Vineyard

A vineyard (/ˈvɪnjərd/) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture.

A vineyard is often characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine.

Vinepyrennees2
The extensive vineyards of the Languedoc-Roussillon region, southern France
Aerial View - Landschaft Markgräflerland1
Aerial view of vineyards in Markgräflerland, Baden, Germany.

History

Berlin Painter fragment volute-krater satyroi
Satyrs in vineyard. Attic red-figure volute-krater, ca. 490 BC, State Collections of Antiques in Munich.

The earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC.[1] Wine making technology improved considerably with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe.[2]

In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, which was necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security, stability and interest in improving the quality of their vines. They owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.

European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, which is resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock.

Modern practices

Vineyard
A vineyard with bird-netting
NorCal2018 -005 Wine Country - Random Napa Valley Vineyard on the side of a road -S0292033
Napa Valley vineyard on the side of a road

The quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the often much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed heavily on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage (training of the vine, usually along a trellis, and often referred to as "canopy management") and pruning and thinning methods (which aim to optimize the Leaf Area/Fruit (LA/F) ratio relative to a vineyard's microclimate) have largely replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.[3]

Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures (aspersion), new grafting techniques, soil slotting, and mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become increasingly popular in viticulture. The use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were previously unplantable.

For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California, Davis, and California State University, Fresno, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners. The research includes developing improved grape varieties and investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests.

The implementation of mechanical harvesting is often stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, and bureaucratic complications. It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest quickly, often at night. However, very small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting even more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting.

Current trends

Napa Valley
A vineyard in Napa Valley, California
Red vineyards
The Red Vineyard, 1888 by Vincent van Gogh, is the only van Gogh painting sold during his lifetime

Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing almost as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U.S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 (146,000 to 356,000 acres) and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2 (161,500 to 415,000 acres). The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 (49 acres) each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2 (120 acres), providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.[4]

There have also been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon.

In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was significantly reduced in the 1980s,[5] but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs.[6] Grape changes are often in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period.

Local legislation often dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and exactly when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to reinforce tradition. Changes in the law can also change which grapes are planted. For example, during Prohibition in the U.S. (1920–1933), vineyards in California expanded sevenfold to meet the increasing demand for home-brewing. However, they were largely planted in varieties with tough skins that could be transported across the country to home wine-makers and the resulting wine was of a low quality.

According to the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, in April 2015, China (799,000 hectares or 1,970,000 acres) overtook France (792,000 hectares or 1,960,000 acres) in terms of land devoted to vineyards, in second place behind Spain (1,000,200 hectares or 2,472,000 acres), the world's largest producer.[7]

Terroir

La Geria vines
Malvasia grape vines growing in topsoil, covered in lapilli, La Geria, Lanzarote, Canary Islands. The low, curved walls protect the vines from the constant, drying wind.
Novaj - 2015.01.14 (8)
Wine estate in Hungary

Terroir refers to the combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard. These factors include things such as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc.) No two vineyards have exactly the same terroir, although any difference in the resulting wine may be virtually undetectable.

Vineyards are often on located on hillsides and planted in soil that is of only marginal value to other plants. A common saying is that "the worse the soil, the better the wine." Planting on hillsides, especially those facing north (in the southern hemisphere) or south (in the northern hemisphere), is most often in an attempt to maximize the amount of sunlight that falls on the vineyard. For this reason, some of the best wines come from vineyards planted on quite steep hills, conditions which would make most other agricultural products uneconomic. The stereotypical vineyard site for wine grapes (in the Northern hemisphere) is a hillside in a dry climate with a southern exposure, good drainage to reduce unnecessary water uptake, and balanced pruning to force the vine to put more of its energy into the fruit, rather than foliage.

The terroir philosophy is predominately French in origin, the flavour and character of the place defining the individuality and the special attributes of wines and combined with hundreds of years of the finest wine making traditions, terroir gives wines their distinctive taste and signature.

Vignette

A vignette is a 500-square-metre vineyard which is part of a larger consolidated vineyard. Investors purchase a piece of land within a vineyard, and outsource the grape maintenance and production operations to an outside grape grower or wine producers. Because they are contracting under a co-operative structure, they benefit from economies of scale and hence cheaper labour and operational costs.

See also

References

  1. ^ "8,000-year-old wine unearthed in Georgia". Archeology. 2003. Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  2. ^ Phillips, R. (2000). A Short History of Wine. Harper Collins. p. 37. ISBN 0-06-093737-8.
  3. ^ Jackson, Robert (2000). Wine Science: Principles, Practice, Perception. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0-12-379062-X.
  4. ^ Traynor, Ian; Gow, David (July 5, 2007). "Grown in Italy, pressed in Sweden, sold as chianti. Europlonk nouveau has arrived". The Guardian.
  5. ^ Malbec, Jancis Robinson.
  6. ^ Meet the man who scaled Argentina’s mountains to bring malbec wine to the world, The Globe and Mail, September 2014.
  7. ^ "China overtakes France in vineyards". BBC News. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.

Further reading

  • Echikson, Tom (2004). Noble Rot: A Bordeaux Wine Revolution. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-05162-5.
  • Robinson, Jancis, ed. (1999). The Oxford Companion to Wine (Second ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866236-X.
  • Jackson, Ronald S. (2000). Wine Science: Principles, Practice, Perception. United States: Elsevier. ISBN 0-12-379062-X.

External links

Association of Vineyard Churches

The Association of Vineyard Churches, also known as the Vineyard Movement, is a neocharismatic evangelical Christian denomination. It has over 2,400 affiliated churches worldwide.The Vineyard Movement is rooted in the charismatic renewal and historic evangelicalism. Instead of the mainstream charismatic label, however, the movement has preferred the term Empowered Evangelicals (a term coined by Rich Nathan and Ken Wilson in their book of the same name) to reflect their roots in traditional evangelicalism as opposed to classical Pentecostalism. Members also sometimes describe themselves as the "radical middle" between evangelicals and Pentecostals, which is a reference to the book The Quest for the Radical Middle, a historical survey of the Vineyard by Bill Jackson.

It has been associated with the "Signs and Wonders" movement, the Toronto blessing, the Kansas City Prophets and a particular style of Christian worship music.The Vineyard operates a publishing house, Vineyard International Publishing.

Dukes County, Massachusetts

Dukes County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,535, making it the second-least populous county in Massachusetts. Its county seat is Edgartown.Dukes County comprises the Vineyard Haven, MA Micropolitan Statistical Area. The county consists of the island of Martha's Vineyard (including Chappaquiddick Island), the Elizabeth Islands (including Cuttyhunk), the island of Nomans Land, and other associated islets.

John F. Kennedy Jr. plane crash

On the evening of July 16, 1999, John F. Kennedy Jr., son of US president John F. Kennedy, died when the light aircraft he was flying crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Kennedy's wife, Carolyn Bessette, and sister-in-law, Lauren Bessette, were also on board and died. The single-engine Piper Saratoga had departed from New Jersey's Essex County Airport, and its intended route was along the coastline of Connecticut and across Rhode Island Sound to Martha's Vineyard Airport.

The official investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded that Kennedy fell victim to spatial disorientation while he was descending over water at night and consequently lost control of his plane. Kennedy did not hold an instrument rating and therefore he was only certified to fly under visual flight rules. At the time of the crash, the weather and light conditions were such that all basic landmarks were obscured, making visual flight challenging, although legally still permissible.

List of vineyard soil types

The soil composition of vineyards is one of the most important viticultural considerations when planting grape vines. The soil supports the root structure of the vine and influences the drainage levels and amount of minerals and nutrients that the vine is exposed to. The ideal soil condition for a vine is a layer of thin topsoil and subsoil that sufficiently retains water but also has good drainage so that the roots do not become overly saturated. The ability of the soil to retain heat and/or reflect it back up to the vine is also an important consideration that affects the ripening of the grapes.There are several minerals that are vital to the health of vines that all good vineyard soils have. These include calcium which helps to neutralize the Soil pH levels, iron which is essential for photosynthesis, magnesium which is an important component of chlorophyll, nitrogen which is assimilated in the form of nitrates, phosphates which encourages root development, and potassium which improves the vine metabolisms and increases its health for next year's crop.

Loran Transmitting Station Martha's Vineyard

Martha's Vineyard LORAN-A transmitter was a LORAN-A transmitter at Siasconset, Massachusetts. It was built in 1957 with a 625-foot (191 m) tall mast radiator. It was closed in 1962.

Martha's Vineyard

Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often simply called The Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony. Martha's Vineyard includes the smaller Chappaquiddick Island, which is usually connected to the Vineyard, though storms and hurricanes have separated them, as in 2007. It is the 58th largest island in the United States, with a land area of about 96 square miles (250 km2), and the third-largest on the East Coast of the United States, after Long Island and Mount Desert Island. Martha's Vineyard constitutes the bulk of Dukes County, Massachusetts, which also includes the Elizabeth Islands and the island of Nomans Land.

The Vineyard was home to one of the earliest known deaf communities in the United States; consequently, a special sign language, Martha's Vineyard Sign Language, was developed on the island. The 2010 census reported a year-round population of 16,535 residents, although the summer population can swell to more than 100,000 people. About 56 percent of the Vineyard's 14,621 homes are seasonally occupied.Martha's Vineyard is primarily known as a summer colony, and it is accessible only by boat and air. However, its year-round population has considerably increased since the 1960s. The island's year-round population increased about a third each decade from 1970 to 2000, for a total of 145 percent or about 3 percent to 4 percent per year (46 percent, 30 percent, and 29 percent in each respective decade). The population of the Vineyard was 14,901 in the 2000 Census and was estimated at 15,582 in 2004. (Dukes County was 14,987 in 2000 and 15,669 in 2004). Dukes County includes the six towns on Martha's Vineyard and Gosnold; it increased by more than 10 percent between 2000 and 2010, according to Census data released in 2011, gaining nearly 1,548 residents. The Island's population increased from 14,987 to 16,535.A study by the Martha's Vineyard Commission found that the cost of living on the island is 60 percent higher than the national average, and housing prices are 96 percent higher. A study of housing needs by the Commission found that the average weekly wage on Martha's Vineyard was "71 percent of the state average, the median home price was 54 percent above the state's and the median rent exceeded the state's by 17 percent".

Martha's Vineyard Airport

Martha's Vineyard Airport (IATA: MVY, ICAO: KMVY, FAA LID: MVY) is a public airport located in the middle of the island of Martha's Vineyard, three miles (5 km) south of the central business district of Vineyard Haven, in Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States. This airport is owned by Dukes County and lies on the border between the towns of West Tisbury and Edgartown. It is often used for general aviation but is also served by four commercial airlines.

The call sign has entered into general use as an abbreviation for the island of Martha's Vineyard as well, much like ACK for Nantucket. One of the local radio stations goes by MVY and it is in general use as shorthand for the entire island.

Martha's Vineyard Naval Auxiliary Air Station

Martha's Vineyard Naval Auxiliary Air Station was a United States Navy facility located in Edgartown and West Tisbury, Massachusetts operational from 1943 to 1946. It existed as an auxiliary air facility of Naval Air Station Quonset Point.

Martha's Vineyard Regional High School

Martha's Vineyard Regional High School or MVRHS is a high school in Oak Bluffs on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, United States.

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) was a village sign-language that was once widely used on the island of Martha's Vineyard from the early 18th century to 1952. It was used by both deaf and hearing people in the community; consequently, deafness did not become a barrier to participation in public life. Deaf people who spoke Martha's Vineyard Sign Language were extremely independent. They participated in society as typical citizens, although there were incidents of discrimination, and language barriers.

The language was able to thrive because of the unusually high percentage of deaf islanders and because deafness was a recessive trait, which meant that almost anyone might have both deaf and hearing siblings. In 1854, when the island's deaf population peaked, the United States national average was one deaf person in about 5,730, while on Martha's Vineyard it was one in 155. In the town of Chilmark, which had the highest concentration of deaf people on the island, the average was 1 in 25; at one point, in a section of Chilmark called Squibnocket, as much as 1 in 4 of the population of 60 was deaf.Sign language on the island declined when the population migrated to the mainland. There are no fluent signers of MVSL today. Katie West, the last deaf person born into the island's sign-language tradition, died in 1952, though there were a few elderly residents still able to recall MVSL when researchers started examining the language in the 1980s. Linguists are working to save the language, but their task is difficult because they cannot experience MVSL firsthand.

Mount Carmel

Mount Carmel (Hebrew: הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel, ISO 259-3: Har ha Karmell; Arabic: الكرمل‎, Al-Karmil, or Arabic: جبل مار إلياس‎, Jabal Mar Elyas, lit. Mount Saint Elias/Elijah) is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. A number of towns are situated there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, located on the northern slope.

The name is presumed to be directly from the Hebrew language word Carmel (כַּרְמֶל), which means "fresh" (planted), or "vineyard" (planted).

Nantucket Sound

Nantucket Sound is a roughly triangular area of the Atlantic Ocean offshore from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. It is 30 miles (48 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) wide, and is enclosed by Cape Cod on the north, Nantucket on the south, and Martha's Vineyard on the west. Between Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard it is connected to the Vineyard Sound. Ports on Nantucket Sound include Nantucket and Hyannis, Massachusetts.

Nantucket Sound possesses significant marine habitat for a diversity of ecologically and economically important species. "The Sound" has particular significance for several federally protected species of wildlife and a variety of commercially and recreationally valuable fisheries.

The Sound is located at a confluence of the cold Labrador Currents and the warm Gulf Stream. This creates a unique coastal habitat representing the southern range for Northern Atlantic species and the northern range for Mid-Atlantic species. Nantucket Sound has much biological diversity and contains habitats that range from open sea to salt marshes, as well as warm-water beaches on the Cape and Islands coasts.

The Red Vineyard

The Red Vineyards near Arles is an oil painting by the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh, executed on a privately primed Toile de 30 piece of burlap in early November 1888. It depicts workers in a vineyard, and is believed to be the only painting van Gogh sold during his lifetime.

It has been listed among the artist's major works.

Vineyard Creek (New South Wales)

Vineyard Creek, a northern tributary of the Parramatta River, is a creek west of Sydney Harbour, located in Sydney, Australia.

Vineyard Gazette

The Vineyard Gazette is the only paid circulation newspaper on the island of Martha's Vineyard. Founded in 1846, it also circulates in many other states and countries to seasonal residents of the resort island.

Vineyard Theatre

The Vineyard Theatre is an Off-Broadway non-profit theatre company, located at 108 East 15th Street in Manhattan, New York City, near Union Square. Its first production was in 1981. It is best known for its productions of the Tony award-winning musical Avenue Q, Paula Vogel's Pulitzer Prize-winning play How I Learned to Drive, and Jeff Bowen and Hunter Bell's Obie Award-winning musical [title of show]. The Vineyard describes itself as "dedicated to new work, bold programming and the support of artists." The company is the recipient of special Obie, Drama Desk and Lucille Lortel awards for Sustained Excellence, and the 1998 Jonathan Larson Performing Arts Foundation Grant. It celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2007.

Other notable productions include Edward Albee's Three Tall Women, Nicky Silver's Pterodactyls, Becky Mode's Fully Committed, Craig Lucas's The Dying Gaul, Christopher Shinn's Where Do We Live, Cornelius Eady's Brutal Imagination, Gina Gionfriddo's After Ashley, the Laura Nyro musical Eli's Comin, and Kander and Ebb's The Scottsboro Boys.The Vineyard is also home to the Vineyard Community of Artists, an alliance of playwrights, composers, actors, designers, and directors that provides artists with a broad range of opportunities to develop their work, strike new collaborations, and participate in the ongoing life of the theatre. It sponsors panel discussions, guest speakers, informal readings of works-in-progress and full readings of new plays.

Vineyard Town, Jamaica

Vineyard Town is a neighbourhood in Kingston, Jamaica.

Viticulture

Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments. Thus, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.Duties of the viticulturist include monitoring and controlling pests and diseases, fertilizing, irrigation, canopy management, monitoring fruit development and characteristics, deciding when to harvest, and vine pruning during the winter months. Viticulturists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which winemaking can begin.

A great number of varieties are now approved in the European Union as true grapes for winegrowing and viticulture.

Yield (wine)

In viticulture, the yield is a measure of the amount of grapes or wine that is produced per unit surface of vineyard, and is therefore a type of crop yield. Two different types of yield measures are commonly used, mass of grapes per vineyard surface, or volume of wine per vineyard surface.The yield is often seen as a quality factor, with lower yields associated with wines with more concentrated flavours, and the maximum allowed yield is therefore regulated for many wine appellations.

Biology and
horticulture
Environmental
variation
Vineyard
planting
Vineyard
management
Harvest
Pests and
diseases
Approaches
and issues
See also
Gardening
Types of gardens
Horticulture
Organic
Plant protection
Related articles

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