Vinous-throated parrotbill

The vinous-throated parrotbill (Sinosuthora webbiana) is a species of parrotbill in the family Sylviidae; formerly, it was placed in the closely related Timaliidae. It is found in China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Russia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Vinous-throated parrotbill
Parrotbill 0780
S. w. bulomachus, Taiwan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sylviidae
Genus: Sinosuthora
Species:
S. webbiana
Binomial name
Sinosuthora webbiana
(Gould, 1852)
Synonyms

Suthora webbiana
Paradoxornis webbianus

Taxonomy and systematics

SuthoraBulomachusWolf
Illustration by Joseph Wolf (1866)

The vinous-throated parrotbill was described in 1852 by John Gould and placed in the genus Suthora, where it sat with other small browner parrotbills. Later parrotbills were merged into two genera, Conostoma and Paradoxornis; with this species being placed in Paradoxornis. Recent DNA studies have shown that the genus Paradoxornis is paraphyletic, and that it should be split. It is suggested that the vinous-throated parrotbill should be placed in the genus Sinoparadoxornis. The vinous-throated parrotbill is very closely related to the ashy-throated parrotbill, and hybrids have been reported between the two species in Vietnam and China, as well as in Italy where both species have become established.[2]

The specific name webbiana commemorates the English botanist Philip Barker Webb. The species is sometimes referred to as Webb's parrotbill.[3]

Habitat and movements

The vinous-throated parrotbill occurs from northern Vietnam to southern Manchuria, and occupies a wide range of habitats across its range. It is generally found in somewhat open wooded habitats, including scrub, woodland of early successional to late mature secondary stages, forest edges, thickets and bamboo stands. It also occurs in hedges, reeds and marshes. They also will adapt to human modified habitats such as tea plantations and plant nurseries. In China it is found in lower montane areas, in Sichuan it is replaced at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level by the ashy-throated parrotbill, whereas in Taiwan, where it is the only species of parrotbill, it occurs from sea level to 3,100 m (10,200 ft) and occupies the widest niche of any bird on that island.[4]

Description

The vinous-throated parrotbill is a relatively small and long-tailed parrotbill. It measures between 11 and 12.5 cm (4.3–4.9 in) in length. The weight varies slightly by sex, with males weighing between 8.5 to 11 g (0.30–0.39 oz) and the females weighing 7 to 12 cm (2.8–4.7 in). The tail is graduated and like other parrotbills the bill is short and has the nostrils concealed by feather bristles. The plumage is similar for both sexes, which in the nominate is warm brown on the upperparts, dark brown on the wings (tinged with chestnut on the flight feathers). The upper breast and throat are pinkish-cream with brown streaks on the throat. The flanks are similar to the upperparts but slightly buffy, and the belly is cream-buff merging into the breast. The crown and forehead is rufescent brown, with a pale grey iris and the bill is either slate grey or brown with a paler or yellow tip.

Behaviour

Like other parrotbills and indeed related babblers, the vinous-throated parrotbill is a highly social species, usually encountered in groups. These flocks vary in size through the year, being at their smallest during the breeding season and increasing to as many as 140 individual birds in the winter.The members of winter flocks in Taiwan were described by a study as having four categories of member; core members, which never left the flock; regular members, which generally stayed in the flock but visited or briefly joined other flocks; floaters, which moved around between flocks; and peripheral members, which were only seen for less than two months and were assumed to be visitors from other areas. The ranges of large winter flocks can overlap with that of other flocks and flocks passing close together retain their cohesion.

References

  1. ^ Birdlife International (2012). "Paradoxornis webbianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  2. ^ Boto, Alberto, Andrea Galimberti and Richard Bonser (2009) The parrotbills in Lombardia, Italy Birding World 22(11):471-474
  3. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael (2004). Whose Bird?: Common Bird Names and the People They Commemorate. Yale University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-300-10359-5.
  4. ^ Robson, Craig (2007). "Family Paradoxornithidae (Parrotbill)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 292–320. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2.

External links

Ashy-throated parrotbill

The ashy-throated parrotbill, (Sinosuthora alphonsiana), is a parrotbill. In old sources, it may be called Alphonse's crow-tit; though superficially resembling a tit it is not a member of the Paridae. The native range of this species extends from south-west China to northern Vietnam, and it might have become naturalised in one area in Italy.

Common cuckoo

The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

This species is a widespread summer migrant to Europe and Asia, and winters in Africa. It is a brood parasite, which means it lays eggs in the nests of other bird species, particularly of dunnocks, meadow pipits, and reed warblers. Although its eggs are larger than those of its hosts, the eggs in each type of host nest resemble the host's eggs. The adult too is a mimic, in its case of the sparrowhawk; since that species is a predator, the mimicry gives the female time to lay her eggs without being seen to do so.

Computational phylogenetics

Computational phylogenetics is the application of computational algorithms, methods, and programs to phylogenetic analyses. The goal is to assemble a phylogenetic tree representing a hypothesis about the evolutionary ancestry of a set of genes, species, or other taxa. For example, these techniques have been used to explore the family tree of hominid species and the relationships between specific genes shared by many types of organisms. Traditional phylogenetics relies on morphological data obtained by measuring and quantifying the phenotypic properties of representative organisms, while the more recent field of molecular phylogenetics uses nucleotide sequences encoding genes or amino acid sequences encoding proteins as the basis for classification. Many forms of molecular phylogenetics are closely related to and make extensive use of sequence alignment in constructing and refining phylogenetic trees, which are used to classify the evolutionary relationships between homologous genes represented in the genomes of divergent species. The phylogenetic trees constructed by computational methods are unlikely to perfectly reproduce the evolutionary tree that represents the historical relationships between the species being analyzed. The historical species tree may also differ from the historical tree of an individual homologous gene shared by those species.

List of Sylviidae species

The avian family Sylviidae is commonly called sylviid babblers or sylviid warblers. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 70 species; 28 are the "typical warblers" of genus Sylvia and the remaining 42 are distributed among 19 other genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of birds of Italy

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Italy. The avifauna of Italy included a total of 557 species recorded in the wild by early 2018. Of these species, 166 are accidental, 13 have been introduced by humans, and one has been extirpated.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The notes of population status, such as "endangered", apply to the worldwide population, not that only in Italy.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Italy

(I) Introduced - a species introduced by humans directly or indirectly to Italy

List of birds of Japan (passerine)

The following is a list of passerine Japanese birds. There is a separate list of non-passerine Japanese birds.

List of birds of Korea

This is a list of all birds recorded in the wild in the Korean Peninsula and its islands.

List of birds of Mongolia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mongolia. The avifauna of Mongolia include a total of 427 species, of which four are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Mongolia and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Mongolia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mongolia

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Mongolia although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of North Korea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in North Korea. The avifauna of North Korea include a total of 318 species, none of which are introduced, accidental or endemic. One species listed is extirpated in North Korea and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

The following tag has been used to highlight extirpated species. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in North Korea although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Russia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Russia. The avifauna of Russia include a total of 780 species, of which one is endemic and twelve are rare or accidental in Russia and are not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Russia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Russia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Russia

List of birds of Switzerland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Switzerland. The avifauna of Switzerland include a total of 422 species as of 2018 according to the Swiss Ornithological Institute (Schweizerische Vogelwarte). Of them, 40 are considered irregular and 69 are considered accidental as defined below. Six have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following categories and statuses of occurrence are used by the Swiss Ornithological Institute. Species without letter tags are in Category A ("recorded in an apparently natural state at least once since 1 January 1950") and those without number tags are Status 1 ("recorded in at least 9 years out of 10 between 2005 and 2014").

(B) Category B - "Species that would otherwise be in category A but have been recorded only between 1800 and 1949"

(C) Category C - "Species...introduced by man, either deliberately or accidentally, [and] have established breeding populations"

(D) Category D - Species for which "there is reasonable doubt that they have ever occurred in a natural state"

(2) Status 2, irregular - "species recorded more than 10 times and in more than 5 years between 1965 and 2014 but in fewer than 9 years out of 10 between 2005 and 2014"

(3) Status 3, accidental - "species recorded 1–10 times or in 1–5 years between 1965 and 2014, or for the first time after 2014"

(4) Status 4 - "Species recorded at least once but not since 1965"

List of birds of the Netherlands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 534 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 238 are accidental, 16 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from one or both of Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World, and (I) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Netherlands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Parrotbill

The parrotbills are a group of peculiar birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations exist elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reedbeds and similar habitat. They feed mainly on seeds, e.g. of grasses, to which their bill, as the name implies, is well-adapted. Living in tropical to southern temperate climates, they are usually non-migratory.

The bearded reedling or "bearded tit", a Eurasian species long placed here, is more insectivorous by comparison, especially in summer. It also strikingly differs in morphology, and was time and again placed in a monotypic family Panuridae. DNA sequence data supports this.

As names like "bearded tit" imply, their general habitus and acrobatic habits resemble birds like the long-tailed tits. Together with these and others they were at some time placed in the titmouse family Paridae. Later studies found no justification to presume a close relationship between all these birds, and consequently the parrotbills and bearded reedling were removed from the tits and chickadees and placed into a distinct family, Paradoxornithidae. As names like Paradoxornis paradoxus - "puzzling, paradox bird" - suggest, their true relationships were very unclear, although by the latter 20th century they were generally seen as close to Timaliidae ("Old World babblers") and Sylviidae ("Old World warblers").

Since 1990 (Sibley & Ahlquist 1990), molecular data has been added to aid the efforts of discovering the parrotbills' true relationships. As Paradoxornis species are generally elusive and in many cases little-known birds, usually specimens of the bearded reedling which are far more easy to procure were used for the analyses. Often, the entire group was entirely left out of analyses, being small and seemingly insignificant in the large pattern of bird evolution (e.g. Barker et al. 2002, 2004). The bearded reedling tended to appear close to larks in phylogenies based on e.g. DNA-DNA hybridization (Sibley & Ahlquist 1990), or on mtDNA cytochrome b and nDNA c-myc exon 3, RAG-1 and myoglobin intron 2 sequence data (Ericson & Johansson 2003). Placement in a superfamily Sylvioidea which contained birds such as Sylviidae, Timaliidae and long-tailed tits - but not Paridae - was confirmed.

Cibois (2003a) analyzed mtDNA cytochrome b and 12S/16S rRNA sequences of some Sylvioidea, among them several species of Paradoxornis but not the bearded reedling. These formed a robust clade closer to the Sylvia typical warblers and some presumed "Old World babblers" such as Chrysomma sinense than to other birds. The puzzle was finally resolved by Alström et al. (2006), who studied mtDNA cytochrome b and nDNA myoglobin intron 2 sequences of a wider range of Sylvioidea: The bearded reedling was not a parrotbill at all, but forms a distinct lineage on its own, the relationships of which are not entirely resolved at present. The parrotbills' presence in the clade containing Sylvia, on the other hand, necessitates that the Paradoxornithidae are placed in synonymy of the Sylviidae. Cibois (2003b) even suggested that these themselves were to be merged with the remaining Timaliidae and the latter name to be adopted. This has hitherto not been followed and researchers remain equivocal as many taxa in Sylviidae and Timaliidae remain to be tested for their relationships. In any case, it is most likely that the typical warbler-parrotbill group is monophyletic and therefore agrees with the modern requirements for a taxon. Hence, whether to keep or to synonymize it is entirely a matter of philosophy, as the scientific facts would agree with either approach.

The interesting conclusion from an evolutionary point of view is that the morphologically both internally homogenous and compared to each other highly dissimilar typical warblers and parrotbills form the two extremes in the divergent evolution of the Sylviidae. This is underscored by looking at the closest living relatives of the parrotbills in the rearranged Sylviidae: The genus Chrysomma are non-specialized species altogether intermediate in habitus, habitat and habits between the typical warblers and the parrotbills. Presumably, the ancestral sylviids looked much like these birds. How dramatic the evolutionary changes wrought upon the parrotbills in their adaptation to feeding on grass caryopses and similar seeds were can be seen by comparing them with the typical fulvettas, which were formerly considered Timaliidae and united with the alcippes (Pasquet 2006). These look somewhat like drab fairy-wrens and have none of the parrotbills' adaptations to food and habitat. Yet it appears that the typical fulvettas' and parrotbills' common ancestor evolved into at least two parrotbill lineages independently (Cibois 2003a) & (Yeung et al. 2006). Only the wrentit, the only American sylviid, resembles the parrotbills much in habitus, though not in color pattern, and of course, as an insectivore, neither in bill shape.

Passerine

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided

into three clades, Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscine).The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Philopatry

Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area. The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, may be the most common. The term derives from the Greek 'home-loving', although in recent years the term has been applied to more than just the animal's birthplace. Recent usage refers to animals returning to the same area to breed despite not being born there, and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering grounds. Some of the known reasons for organisms to be philopatric would be for mating (reproduction), survival, migration, parental care, resources, etc.. In most species of animals, individuals will benefit from living in groups, because depending on the species, individuals are more vulnerable to predation and more likely to have difficulty finding resources and food. Therefore, living in groups increases a species chances of survival, which correlates to finding resources and reproducing. Again, depending on the species, returning to their birthplace where that particular species occupies that territory is the more favorable option. The birthplaces for these animals serve as a territory for them to return for feeding and refuge, like fish from a coral reef. In an animal behavior study conducted by Paul Greenwood, overall female mammals are more likely to be philopatric, while male mammals are more likely to disperse. Male birds are more likely to philopatric, while females are more likely to disperse. Philopatry will favor the evolution of cooperative traits because the direction of sex has consequences from the particular mating system.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 16

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Sinosuthora

Sinosuthora is a genus of passerine birds in the family Sylviidae.

The genus was erected by the ornithologists John Penhallurick and Craig Robson in 2009. The type species is the spectacled parrotbill.It contains the following species:

Spectacled parrotbill (Sinosuthora conspicillata)

Vinous-throated parrotbill (Sinosuthora webbiana)

Ashy-throated parrotbill (Sinosuthora alphonsiana)

Brown-winged parrotbill (Sinosuthora brunnea)

Yunnan parrotbill (Sinosuthora brunnea ricketti)

Grey-hooded parrotbill (Sinosuthora zappeyi)

Przevalski's parrotbill (Sinosuthora przewalskii)

Webbianum

Webbianus m., Webbiana f. or Webbianum n. may refer to several flora or fauna species including:

Bellevalia webbiana, a plant species

Caulerpa webbiana, a seaweed species

Cyclyrius webbianus, a butterfly species

Lampadia webbiana, a land snail species

Nanorrhinum webbianum, a cancerwort species found only in Cape Verde

Patellifolia webbiana, a beet species endemic to the island of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Rheum webbianum, a plant species

Rosa webbiana, a rose species

Sinosuthora webbiana, the vinous-throated parrotbill

Ulmus minor 'Webbiana', an elm cultivar

Yunnan parrotbill

The Yunnan parrotbill (Sinosuthora brunnea ricketti) is a parrotbill in the Old World babbler family. This 10 cm long parrotbill is endemic to China, breeding in northwest Yunnan.

It is often considered conspecific with the brown-winged parrotbill, Sinosuthora brunnea, (sometimes the vinous-throated parrotbill, Sinosuthora webbiana). Its behaviour is described as similar to that of vinous-throated.

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