Vinegar

Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–20% by volume acetic acid. Usually the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria.[1] Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. There are many types of vinegar, depending upon the source materials.

As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses. Some of these are commonly practiced in the 21st century, such as its use as a household cleaner.

Eguilles 20110828 14
A variety of flavored vinegars on sale in France

Production

Wiener Essigbrauerei 40
Fast aerobic fermentation stainless steel vessels

Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars, where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria.

Fast methods add mother of vinegar (bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in one to three days.

Chemistry

The conversion of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and oxygen (O2) to acetic acid (CH3COOH) takes place by the following reaction:[2]

CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O

Polyphenols

Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids, phenolic acids, and aldehydes,[3] which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar, such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates.[4][5]

Etymology

The word vinegar arrived in Middle English from Old French vyn egre, which in turn derives from Latin vinum (wine) + acer (sour).[6]

History

Vinegar was used as a condiment and for conservation by the Babylonians as much as 5,000 years ago.[7] Traces of it also have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC.[8]

Varieties

Source materials for making vinegar are varied, including different fruits, grains, alcoholic beverages or other fermentable materials.

Fruit

Persimmonvinegar
Persimmon vinegar produced in South Korea
Raisinvinegar
Raisin vinegar

Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a market for high-price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors).[9] Several varieties are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, and wolfberry vinegar are produced in China.

Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-gold color. It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present. It can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened (usually with honey) for consumption.

A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit (which may constitute up to 30 percent of the crop) and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s, and in China in 2008.[10][11]

Pomegranate vinegar is used widely in Israel as a dressing for salad, but also in meat stew and in dips.[12] Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East, and used in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries.[13][14]

Palm

Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (notably the Philippines, where it is known as sukang tuba), as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka, especially Goan cuisine. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.[15]

In the Philippines, there are other types of vinegar also made from palm sap. Like coconut vinegar, they are by-products of tubâ (palm wine) production. The two of the most widely produced are nipa palm vinegar (sukang nipa or sukang sasa) and kaong palm vinegar (sukang kaong or sukang irok). Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine.[16] Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm. It has a citrusy flavor note to it and imparts a distinctly musky aroma.[17][15] Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm. It is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and are commonly used in salad dressing.[16] Vinegar from the buri palm sap is also produced, but not the same prevalence as coconut, nipa, and kaong vinegars. [18] Kaong palm vinegar is also produced in Indonesia and Malaysia, though it's not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim-majority countries.[19][20]

Balsamic

Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy. The original product — traditional balsamic vinegar — is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, and ash wood. Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, and is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" (balsamic vinegar of Modena)[21] became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar.

Balsamic vinegar is made from a grape product. It contains no balsam fruit. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it mellow. In terms of its nutrition content, balsamic vinegar contains the carbohydrates of grape sugars (some 17% of total composition), making it some 5 times higher in caloric content than typical distilled or wine vinegar.[22]

Cane

Vinegar made from sugarcane juice is most popular in the Philippines, in particular in the northern Ilocos Region (where it is called sukang Iloko or sukang basi), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines it often is labeled as sukang maasim (Tagalog for "sour vinegar").

Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways. One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars; it becomes sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar. The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi. Low-quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated basi also becomes vinegar.

A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost.

Sugarcane sirka is made from sugarcane juice in Punjab, India. During summer people put cane juice in earthenware pots with iron nails. The fermentation takes place due to the action of wild yeast. The cane juice is converted to vinegar having a blackish color. The sirka is used to preserve pickles and for flavoring curries.

Grains

Chinese Vinegar
Chinese black vinegar

Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar, originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province, eastern China.[23] Shanxi mature vinegar is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum and other grains. Nowadays in Shanxi province, there are still some traditional vinegar workshops producing handmade vinegar which is aged for at least five years with a high acidity. Only the vinegar made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years is considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard. A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu.

Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in "white" (light yellow), red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries. White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat "flat" and uncomplex flavor. Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.

Malt vinegar made from ale, also called alegar[24], is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged.[24] It is typically light-brown in color. In the United Kingdom and Canada, malt vinegar (along with salt) is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips. Some fish and chip shops replace it with non-brewed condiment.

According to Canadian regulations, malt vinegar is defined as a vinegar that includes undistilled malt that has not yet undergone acetous fermentation. It must be dextro-rotary and cannot contain less than 1.8 grams of solids and 0.2 grams of ash per 100 millilitres at 20 degrees Celsius. It may contain additional cereals or caramel.[25]

Spirits

The term spirit vinegar is sometimes reserved for the stronger variety (5% to 21% acetic acid) made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid.[26] To be called "Spirit Vinegar", the product must come from an agricultural source and must be made by "double fermentation". The first fermentation is sugar to alcohol and the second alcohol to acetic acid. Product made from chemically produced acetic acid cannot be called "vinegar" in the UK, where the term allowed is "Non-brewed condiment".

Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherry wines of Jerez. Dark mahogany in color, it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines. It is concentrated and has generous aromas, including a note of wood, ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods. Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Southern and Central Europe, Cyprus and Israel. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better-quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as champagne, sherry, or pinot gris.

The term "distilled vinegar" as used in the United States (called "spirit vinegar" in the UK, "white vinegar" in Canada[27]) is something of a misnomer because it is not produced by distillation but by fermentation of distilled alcohol. The fermentate is diluted to produce a colorless solution of 5% to 8% acetic acid in water, with a pH of about 2.6. This is variously known as distilled spirit, "virgin" vinegar,[28] or white vinegar, and is used in cooking, baking, meat preservation, and pickling, as well as for medicinal, laboratory, and cleaning purposes.[26] The most common starting material in some regions, because of its low cost, is malt,[29] or in the United States, corn. It is sometimes derived from petroleum.[30] Distilled vinegar is used predominantly for cooking, although in Scotland it is used as an alternative to brown or light malt vinegar. White distilled vinegar can also be used for cleaning, and some is actually sold specifically for this purpose.

Kombucha

Kombucha vinegar is made from kombucha, a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. The bacteria produce a complex array of bacteria. Kombucha vinegar primarily is used to make a vinaigrette, and is flavored by adding strawberries, blackberries, mint, or blueberries at the beginning of fermentation.

Uses

Nutrition

Distilled or red wine vinegar is 95% water, with no carbohydrates, fat, or protein.[31] In a 100 ml (gram) reference amount, distilled vinegar supplies 18 calories and no micronutrients in significant content.[31] Composition and absence of nutrient content for red wine vinegar and apple cider vinegar are the same, whereas balsamic vinegar is 77% water, with 17% carbohydrates, 88 calories per 100 ml, and no fat, protein or micronutrients.[22]

Culinary

Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, in particular pickling liquids, and vinaigrettes and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces, such as hot sauce, mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used in chutneys. It is often used as a condiment on its own or as part of other condiments. Marinades often contain vinegar. In terms of its shelf life, vinegar's acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration.[32]

Beverages

Several beverages are made using vinegar, for instance Posca in ancient Rome. The ancient Greek oxymel is a drink made from vinegar and honey, and sekanjabin is a traditional Persian drink similar to oxymel. Other preparations, known colloquially as "shrubs", range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar, to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar for several days, then sieving off solid parts, and adding considerable amounts of sugar. Some prefer to boil the "shrub" as a final step. These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages, such as soft drinks.

Diet and metabolism

Small amounts of vinegar (2 to 4 tablespoons) may reduce post-meal levels of blood glucose and insulin in people with and without diabetes.[33][34][35]

Folk medicine

For millennia, folk medicine treatments have used vinegar, but there is no evidence from clinical research to support health claims of benefits for diabetes, weight loss, cancer or use as a probiotic.[33] Some treatments with vinegar pose risks to health.[36] Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar has been reported, and because vinegar products sold for medicinal purposes are neither regulated nor standardized, such products may vary widely in content and acidity.[37]

Pests

Twenty percent acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide,[38] but acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems so the vinegar will only kill the top growth and perennial plants may reshoot.[39]

Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts, although not as effectively as hot water.[40] This does not apply to the Portuguese man o' war, which, although generally considered to be a jellyfish, is not; vinegar applied to Portuguese man o' war stings can cause their nematocysts to discharge venom, making the pain worse.[41]

Vinegar is not effective against lice.[42]

Household

White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent. For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned. Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces.[43] Vinegar is known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass. Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional, and still-popular, method of cleaning grease-smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom.[44]

Vinegar can be used for polishing copper, brass, bronze or silver. It is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin as well as the gum on sticker-type price tags. It has been reported as an effective drain cleaner.[45]

Miscellaneous

Most commercial vinegar solutions available to consumers for household use do not exceed 5%. Solutions above 10% require careful handling, as they are corrosive and damaging to the skin.[46]

When a bottle of vinegar is opened, mother of vinegar may develop. It is considered harmless and can be removed by filtering.[47]

Vinegar eels (Turbatrix aceti), a form of nematode, may occur in some forms of vinegar unless the vinegar is kept covered. These feed on the mother of vinegar and can occur in naturally fermenting vinegar.[48]

Some countries prohibit the selling of vinegar over a certain percentage acidity. As an example, the government of Canada limits the acetic acid of vinegars to between 4.1% and 12.3%.[49]

According to legend, in France during the Black Plague, four thieves were able to rob houses of plague victims without being infected themselves. When finally caught, the judge offered to grant the men their freedom, on the condition that they revealed how they managed to stay healthy. They claimed that a medicine woman sold them a potion made of garlic soaked in soured red wine (vinegar). Variants of the recipe, called Four Thieves Vinegar, have been passed down for hundreds of years and are a staple of New Orleans hoodoo practices.[50][51]

A solution of vinegar can be used for water slide decal application as used on scale models and musical instruments, among other things. One part white distilled vinegar (5% acidity) diluted with two parts of distilled or filtered water creates a suitable solution for the application of water-slide decals to hard surfaces. The solution is very similar to the commercial products, often described as "decal softener", sold by hobby shops. The slight acidity of the solution softens the decal and enhances its flexibility, permitting the decal to cling to contours more efficiently.

When baking soda and vinegar are combined, the bicarbonate ion of the baking soda reacts to form carbonic acid, which decomposes into carbon dioxide and water.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ Nakayama T (1959). "Studies on acetic acid-bacteria I. Biochemical studies on ethanol oxidation". J Biochem. 46 (9): 1217–25.
  2. ^ Saladin, Kenneth S. (2015), Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, McGraw-Hill Education, p. 55, ISBN 978-9814646437
  3. ^ Cerezo, Ana B.; Tesfaye, Wendu; Torija, M. Jesús; Mateo, Estíbaliz; García-Parrilla, M. Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M. (2008). "The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods". Food Chemistry. 109 (3): 606–615. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.013.
  4. ^ Cejudo-Bastante, C; Castro-Mejías, R; Natera-Marín, R; García-Barroso, C; Durán-Guerrero, E (2016). "Chemical and sensory characteristics of orange based vinegar". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 53 (8): 3147–3156. doi:10.1007/s13197-016-2288-7. PMC 5055879. PMID 27784909.
  5. ^ Coelho, E; Genisheva, Z; Oliveira, J. M; Teixeira, J. A; Domingues, L (2017). "Vinegar production from fruit concentrates: Effect on volatile composition and antioxidant activity". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 54 (12): 4112–4122. doi:10.1007/s13197-017-2783-5. PMC 5643795. PMID 29085154.
  6. ^ "Definition of vinegar in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries.
  7. ^ Holzapfel, Lisa Solieri, Paolo Giudici, editors ; preface by Wilhelm (2009). Vinegars of the world (Online-Ausg. ed.). Milan: Springer. pp. 22–23. Bibcode:2009viwo.book.....S. ISBN 9788847008663. Cleopatra dissolves pearls in vinegar [...] vinegar is quite often mentioned, is the Bible, both in the Old and in the New Testament.
  8. ^ Bourgeois, Jacques; Barja, François (December 2009). "The history of vinegar and of its acetification systems" (PDF). Archives des Sciences. 62 (2): 147–160.
  9. ^ "What is Fruit Vinegar?". vinegarbook.net. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  10. ^ "Biotechnology in New Zealand" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
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  12. ^ "The poetic goodness of pomegranates".
  13. ^ Das, Bhagwan; Sarin, J. L. (1936). "Vinegar from Dates". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (7): 814. doi:10.1021/ie50319a016.
  14. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1971). "Studies in Ancient Technology".
  15. ^ a b Edgie Polistico (2017). Philippine Food, Cooking, & Dining Dictionary. Anvil Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 9786214200870.
  16. ^ a b Lim-Castillo, Pia (2006). "Traditional Philippine Vinegars and their Role in Shaping the Culinary Culture". In Hosking, Richard. Authenticity in the Kitchen. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2005. Prospect Books. p. 296–298. ISBN 9781903018477.
  17. ^ Lumpia, Burnt (2009-05-17). "I'm Gonna Git You Suka (Filipino Vinegar)". Burntlumpiablog.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  18. ^ Dagoon, Jesse D. (1989). Applied nutrition and food technology. Rex Book Store. p. 273. ISBN 9789712305054.
  19. ^ Siebert, Stephen F. (1999). "Where There is no Beer: Arenga pinnata and Sagueir in Sulawesi, Indones" (PDF). Palms. 43 (4): 177–181. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Toddy Palm - Sugar Palm". Clove Garden. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Balsamic vinegar". BBC Good Food.
  22. ^ a b "Nutrition facts for balsamic vinegar". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast; from the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, standard reference 21. 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  23. ^ AsianWeek.com Archived February 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ a b "Alegar". Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press. 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  25. ^ "Vinegar, Division 19". Justice Laws Website, Government of Canada. 27 December 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
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  27. ^ "List of Ingredients and Allergens: Requirements; Exemptions, Prepackaged Products that Do Not Require a List of Ingredients; Standardized vinegars B.01.008(2)(g), FDR". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
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  30. ^ "CPG Sec. 555.100 Alcohol; Use of Synthetic Alcohol in Foods". Fda.gov. 2014-09-18. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  31. ^ a b "Nutrition facts for distilled vinegar". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast; from the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, standard reference 21. 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  32. ^ "Shelf Life of Vinegar". Eatbydate.com.
  33. ^ a b "Vinegar". TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University. 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  34. ^ Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Shirani, F (2017). "Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 127: 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.01.021. PMID 28292654.
  35. ^ Liatis, S; Grammatikou, S; Poulia, K-A; Perrea, D; Makrilakis, K; Diakoumopoulou, E; Katsilambros, N (2010). "Vinegar reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with type II diabetes when added to a high, but not to a low, glycaemic index meal". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64 (7): 727–32. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.89. PMID 20502468.
  36. ^ Johnston, Carol S.; Gaas, Cindy A. (2006). "Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect". MedGenMed. 8 (2): 61. PMC 1785201. PMID 16926800.
  37. ^ Hill, L; Woodruff, L; Foote, J; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal Injury by Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets and Subsequent Evaluation of Products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–4. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.
  38. ^ "Spray Weeds With Vinegar?". Ars.usda.gov. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  39. ^ "Vinegar as herbicide". Cahe.nmsu.edu. 2004-04-10. Archived from the original on 2008-05-04. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  40. ^ Nomura, J; Sato, RL; Ahern, RM; Snow, JL; Kuwaye, TT; Yamamoto, LG (2002). "A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 20 (7): 624–6. doi:10.1053/ajem.2002.35710. PMID 12442242.
  41. ^ "Portuguese Man 'o Wars and their sting treatment". Cinemaquatics.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  42. ^ Takanolee, M; Edman, J; Mullens, B; Clark, J (2004). "Home Remedies to Control Head Lice Assessment of Home Remedies to Control the Human Head Louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae)". Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 19 (6): 393–8. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2004.11.002. PMID 15637580.
  43. ^ "My Environment: Cleaning Products", Ontario Ministry of the Environment
  44. ^ "Trade Secrets: Betty's Tips", BBC/Lifestyle/Homes/Housekeeping. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  45. ^ "95+ Household Uses for Vinegar | Reader's Digest". Rd.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  46. ^ "Conquer Weeds with Vinegar?". Hort.purdue.edu. 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  47. ^ "Vinegar Information". Reinhart Foods. 2004-01-01. Archived from the original on 2012-12-28. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
  48. ^ "FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions – Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)". Food and Drug Administration. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  49. ^ "Departmental Consolidation of the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations – Part B – Division 19" (PDF). Health Canada. March 2003. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
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  52. ^ http://engineering.oregonstate.edu/momentum/k12/march04/index.html

External links

Media related to Vinegar at Wikimedia Commons

Acetic acid

Acetic acid , systematically named ethanoic acid , is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. In addition to household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate. It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.

Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). It consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used primarily in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

The global demand for acetic acid is about 6.5 million metric tons per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from methanol. Vinegar is mostly dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol.

Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value.

Balsamic vinegar

Balsamic vinegar (Italian: aceto balsamico), occasionally shortened to balsamic, is a very dark, concentrated, and intensely flavoured vinegar originating in Italy, made wholly or partially from grape must. Grape must is freshly crushed grape juice with all the skins, seeds and stems.

The term "aceto balsamico" is unregulated, but there are three protected balsamic vinegars: "Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena" (Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena), "Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia" (Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Reggio Emilia), and "Aceto Balsamico di Modena" (Balsamic Vinegar of Modena). The two traditional balsamic vinegars are made the same way from reduced grape must aged for several years in a series of wooden barrels, and are produced exclusively in either the province of Modena or the wider Emilia region surrounding it. The names of these two vinegars are protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin, while the usually less expensive Balsamic Vinegar of Modena (Aceto Balsamico di Modena) is made from grape must blended with wine vinegar, and produced exclusively in either Modena or Reggio Emilia, with a Protected Geographical Indication status.Balsamic vinegar contains no balsam. The word balsamico (from Latin balsamum, from Greek βάλσαμον) means "balsam-like" in the sense of "restorative" or "curative".

Barbecue sauce

Barbecue sauce (also abbreviated as BBQ sauce) is used as a flavoring sauce, a marinade, basting, condiment, or topping for meat cooked in the barbecue cooking style, including pork or beef ribs and chicken. It is a ubiquitous condiment in the Southern United States and is used on many other foods as well.The ingredients vary widely even within individual countries, but most include some variation on vinegar, tomato paste, or mayonnaise (or a combination thereof) as a base, as well as liquid smoke, onion powder, spices such as mustard and black pepper, and sweeteners such as sugar or molasses.

Black vinegar

Black vinegar is an inky-black vinegar aged for a malty, woody, and smoky flavor. It was first popularized in East Asia, particularly southern China, where in the city of Zhenjiang it became known as Chinkiang vinegar. It is made from rice (usually glutinous), or sorghum, or in some combination of those, perhaps including wheat and millet.A very different black vinegar is made on the central plains of China and is most associated with Shanxi province. Called specifically Mature Vinegar (simplified Chinese: 老陈醋; traditional Chinese: 老陳醋; pinyin: laochencu), it is made from sorghum, peas, barley, bran and chaff and has a much stronger smoky flavor than rice-based black vinegar. It is popular in the north of China as a dipping sauce, particularly for dumplings.

Bush dog

The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America. In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare in most areas except in Suriname, Guyana and Peru; it was first identified by Peter Wilhelm Lund from fossils in Brazilian caves and was believed to be extinct. The bush dog is the only living species in the genus Speothos, and genetic evidence suggests that its closest living relative is the maned wolf of central South America or the African wild dog. The species is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.

In Brazil it is called cachorro-vinagre ("vinegar dog") or cachorro-do-mato ("bush dog"). In Spanish-speaking countries it is called perro vinagre ("vinegar dog"), zorro vinagre ("vinegar fox"), perro de agua ("water dog"), or perro de monte ("bush dog").

Chutney

Chutney is a sauce or a dry base for a sauce, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used with the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, that can include such forms as a spicy coconut dip, a tomato relish, a ground peanut garnish or a dahi (yogurt), cucumber, and mint dip.

An offshoot that took root in Anglo-Indian cuisine is usually a tart fruit such as sharp apples, rhubarb or damson pickle made milder by an equal weight of sugar (usually demerara or brown sugar to replace jaggery in some Indian sweet chutneys). Vinegar was added to the recipe for English-style chutney that traditionally aims to give a long shelf life so that autumn fruit can be preserved for use throughout the year (as are jams, jellies and pickles) or else to be sold as a commercial product. Indian pickles use mustard oil as a pickling agent, but Anglo-Indian style chutney uses malt or cider vinegar which produces a milder product that in western cuisine is often eaten with a hard cheese or with cold meats and fowl, typically in cold pub lunches.Nowadays, the making of some pickles and chutneys in India has been passed over to commercial production, whereas at one time it was done entirely in people's homes. The disadvantage of commercial chutneys and those produced in western style with vinegar and large amounts of sugar is that the main aim of sugar and vinegar as preservatives is to make the product safe for long-term consumption. Regular consumption of these products (as distinct from the original Indian array of fresh relishes) can add to total sugar consumption being increased to unhealthy levels.

Drosophila

Drosophila () is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. They should not be confused with the Tephritidae, a related family, which are also called fruit flies (sometimes referred to as "true fruit flies"); tephritids feed primarily on unripe or ripe fruit, with many species being regarded as destructive agricultural pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly. One species of Drosophila in particular, D. melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. The terms "fruit fly" and "Drosophila" are often used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. The entire genus, however, contains more than 1,500 species and is very diverse in appearance, behavior, and breeding habitat.

Escabeche

Escabeche is the name for a number of dishes in Mediterranean and Latin American cuisines which can refer to a dish of fish or meat (escabeche of chicken, rabbit or pork is common in Spain) marinated and cooked in an acidic mixture (vinegar) and sometimes colored with pimenton (Spanish paprika) or saffron. In central or South America the recipes differ from country to country, sometimes including the prior frying of the ingredient to later marinate. It is a common conservation technique, requiring a pH of 4 or lower to effectively stop putrefaction of the product.

The dish is common in Spain and has evolved with local modifications in the Spanish-speaking world. It is well represented in Portugal and France. The dish is popular in the Philippines and Guam (both former Spanish colonies) where it is the closest to the original Spanish version: adapting the type of fish the ones locally available but respecting the original technique.

In international versions, escabeche is usually poached or fried, then served cold after marinating in a refrigerator overnight or longer. The acid in the marinade is usually vinegar but can include citrus juice. Different types of vinegar may be recommended such as white vinegar or apple cider vinegar.Escabeche is a popular presentation of canned or potted preserved fish, such as mackerel, tuna, bonito or sardines. In the New World, versions of the basic marinade are often used with foods other than fish and meats, for example cassava or green bananas with chicken gizzards (Puerto Rico), jalapeño peppers (Mexico), etc. The origin of the word escabeche is Persian; it was brought to Spain by the Arabs during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The word derives from al-sikbaj, the name of a popular meat dish cooked in a sweet-and-sour sauce, usually vinegar and honey or date molasses. The dish originated in Mediterranean countries like Turkey, Lebanon and Spain, but the practice of this style of preparation has spread as far east as the Philippines and all throughout the western nations of Latin America. It is believed that Spain and Portugal were introduced to the al-sikbaj dish during the Moorish conquests between 790 and 1300 AD.The dish is known as escoveitch or escoveech fish in Jamaica and is marinated in a sauce of vinegar, onions, carrots and scotch bonnet peppers overnight. It is a traditional breakfast dish. It is known as escabecio, scapece or savoro in Italy, savoro in Greece (especially Ionian islands) and scabetche in North Africa.

Kaong palm vinegar

Kaong palm vinegar, also known as irok palm vinegar or arengga palm vinegar, is a traditional Filipino vinegar made from the sap of the kaong sugar palm (Arenga pinnata). It is one of the four main types of vinegars in the Philippines, along with coconut vinegar, cane vinegar, and nipa palm vinegar. It is usually sold under the generic label of "palm vinegar".

List of condiments

A condiment is a supplemental food, such as a sauce, that is added to some foods to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish but can not stand alone as a dish, for example pickles or bacon. The term originally described pickled or preserved foods, but has shifted meaning over time. Many diverse condiments exist in various countries, regions and cultures. This list includes notable worldwide condiments.

List of hot sauces

This is a list of commercial hot sauces. Variations on a company's base product are not necessarily common, and are not always included. Many of these hot sauces are common in North American supermarkets.

Scoville heat ratings vary depending on batch. However, many companies do not disclose numeric ratings for their products at all. "Extra hot" versions may be advertised as several times hotter than the original, without specifying the heat of the original.

Some companies do not disclose which peppers are used.

Labels reading "pepper" and "aged pepper" may refer to a similar aged mash.

According to U.S. "Nutrition Facts" labels, hot sauces have no significant fat, carbohydrates, protein, or vitamins.

Mayonnaise

Mayonnaise (, , also US: ), informally mayo (), is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk, and acid, either vinegar or lemon juice. There are many variants using additional flavorings. The proteins and lecithin in the egg yolk serve as emulsifiers in mayonnaise (and hollandaise sauce). The color of mayonnaise varies from near-white to pale yellow, and its texture from a light cream to a thick gel.

Commercial egg-free varieties are made for vegans and others who avoid chicken eggs or dietary cholesterol.

Nipa palm vinegar

Nipa palm vinegar, also known as sukang sasa or sukang nipa, is a traditional Filipino vinegar made from the sap of the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans). It is one of the four main types of vinegars in the Philippines, along with coconut vinegar, cane vinegar, and kaong palm vinegar. It is usually sold under the generic label of "palm vinegar".Nipa palm vinegar is listed in the Ark of Taste international catalogue of endangered heritage foods by the Slow Food movement. Along with other traditional vinegars in the Philippines, it is threatened by the increasing use of industrially-produced vinegars.

Philippine adobo

Philippine adobo (from Spanish adobar: "marinade," "sauce" or "seasoning") is a popular Filipino dish and cooking process in Filipino cuisine that involves meat, seafood, or vegetables marinated in vinegar, soy sauce, garlic, and black peppercorns, which is browned in oil, and simmered in the marinade. It has occasionally been considered as the unofficial national dish in the Philippines.

Philippine condiments

A number of condiments and sidedishes are used in Filipino cuisine. They include:

Atchara - a sweet pickled papaya relish. Also used as a side dish.

Bagoong - fermented anchovy paste or shrimp paste, particularly popular in the dish kare-kare.

Banana ketchup - a sweet, red condiment made primarily of bananas.

Buro or Balao-Balao - fermented rice which can be colored plain (Capampangan: balao-balao) or dark pink (Tagalog: buro) and sometimes with fish, mainly a condiment for steamed/ boiled vegetables like okra, sweet potato leaves (talbos ng kamote), eggplant, etc.

Calamansi - small Philippine limes

Eggplant sauce - a sour sauce made of grilled eggplant, garlic and vinegar. Used in cocidos and as a side dish.

Ensaladang mangga - green mango relish with tomatoes and onions.

Ensaladang talong - skinned grilled eggplant with tomatoes and onions.

Latik - (Visayan usage only) a thick syrup made from coconut milk and sugar.

Lechon sauce - also known as liver sauce or breadcrumb sauce made out of ground liver or liver pâté, vinegar, sugar, and spices. A sweet, tangy light-brown sauce used in roasts and the pork dish called lechon.

Palapa - a spicy Maranao condiment consisting of finely chopped sakurab (white scallions), ginger, labuyo chili, and grated coconut cooked briefly and stored. It can also be dried. It is usually sautéed before using, or added as an ingredient to other dishes.

Patis. Sometimes spiced with labuyo peppers, or kalamansi lime juice, in which case it is called patismansi.

Labuyo chili - small native chili cultivar

Sukang may sili - cane or coconut vinegar spiced with labuyo peppers.

Sukang may toyo - cane or coconut vinegar with soy sauce. This may also contain the very hot labuyo peppers or onions. Sukang may toyo is used in the pork dish crispy pata.

Sweet and sour sauce - used on fried meats and spring rolls.

Taba ng talangka - fermented paste derived from the salted roe and aligue (reddish or orange crab "fat") of the river swimming crabs (talangka) sautéed in garlic and preserved in oil.

Toyo't Kalamansi (sometimes referred to simply as toyomansi) - soy sauce with kalamansi lime juice.

Potato chip

Potato chips (often just chips), or crisps, are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy. They are commonly served as a snack, side dish, or appetizer. The basic chips are cooked and salted; additional varieties are manufactured using various flavorings and ingredients including herbs, spices, cheeses, other natural flavors, artificial flavors, and additives.

Potato chips are a predominant part of the snack food and convenience food market in Western countries. The global potato chip market generated total revenue of US$16.49 billion in 2005. This accounted for 35.5% of the total savory snacks market in that year ($46.1 billion).

Rice vinegar

Rice vinegar is a vinegar made from fermented rice in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Sushi

Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨, pronounced [sɯꜜɕi] or [sɯɕiꜜ]) is a Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯, sushi-meshi), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanying a variety of ingredients (ネタ, neta), such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits. Styles of sushi and its presentation vary widely, but the one key ingredient is "sushi rice", also referred to as shari (しゃり), or sumeshi (酢飯). The term sushi is no longer used in its original context; it literally means "sour-tasting".

Sushi is traditionally made with medium-grain white rice, though it can be prepared with brown rice or short-grain rice. It is very often prepared with seafood, such as squid, eel, yellowtail, salmon, tuna or imitation crab meat. Many types of sushi are vegetarian. It is often served with pickled ginger (gari), wasabi, and soy sauce. Daikon radish or pickled daikon (takuan) are popular garnishes for the dish.

Sushi is sometimes confused with sashimi, a related dish in Japanese cuisine that consists of thinly sliced raw fish, or occasionally meat, and an optional serving of rice.

Vinegar
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