1998
  • Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (CSCR, RFC 1217, April 1, 1999
  • The Internet is for Everyone, RFC 3271, April 2002


  • Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn, A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication (IEEE Transactions on Communications, May 1974)
  • Vinton Cerf, Y. Dalal, C. Sunshine, Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program (RFC 675, December 1974)
  • Vinton Cerf, Jon Postel, Mail transition plan (RFC 771, September 1980)
  • Vinton Cerf, K.L. Mills Explaining the role of GOSIP, RFC 1169, August 1990
  • Clark, Chapin, Cerf, Braden, Hobby, Towards the Future Internet Architecture, RFC 1287, December 1991
  • Vinton Cerf et al., A Strategic Plan for Deploying an Internet X.500 Directory Service, RFC 1430, February 1993
  • Vinton Cerf & Bob Kahn, Al Gore and the Internet, 2000-09-28[74]
  • Vinton Cerf et al., Internet Radio Communication System July 9, 2002, U.S. Patent 6,418,138
  • Vinton Cerf et al., System for Distributed Task Execution June 3, 2003, U.S. Patent 6,574,628
  • Vinton Cerf et al., Delay-Tolerant Networking Architecture (Informational Status), RFC 4838, April 2007

Cerf writes under the column name "CERF'S UP", and Cerf's car has a vanity plate (registration) "CERFSUP".[75]


  1. ^ a b c Anon (2016). "Dr Vint Cerf ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the website where:

    “All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cerf's curriculum vitae as of February 2001, attached to a transcript of his testimony that month before the United States House Energy Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, from ICANN's website
  3. ^ "Governing Council - IIIT Hyderabad".
  4. ^ Gore Deserves Internet Credit, Some Say, a March 1999 Washington Post article
  5. ^ a b Cerf's up at Google, from the Google Press Center
  6. ^ a b Cerf, Vinton (1972). Multiprocessors, Semaphores, and a Graph Model of Computation (PhD thesis). University of California, Los Angeles. OCLC 4433713032.
  7. ^ (see Interview with Vinton Cerf Archived June 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the internet fathers, citing Bob Kahn and Leonard Kleinrock in particular as being others with whom he should share that title.
  8. ^ Cerf, V. G. (2009). "The day the Internet age began". Nature. 461 (7268): 1202–1203. doi:10.1038/4611202a. PMID 19865146.
  9. ^ "ACM Turing Award, list of recipients". Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  10. ^ "IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal". July 7, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Cerf wins Turing Award February 16, 2005
  12. ^ a b 2005 Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients from the White House website
  13. ^ ACM Elects Vint Cerf as President Archived May 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine from the ACM website
  14. ^ "Advisory Board" Archived September 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Council on CyberSecurity website. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  15. ^ "Internet pioneer Vint Cerf looks to the future", Todd Bishop, Seattle P-I, July 23, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  16. ^ Ghosh, Pallab. "Google's Vint Cerf warns of 'digital Dark Age'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  17. ^ Jerome, Richard (September 18, 2000). "Lending An Ear – Health, Real People Stories". People. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  18. ^ "Vinton Gray Cerf Biography". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  19. ^ Wientjes, Greg (2011). Creative Genius in Technology : Mentor Principles from Life Stories of Geniuses and Visionaries of the Singularity. p. 93. ISBN 978-1463727505.
  20. ^ "UCLA School of Engineering Alumnus Chosen for Prestigious Turing Award". UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. Spring 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-03-05.
  21. ^ a b "Internet predecessor turns 30". CNN. 1999-09-02. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.
  23. ^ Dr. Vinton G. Cerf Appointed to Gallaudet University's Board of Trustees Archived August 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, from that university's website
  24. ^ "Vinton Cerf – Father of the Internet, Vinton Cerf". August 28, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  25. ^ "Board of Associates". Gallaudet University. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  26. ^ Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 19, 2005). "Re: ACM ethics complaint against Cerf – first draft". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  27. ^ McWilliams, Brian (February 16, 2005). "Protest brewing against Internet pioneer". Spam Kings Blog. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  28. ^ Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 25, 2005). "ACM ethics complaint against Cerf – first draft". Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  29. ^ The Daily Telegraph, August 2007
  30. ^ "ICANN Board of Directors – Vinton G. Cerf". February 14, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  31. ^ "Eurasia Group". Eurasia Group. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  32. ^ "The InterPlaNetary Internet Project IPN Special Interest Group". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  33. ^ "Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce" (PDF). Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  34. ^ SEA’s Board of Advisors.
  35. ^ "Govt red tape adds to security threats", Vivian Yeo, ZDNet, October 12, 2009
  36. ^ "ARIN Announces Newly Elected Board of Trustees". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  37. ^ "Board of Directors". StopBadware. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  38. ^ "Harvard's Berkman Center and the Oxford Internet Institute Unveil Backed by Google, Lenovo, Sun; Consumer Reports WebWatch Takes Unpaid Special Advisor Role". StopBadware. January 23, 2006. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  39. ^ "The Liquid Information Company". Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  40. ^ "CuriosityStream Advisory Board". Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  41. ^ "IDNAbis WG". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  42. ^ "The 5 best jobs Obama has yet to fill – Craig Gordon and Ben Smith". Politico.Com. December 4, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  43. ^ Daniel Ben-Horin (November 21, 2011). "The Kids Are Alright: Campus Party, Silicon Valley Tech Festival Rocks NASA". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  44. ^ "Smart Grid Interoperability Panel Launched; Governing Board Elected". Retrieved November 19, 2009.
  45. ^ "ACM Elects Vint Cerf as President". ACM. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  46. ^ "Economies grow far better with inclusivity and compromise". DailyNation. November 23, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  47. ^ "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts". Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  48. ^ "Governing Council". International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
  49. ^ Mahoney, Erin (21 June 2016). "Space Internet Technology Debuts on the International Space Station".
  50. ^ Dartnell, Lewis (2015-02-16). "The digital black hole: will it delete your memories?". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  51. ^ Noyes, Katherine. "Vint Cerf fears a 'digital dark age,' and your data could be at risk". Computerworld. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  52. ^ "Internet Pioneer Warns Our Era Could Become The 'Digital Dark Ages'". Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  53. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (2015-02-13). "Net pioneer warns of data Dark Age". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  54. ^ [1] Archived June 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, website news archive, last accessed June 24, 2015
  55. ^ "Vinton Cerf M.S. '70, PhD '72 | UCLA Alumni". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  56. ^ "SIGCOMM Awards". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  57. ^ "Office of Science and Technology Policy | The White House". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  58. ^ "National Medals of Science and Technology Foundation".
  59. ^ "Vinton Cerf". Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
  60. ^ "ACM: Fellows Award / Vinton G. Cerf". June 4, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  61. ^ "ISOC-Bulgaria: IT-delegation in Sofia". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  62. ^ 2008 (24th) Japan Prize Laureate
  64. ^ FiveYear. "Vint Cerf's Top YouTube Videos". Youtube. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  65. ^ "Vinton G. Cerf, who developed together with Robert E. Kahn the TCP/IP protocol was awarded as a HPI Fellow on May 25th 2011. The HPI award is a tribute to his work for a new medium which influenced the everyday life of our society like no other one." "HPI Fellows & Guests". Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
  66. ^ British Computer Society. "Vint Cerf named BCS Distinguished Fellow". Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  67. ^ 2012 Inductees, Internet Hall of Fame website. Last accessed April 24, 2012
  68. ^ "2013 Winners Announced" Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering
  69. ^ "62nd Bernard Price Memorial Lecture". South African Institute of Electrical Engineers (SAIEE). September 5, 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  70. ^ "Bearers of decorations – Vinton Gray Cerf". Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  71. ^ "Vinton Cerf Appointed an Officer of the Legion of Honor".
  72. ^ "Vinton Gray Cerf". November 2, 2017.
  73. ^ "Vinton Cerf, un dels pares d'internet, premi Internacional Catalunya 2018". 324. January 9, 2019.
  74. ^ Thomas C Greene (2000-10-02). "Net builders Kahn, Cerf recognise Al Gore: Grateful for the inventor's genius". The Register (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  75. ^ Traceability, Vint Cerf, Association for Computing Machinery 'Communications' (August 2018, V61, No. 8, p7, DOI: 10.1145/3235764)

Further reading

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Tadahiro Sekimoto
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
with Bob Kahn
Succeeded by
Richard Blahut
Adam Dunkels

Adam Dunkels is a Swedish entrepreneur, programmer and founder of Thingsquare.

His father was Andrejs Dunkels, professor in Mathematics. His mother was Kerstin Vännman also professor. His work is mainly focused on networking technology and distributed communication for small embedded devices and wireless sensor networks on the Internet. Dunkels is best known to the embedded community as the author of the uIP (micro-IP) and lwIP TCP/IP protocol stacks. He is also the creator of protothreads and author of the Contiki operating system. The MIT Technology Review placed him on the TR35 list of world's top 35 innovators under 35, in 2009.His book Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP - the Next Internet, co-authored with Jean-Philippe Vasseur and with a foreword by Vint Cerf, was published in 2010.He is a founder of the IPSO Alliance, who promotes IP networking for smart objects such as embedded systems and wireless sensors, and author of the alliance's white paper.Dunkels received the 2008 EuroSys Roger Needham PhD Award for his PhD thesis "Programming Memory-Constrained Networked Embedded Systems".

Bob Kahn

Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.

Cerf (surname)

Cerf or Le Cerf is a French-language surname, derived from cerf, meaning "hind", "hart" or "deer". It is common for both Christians and Jews, an equivalent of Naphtali, to which the meaning of "hind" is attributed [1], and is thus also the equivalent of the same name translated into other European languages, for example Hirsch in German and Jellinek in Czech.

Notable people with this surname include the following:

Bennett Cerf (1898–1971), publisher and co-founder of Random House

Jonathan Cerf, his son, author of Big Bird's Red Book and the 1980 world champion of Othello, the board game

Camille Cerf (journalist) (a man, 1862 - 1936), Belgian journalist and camera operator who worked for the Lumière brothers as of 1895

Camille Cerf (a woman, born 1994), recipient of the Miss France 2015 award

Cécile Cerf (1916–1973), French resistance fighter

Christopher Cerf (musician and television producer) (born 1941), American author, composer-lyricist, and record and television producer

Christopher Cerf (school politician and businessman) (born 1960), New Jersey educator

Ferdinand Le Cerf (1881–1945), French entomologist

Gustav Zerffi, born Cerf or Hirsch (1820–1892), Hungarian Jewish journalist, revolutionary and spy

Jean Cerf (born 1928), French mathematician who worked in differential topology and symplectic geometry, pioneer of Cerf theory

Jean-Laurent Le Cerf de La Viéville (1674–1707), musicographer

Karl Friedrich Cerf (1782–1845), German theatrical manager

Muriel Cerf (1950–2012), French novelist and travel writer

Nicolas J. Cerf (born 1965), a Belgian theoretical physicist working on quantum information theory

Phyllis Cerf (1916–2006), American actress, journalist, and children's book publisher, and the co-founder of Beginner Books

Vint Cerf (born 1943), American computer scientist, often referred to as one of the founding fathers of the Internet

Federal Networking Council

Informally established in the early 1990s, the Federal Networking Council (FNC) was later chartered by the US National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (CCIC) to continue to act as a forum for networking collaborations among US federal agencies to meet their research, education, and operational mission goals and to bridge the gap between the advanced networking technologies being developed by research FNC agencies and the ultimate acquisition of mature version of these technologies from the commercial sector. The FNC consisted of a group made up of representatives from the United States Department of Defense (DoD), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), among others.By October 1997, the FNC advisory committee was de-chartered and many of the FNC activities were transferred to the Large Scale Networking group of the Computing, Information, and Communications (CIC) R&D subcommittee of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development program, or the Applications Council.On October 24, 1995, the Federal Networking Council passed a resolution defining the term Internet:

Resolution: The Federal Networking Council (FNC) agrees that the following language reflects our definition of the term ``Internet. ``Internet refers to the global information system that - (i) is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons; (ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii) provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein.'Some notable members of the council advisory committee included: Henriette Avram, Matt Blaze, Vint Cerf, John Gage, Robert Kahn, Paul Mockapetris, Ike Nassi, Stewart Personick and Stephen Wolff.


Hyperwords or liquid information refers to text that can be sent to programs or services (such as emails, dictionaries, online translators) through a simple set of commands. The concept has been implemented as a server plug-in and as a plug-in for the Firefox, Flock, Chrome and Safari web browsers. It is a selection-based interface which can be used for references, searches, blogging, emailing, copying, conversions and language translation.

The project grew out of a research project at University College London. It was taken on by The Hyperwords Company, renamed to The Liquid Information Company in 2012, where it was then developed and maintained from its London, UK offices until its dissolution in 2014. Frode Hegland was the head of the company. The original development of Liquid (OS X) was by Daoxin Z. in China, followed by Konstantin R. (TIANI Studio) in Poland and Zuzex in Russia. The Liquid Browser add-ons for Firefox, Chrome, and Safari were developed by Mikhail S. and Alex V. in Russia, and Tobias H. in Germany, until it was discontinued.The company's advisory board included Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, Vint Cerf, Dave Farber, Bruce Horn and Douglas Rushkoff.


InterPlaNet (IPN), not to be confused with InterPlanetary Network, is a computer networking protocol designed to operate at interplanetary distances, where traditional protocols such as the Internet Protocol break down. It is the base for Interplanetary Internet. It has been under development by Vint Cerf and NASA since 1998 and a permanent network link to Mars was planned by 2008 until the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter was canceled in 2005. The protocol was expected to be space-qualified and ready for use by around 2010.

Internet Experiment Note

An Internet Experiment Note (IEN) is a sequentially numbered document in a series of technical publications issued by the participants of the early development work groups that created the precursors of the modern Internet.

After DARPA began the Internet program in earnest in 1977, the project members were in need of communication and documentation of their work in order to realize the concepts laid out by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf some years before. The Requests for Comments (RFC) series was considered the province of the ARPANET project and the Network Working Group (NWG) which defined the network protocols used on it. Thus, the members of the Internet project decided on publishing their own series of documents, Internet Experiment Notes, which were modeled after the RFCs.

Jon Postel became the editor of the new series, in addition to his existing role of administering the long-standing RFC series. Between March, 1977, and September, 1982, 206 IENs were published. After that, with the plan to terminate support of the Network Control Program (NCP) on the ARPANET and switch to TCP/IP, the production of IENs was discontinued, and all further publication was conducted within the existing RFC system.

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), has been growing in adoption for the last years, reaching almost 25% of the Internet traffic as of October, 2018.

John A. Adam

John A. Adam (born 1949) is an American writer and editor, based in Washington, D.C.

Assignments have taken him from Southwest Asia to the backwaters of the Amazon. He has profiled numerous leaders in science and technology, including Internet pioneers Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf, pacemaker inventor Wilson Greatbatch, and earth scientist Marcia McNutt. Among his investigative reports: cryptography, stealth aircraft, arms control verification, Brazil's power, and the Gulf War.

His first book, forthcoming, draws on a communications theme to portray the founding of the United States through the life of Benjamin Franklin. The non-fiction epic narrative is based on more than ten years of research, mostly at the U.S. Library of Congress.

His journalism has appeared in the New York Times and Washington Post as well as Scientific American, ARTnews and Discover. He was honored four times in the National Magazine Awards while a staff writer at IEEE Spectrum. Awards were for reporting (1993 winner, with Glenn Zorpette); for public service (finalist, 1988); and twice for special issues (1986 and 1990).

Jon Postel

Jonathan Bruce Postel (; August 6, 1943 – October 16, 1998) was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to standards. He is known principally for being the Editor of the Request for Comment (RFC) document series, for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and for administering the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) until his death. In his lifetime he was known as the "god of the Internet" for his comprehensive influence on the medium.

The Internet Society's Postel Award is named in his honor, as is the Postel Center at Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California. His obituary was written by Vint Cerf and published as RFC 2468 in remembrance of Postel and his work. In 2012, Postel was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society. The Channel Islands' Domain Registry building was named after him in early 2016.

Jonathan B. Postel Service Award

The Jonathan B. Postel Service Award is an award named after Jon Postel. The award has been presented every year since 1999 by the Internet Society to "honor a person who has made outstanding contributions in service to the data communications community."

The first recipient of the award was Jon Postel himself (posthumously).

The award was created by Vint Cerf as chairman of the Internet Society and announced in "I remember IANA" published as RFC 2468.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2016

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society who were elected on 29 April 2016.

List of Internet pioneers

Instead of a single "inventor", the Internet was developed by many people over many years. The following are some Internet pioneers who contributed to its early development. These include early theoretical foundations, specifying original protocols, and expansion beyond a research tool to wide deployment.

MCI Mail

MCI Mail was one of the first ever commercial email services in the United States and one of the largest telecommunication services in the world. Operated by MCI Communications Corp. from 1983 to 2003, MCI Mail offered its customers a low cost and effective solution for sending and receiving electronic mail.

Peter Dengate Thrush

Peter Dengate-Thrush (born 1956), aka "PDT", is a New Zealand barrister specialising in Internet law. In November 2007 he was appointed Chairman of the Board of ICANN, taking over the role from Vint Cerf.Dengate Thrush was made an InternetNZ Fellow at the InternetNZ annual meeting in August 2008 in recognition of his contributions to Internet policy issues both in New Zealand and internationally.After his Term at ICANN ended in June 2011, Dengate Thrush switched to TLDh Top Level Domain Holdings, the parent company of Minds+Machines, where he was appointed Executive Chairman.


The SIGCOMM Award recognizes lifetime contribution to the field of communication networks.

The award is presented in the annual SIGCOMM Technical Conference.

The awardees have been:

2018 Jennifer Rexford

2017 Raj Jain

2016 Jim Kurose

2015 Albert Greenberg

2014 George Varghese

2013 Larry Peterson

2012 Nick McKeown

2011 Vern Paxson

2010 Radia Perlman

2009 Jon Crowcroft

2008 Don Towsley

2007 Sally Floyd

2006 Domenico Ferrari

2005 Paul Mockapetris

2004 Simon S. Lam

2003 David Cheriton

2002 Scott Shenker

2001 Van Jacobson

2000 Andre Danthine

1999 Peter Kirstein

1998 Larry Roberts

1997 Jon Postel

1997 Louis Pouzin

1996 Vint Cerf

1995 David J. Farber

1994 Paul Green

1993 Robert Kahn

1992 Sandy Fraser

1991 Hubert Zimmerman

1990 David D. Clark

1990 Leonard Kleinrock

1989 Paul Baran

Salamander Syncope

Salamander Syncope (1971) 24-minute work directed and produced by Hamid Naficy on 2-inch, color videotape and 16mm film for his Master of Fine Arts thesis at University of California, Los Angeles. Naficy produced the work in conjunction with the UCLA computer department. He collaborated over two years with six computer engineering students including internet pioneer Vint Cerf.

Long ignored in scholarly circles, the film has begun to be discussed as an early example of computer-generated cinema, specifically experimental and countercultural cinema produced in the United States by an Iranian immigrant.

Sputnik Observatory

Sputnik Observatory (SPTNK) is an educational non-profit organization that specializes in the study of contemporary culture. SPTNK documents, archives and disseminates ideas that are shaping modern thought. SPTNK has a website designed by Jonathan Harris that interconnects ideas in fields as diverse as quantum physics, mathematics, neuroscience, biology, economics, architecture, digital art, video games, computer science and music. Conversations include such people as physicist Freeman Dyson, game designer Will Wright, venture capitalist Jacques Vallée, biologist Lynn Margulis, aerospace entrepreneur Robert Bigelow, architect Lars Spuybroek and computer scientist Vint Cerf..

Sputnik Observatory was established and funded in New York City in 2003 by the principals of Sputnik Inc. Its goal is to encourage lifelong learning within a democratic space where people can listen and engage with ideas that inform contemporary history. Board Members include John Perry Barlow, Hiro Yamagata, Bruce Odland and Dorion Sagan.

Steve Crocker

Stephen D. Crocker (born October 15, 1944 in Pasadena, California) is the inventor of the Request for Comments series, authoring the very first RFC and many more. He attended Van Nuys High School, as did Vint Cerf and Jon Postel. Crocker received his bachelor's degree (1968) and PhD (1977) from the University of California, Los Angeles. Crocker was appointed as chair of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN in 2011.Steve Crocker has worked in the Internet community since its inception. As a UCLA graduate student in the 1960s, he was part of the team that developed the protocols for the ARPANET which were the foundation for today's Internet. For this work, Crocker was awarded the 2002 IEEE Internet Award.While at UCLA Crocker taught an extension course on computer programming (for the IBM 7094 mainframe computer). The class was intended to teach digital processing and assembly language programming to high school teachers, so that they could offer such courses in their high schools. A number of high school students were also admitted to the course, to ensure that they would be able to understand this new discipline. Crocker was also active in the newly formed UCLA Computer Club.

Crocker has been a program manager at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a senior researcher at USC's Information Sciences Institute, founder and director of the Computer Science Laboratory at The Aerospace Corporation and a vice president at Trusted Information Systems. In 1994, Crocker was one of the founders and chief technology officer of CyberCash, Inc. In 1998, he founded and ran Executive DSL, a DSL-based ISP. In 1999 he cofounded and was CEO of Longitude Systems. He is currently CEO of Shinkuro, a research and development company.

Steve Crocker was instrumental in creating the ARPA "Network Working Group", which later was the context in which the IETF was created.

He has also been an IETF security area director, a member of the Internet Architecture Board, chair of the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, board member and chairman of ICANN, a board member of the Internet Society and numerous other Internet-related volunteer positions.

In 2012, Crocker was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society.

Network topology
and switching

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