The use of vine training systems in viticulture is aimed primarily to assist in canopy management with finding the balance in enough foliage to facilitate photosynthesis without excessive shading that could impede grape ripening or promote grape diseases. Additional benefits of utilizing particular training systems could be to control potential yields and to facilitate mechanization of certain vineyard tasks such as pruning, irrigation, applying pesticide or fertilizing sprays as well as harvesting the grapes.
In deciding on what type of vine training system to use, growers will also consider the climate conditions of the vineyard where the amount of sunlight, humidity and wind could have a large impact on the exact benefits the training system offers. For instance, while having a large spread out canopy (such as what the Geneva Double Curtain offers) can promote a favorable leaf to fruit ratio for photosynthesis, it offers very little wind protection. In places such as the Châteauneuf-du-Pape, strong prevailing winds such as le mistral can take the fruit right off the vine so a more condensed, protective vine training system is desirable for vineyards there.
While closely related, the terms trellising, pruning and vine training are often used interchangeably even though they refer to different things. Technically speaking, the trellis refers to the actual stakes, posts, wires or other structures that the grapevine is attached to. Some vines are allowed to grow free standing without any attachment to a trellising structure. Part of the confusion between trellising and vine training systems stems from the fact that vine training systems will often take on the name of the particular type of trellising involved. Pruning refers to the cutting and shaping of the cordon or "arms" of the grapevine in winter which will determine the number of buds that are allowed to become grape clusters. In some wine regions, such as France, the exact number of buds is outlined by Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) regulations. During the summer growing season, pruning can involve removing young plant shoots or excess bunches of grapes with green harvesting. Vine training systems utilize the practice of trellising and pruning in order to dictate and control a grape vine's canopy which will influence not only the potential yield of that year's crop but also the quality of the grapes due to the access of air and sunlight needed for the grapes to ripen fully and for preventing various grape diseases.
As one of the world's oldest cultivated crops, grapevines have been trained for several millennia. Cultures such as the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians discovered that different training techniques could promote more abundant and fruitful yields. When the Greeks began to colonize southern Italy in the 8th century BC, they called the land Oenotria which could be interpreted as "staked" or land of staked vines. In the 1st century AD, Roman writers such as Columella and Pliny the Elder gave advice to vineyard owners about what type of vine trainings worked well for certain vineyards.
Historically, regional tradition largely dictated what type of vine training would be found in a given area. In the early 20th century, many of these traditions were codified into specific wine laws and regulations such as the French Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system. The widespread study and utilization of various training systems began in the 1960s when many New World wine regions were developing their wine industry. Without the centuries of tradition that influenced Old world winemaking and viticulture, vine growers in areas like California, Washington, Australia and New Zealand conducted large scale research into how particular vine training systems, pruning and canopy management techniques impacted wine quality. As research in this area continued into the 21st century, new vine training systems were developed that could be adapted to the desired wine making style the grapes were destined for as well as the labor needs and particular mesoclimate of the vineyard.
While the most pertinent purpose of establishing a vine training system is canopy management, especially dealing with shading, there are many other reasons that come into play. As members of the Vitis family, grapevines are climbing plants that do not have their own natural support like trees. While grapevines have woody trunks, the weight of a vine's leafy canopy and grape clusters will often bring the vine's cordon or "arms" down towards the ground unless it receives some form of support.
In viticulture, growers want to avoid any part of the cordon from touching the ground because of the vine's natural inclination to send out suckers or basal shoots and take root in that area where the cordon is touching the ground. Ever since the phylloxera epidemic of the 19th century, many vines are grafted on phylloxera resistant rootstock. However, the "top part" of the grafted vine is still very susceptible to the phylloxera and should a part of that vine take root both the daughter and the original mother vine will risk being infected by the louse. Additionally this daughter vine will leech resources of water and nutrients from the mother vine which can diminish the quality of both vines' grape production.
Other reasons for vine training involve setting up the vineyard and each individual vine canopy for more efficient labor usage or mechanization. Vines that are trained to have their "fruiting zone" of grape clusters at waist to chest height are easier for vineyard workers to harvest without straining their bodies with excessive bending or reaching. Similarly, keeping the fruiting zone in a consistent spot on each vine makes it easier to set up machinery for pruning, spraying and harvesting.
Many vine training systems are designed to avoid excessive shading of the fruit by the leafy growth (the "canopy"). While some shading is beneficial, especially in very hot and sunny climates, to prevent heat stress, excessive amounts of shading can have negative impact on grape development. As a photosynthetic plant, grapevines need access to sunlight in order to complete their physiological processes. Through photosynthesis, less than 10% of the full sunlight received by a leaf is converted into energy which makes obstacles such as shading even more detrimental to the plant. Even if the leaves at the top of the canopy are receiving plenty of sunlight, the young buds, grape clusters and leaves below will still experience some negative impact. During the annual growth cycle of the grapevine, excessive shading can reduce the success rate of bud formation, budbreak, fruit set as well as the size and quantity of grape berries on a cluster.
The grape clusters receive some benefit from receiving direct sunlight through enhanced ripening of various phenolic compounds that can contribute to a wine's aroma and quality. In addition to having decreased physiological ripeness, excessive shade will negatively impact a grape's quality by causing increases in the levels of potassium, malic acid and pH in the grapes while decreasing the amount of sugar, tartaric acid and color producing anthocyanins. Beyond a lack of sunlight, excessive shading limits the amount of air circulation that can take place within a vine's canopy. In wet, humid climates poor air circulation can promote the development of various grape diseases such as powdery mildew and grey rot.
While the term canopy is popularly used to describe the leafy foliage of the vine, the term actually refers to the entire grapevine structure that is above ground. This includes the trunk, cordon, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Most vine training deals primarily with the "woody" structure of the vine-the cordons or "arms" of the vine that extend from the top of the trunk and the fruiting "canes" that extend from the cordon. When the canes are cut back nearly to the base of the cordon, the shortened stub is called a "spur". Grapevines can either be cane trained or spur trained. In cane training, the grapevines are "spur pruned" meaning that in the winter the fruiting canes are pruned essentially down to their spurs with over 90 percent of the previous year's growth (or "brush" as it is known) removed. Examples of cane training systems include the Guyot, Mosel arch and Pendelbogen. Conversely, spur trained vines are "cane pruned" meaning that the individual canes are relatively permanent with only excess buds at the end of the cane being removed.
Cordons are trained in either a unilateral (one arm) or bilateral (two arms) fashion with the latter resembling the letter "T". The cordons of grapevines are most commonly trained horizontally along wires as in the Lyre and Scott Henry systems. However, notable exceptions do exist, such as the "V" and "Y" trellis systems which elevate the cordon to various angles that resemble their namesake letter. Note that vertical trellising systems, such as the VSP system often used in New Zealand, refer to the vertical orientation of the fruit canes in an upward manner and not the cordon "arms" of the vines.
From the cordon, plant shoots emerge from the bud that eventually develops mature bark and becomes the fruiting cane from which grape clusters will emerge. These canes can be positioned and trained to whatever angle is desired by the grower. Typically, they are positioned upwards but they can be bent into an arch such as a Pendelbogen or Mosel arch system, or trained to point downwards such as the Scott Henry and Sylvos system. The latter method requires more labor-intensive trellising and training for Vitis vinifera vines which are naturally more inclined to grow upwards rather than down. In systems such as the Scott Henry, this downward growth is achieved by the use of movable wires that first allow the canes to grow upwards until about 2 to 3 weeks before harvest when they are then shifted downwards where the weight of gravity on the hanging grape clusters helps keep the canes pointing down.
The leafy foliage of a grapevine's canopy will be dependent on the particular grape variety and its propensity for vigorous growth. These leaves emerge from shoots on the fruiting cane in a manner similar to the grape clusters themselves. A vine is described as "vigorous" if it has a propensity to produce many shoots that are outwardly observable as a large, leafy canopy. The ability of the grapevine to support such a large canopy is dependent on the health of its root system and storage of carbohydrates. If a vine does not have a healthy and extensive root system in proportion to its canopy, then it is being overly vigorous with parts of the vine (most notably the grape clusters) suffering due to lack of resources. While it may seem that more foliage would promote increased photosynthesis (and such carbohydrate production), this is not always the case since the leaves near the top of the canopy create excess shading that hinders photosynthesis in the leaves below. One of the objectives of vine training is to create an "open canopy" that allows limited excess leaf growth and allows plenty of sunlight to penetrate the canopy.
Vine training systems can be broadly classified by a number of different measurements. One of the oldest means was based on the relative height of the trunk with the distance of the canopy from the ground being described as high-trained (also known as "high culture" or vignes hautes) or low-trained (vignes basses). The ancient Romans were adherents of the high-trained vine systems with the tendone system of vines trained high over head along a pergola being one example. In the 1950s, Austrian winemaker Lenz Moser advocated the high-culture style of training, recommending low density plantings of vines with trunks 4 ft (1.25 m) high. One of the benefits of a high-trained system is better frost protection versus low-trained systems such as the gobelet training system which tend to hang low to the ground. Some training systems such as the Guyot and cordons can be adapted to both high and low trained styles.
One of the most common manners of classifying vine training systems now is based on which parts of the vines are permanent fixtures which determines which parts of the vine are removed each year as part of the winter pruning. With a cane-trained system, there are no permanent cordons or branches that are kept year after year. The vine is pruned down to the spur in winter, leaving only one strong cane which is then trained into becoming the main branch for next year's crop. Examples of cane trained systems include the Guyot and Pendelbogen. With spur-trained systems, the main branch or cordon is kept each year with only individual canes being pruned during the winter. While vines that are cane trained will often have a thin, smooth main branch, spur trained vines will often have thick, dark and gnarled cordon branches. Many old vine vineyards will often utilize spur training system. Some examples of spur-training systems include the goblet or bush vine systems, and Cordon de Royat. Some systems, like the Scott Henry and VSP Trellis, can be adapted to both spur and cane training. Vine systems that are classified as either cane or spur trained may be alternately described by the way they are pruned in the winter so systems that are described as "cane-trained" will be spur pruned while systems that are "spur-trained" will be cane-pruned.
Within these larger classifications, the vine training system may be further distinguished by the canopy such as whether it is free (like goblet) or constrained by shoot positioning along wires (such as VSP trellising) and whether it includes a single curtain (Guyot) or double (Lyre). For cordon and many other spur trained systems, they could be described as unilateral (utilizing only 1 arm or cordon) or bilateral with both arms extending from the trunk. Two other classifications, based on trellising, are whether or not the vine is "staked" with an external support structure and the number of wires used in the trellising. Vines may be individual staked either permanently, as many vineyards along the bank of the Rhone Valley which are at risk of wind damage, or temporarily as some young vines are to provide extra support. Within a trellis system fruiting canes and young shoots are attached to wires strung out across the rows. The number of wires used (one, two, three) and whether or not they are movable (such as the Scott Henry) will influence the size of the canopy and the yield.
|Training system||Other names||Spur or Cane trained||Origins||Regions commonly found||Benefits||Disadvantages||Other notes||Sources|
|Alberate||Spur||Likely ancient, used by the Romans||Italy-particularly rural areas of Tuscany, and Romagna||Easy to maintain, requires minimal pruning||Can produce excessive yields of low quality vine||Ancient technique of allowing vines to grow through trees for support||Oxford|
|Ballerina||Spur||Victoria, Australia||Australia||A variant of the Smart-Dyson involving 1 vertical and 2 transverse curtains of shoots growing from 1 or 2 upwards facing cordons||Oxford|
|Basket Training||Spur||Santorini, Greece||South Australia regions like Coonawarra and Padthaway||Easy to maintain, requires minimal pruning||Lots of shading which in wet climates can promote rot and grape diseases||Essentially a minimally pruned version of the bush vine/Gobelet system||Oxford|
|Cassone Padovano||Cane||Veneto||Veneto||A variant of the Sylvos except that the vines are trained horizontally along wires instead of vertically up or down||Oxford|
|Cazenave||Cane||Italy||Italy||Well suited for fertile vineyard soils||Italian variant of the Guyot system involving spurs and canes being arranged along a single horizontal cordon||Oxford|
|Chablis||Eventail, Taille de Semur||Spur||Developed in Chablis||Champagne||A self-regulating system for vine spacing, the spurs are allowed to fan out until they encroach on the next vine||If not supported by wires, some arms can fall to the ground||90% of all Chardonnay plantings in Champagne use this method||Sotheby|
|Chateau Thierry||Cane||France||France||A variant of the Guyot system where a single cane is tied into an arch with a stake support next to its free standing mother vine||Oxford|
|Cordon de Royat||Spur||Bordeaux||Champagne for Pinot noir & Pinot Meunier||Described as a spur trained version of Guyot Simple. Also has a double spur variant||Sotheby|
|Cordon Trained||Spur||Late 20th century||California and parts of Europe||Essentially a spur trained version of the Guyot system that involves using single or bilateral cordons instead of canes||Oxford|
|Duplex||Cane||California in the 1960s||California and parts of Europe||Allows for easy mechanization||Can produce excessive yields and foliage which may promote grape diseases||A variation of the Geneva Double Curtain||Oxford|
|Fan shape||Ventagli||Spur||Central Europe||Central Europe and Russia||Allows for easy burial during winter frost protection||Central and Eastern European variation of the Chablis/Eventail system that promotes a larger fanning out of the vine's spurs||Oxford|
|Geneva Double Curtain||Spur||Developed by Nelson Shaulis in New York State in the 1960s||Found all over the world||Increase protection from frost and ideal for fully mechanized vineyards||Can produce excessive yields||A downward growing, split canopy system||Sotheby|
|Gobelet||Bush vines, head training||Spur||Likely ancient, used by Egyptians and Romans||Mediterranean regions. Examples Beaujolais, Languedoc and Sicily||Suitable for low vigor vines||Vines can be supported by stakes or left free standing||Sotheby|
|Guyot||Cane||Developed by Jules Guyot in 1860s||Found all over the world, especially Burgundy||One of the less complicated and easiest to maintain system that will restrain yields.||Has a double and simple variant||Sotheby|
|Lenz Moser||"High culture" training or Hochkultur||Spur||Developed by Dr. Lenz Moser III in Austria in 1920s||Used throughout parts of Europe from the mid to late 20th century||Easy to maintain with reduced labor and machinery cost||Can cause excessive shading in the fruit zone with reduced grape quality||Influenced Dr. Shaulis' development of the Geneva Double Curtain||Oxford|
|Lyre||The "U" system||Spur||Developed by Alain Carbonneau in Bordeaux||More common in New World wine regions||Allows good air circulation and sunlight penetration||Not ideally suited for low vigor vines||Can be adapted to cane training systems||Sotheby|
|Mosel arch||Cane||Mosel||Germany||Each vine has its own stake with two canes bent into a heart shape. During the growing season the vines have the appearance of trees||Clarke|
|Pendelbogen||European Loop, Arch-Cane, Capovolto||Cane||Germany||Switzerland, Rhineland, Alsace, Macon, British Columbia and Oregon||Promotes better sap distribution and more fruit bearing shoots especially in the center buds on the cane||Can produce excessive yields and reduce ripeness levels||A variant of the Guyot Double||Sotheby|
|Ruakura Twin Two-Tier||RT2T||Spur||New Zealand||New Zealand||Well suited for high-vigor vineyards by spreading out the canopy||Difficult to mechanize||Similar to the Geneva Double Curtain except that the canopy is spread out over 4 curtains, two on top and two on bottom||Oxford|
|Scott Henry||Cane and Spur variant||Developed at Henry Estate Winery in Oregon||Oregon, many New World wine regions||Increased fruiting areas and a split canopy that allows more sun penetration, producing less herbaceous wines with smoother tannins||Can produce excessive yields. Very labor-intensive and expensive to set up||Involves growing shoots along movable wires that allows the grower to shift half the canopy into a downwards growing position||Sotheby|
|Smart-Dyson||Spur||Developed by Australian Richard Smart and American John Dyson||United States, Australia, Chile, Argentina, Spain and Portugal||Often used with organic viticulture due to the very open canopy that limits disease threat or the need for pesticides||Similar to the Scott Henry except that the cordon is trained with alternating upwards and downward trained spurs creating 2 canopies||Oxford|
|Sylvos||Hanging cane, Sylvoz||Cane||Developed by Carlos Sylvos||Veneto, Australia and New Zealand||Requires a lot of time for pruning, and ability to bend and tie the canes. Quite easy to maintain and mechanize||Produces a good quality yield even in case of high soil fertility||Vines are growing downward from a taller (usually over 1,4 m) trunk||Sotheby|
|Sylvos-Casarsa||Casarsa Friuli||Cane||Friuli-Venezia Giulia||Friuli and Veneto||Similar to the Sylvos||Similar to Sylvos except that the canes do not need to be tied down after pruning.||Oxford|
|Sylvos-Hawkes Bay||Spur||Montana Wines adaptation of the Sylvos developed in the 1980s||New Zealand||Creates a more open canopy that allows more air circulation and less prone to bunch rot||Can produce excessive yields and reduce ripeness levels||Combines aspects of the Scott Henry system of alternating upwards and downwards growing shoots with the Sylvos system||Sotheby|
|T Trellis||Spur||Australia||Australia||Can be mechanized for harvest and pruning||An undivided canopy may promote excessive shading||Utilizes 2 horizontal cordons that together with the vine trunk give the appearance of the letter "T"||Oxford|
|Tatura Trellis||Spur||Australia||Australia||Two incline canopies meeting at a 60 degree angle in the middle provides for ample air and light penetration||Can produce excessive yields and difficult to mechanize||Only recently in the 21st century has this style been used for commercial viticulture||Oxford|
|Tendone||Parral, Parron, Pergola, Verandah, Latada (in Portuguese)||Spur||Italy||Southern Italy and parts of South America, Portugal||Grapes grown overhead on arbors or pergolas have little risk of falling to the ground or eaten by animals||Expensive to construct & maintain, very dense canopy and potential for grape diseases to develop||More often used for table grape rather than wine production||Oxford|
|V Trellis||Spur||Australia||Many New World wine regions||Similar to the Lyre "U trellis" except that the cordons are separate from the base trunk||Oxford|
|VSP Trellis||Vertical Shoot Positioned Trellis||Cane and Spur variant||Several variants developed independently in Europe and New World wine regions||Cane in New Zealand, spur trained variant in France & Germany||Well suited for mechanized vineyards and low vigor vines||Can produce excessive yields and shading||Most common system of vine training used in New Zealand||Sotheby|
The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. From a winemaking perspective, each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate, vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break, flowering, fruit set, veraison, harvesting, leaf fall and dormancy-reacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management, irrigation, vine training and the use of agrochemicals. The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life. The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety.Château Clarke
Château Clarke is a wine property of Bordeaux of 54 hectares (130 acres) based in the Listrac-Médoc AOC and classified as Cru Bourgeois.Ciriaco Álvarez
Ciriaco Álvarez was a businessman from Chonchi, Chiloé who rose to prominence in the exploitation of Pilgerodendron uviferum (Spanish: ciprés de las Guaitecas) in the southern Chilean archipelagoes. His dominance of the industry led him being dubbed "The King of Pilgerodendron" (Spanish: El Rey del Ciprés). The chief export products of Álvarez were poles and vine training stacks that went to northern Chile and Peru. To make vine stacks smaller Pilgerodendron than usual were harvested. In 1880 Álvarez established a small shop at río Álvarez in the Patagonian mainland, between present-day Puerto Chacabuco and Puerto Aysén. Álvarez remained active in the industry until the 1920s.Álvarez industry had great efects on the incipient economic development that came to link the archipelagoes of Chiloé, Guaitecas and Chonos.Force Majeure Vineyards
Force Majeure is a Washington/Oregon wine estate, specializing in the growing and production of premium Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon as well as other Bordeaux and Rhone-inspired blends. The brand was founded in 2004 (originally as "Grand Reve Vintners"), and beginning with that vintage Force Majeure began the "Collaboration Series" of wines made by some of Washington's top winemakers, using fruit from Red Mountain's Ciel du Cheval vineyard, garnering much critical acclaim and attention for the brand.
Force Majeure wines have received critical acclaim from influential wine critic Robert Parker's publication The Wine Advocate. Currently, Force Majeure holds the highest score ever given to a Washington Cabernet Sauvignon by the Wine Spectator (97 points).Force Majeure purchased land for an estate vineyard within Washington’s famed Red Mountain AVA, and initially developed the site in 2006-2007. In June 2014, winemaker Todd Alexander of famous Napa Valley cult winery Bryant Family Vineyard became the estate Winemaker for Force Majeure, as they discontinued the Collaboration Series to focus on the estate vineyard and winemaking. Additionally, famous Napa winemaker Helen Keplinger works as a consultant for Force Majeure.Glossary of viticulture terms
This glossary of viticultural terms list some of terms and definitions involved in growing grapes for use in winemaking.Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner (Green Veltliner) is a white wine grape variety grown primarily in Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. The leaves of the grape vine are five-lobed with bunches that are long but compact, and deep green grapes that ripen in mid-late October in the Northern Hemisphere.
In 2008, Grüner Veltliner plantations in Austria stood at 17,151 hectares (42,380 acres), and it accounts for 32.6% of all vineyards in the country, almost all of it being grown in the northeast of the country. Thus, it is the most-planted grape variety in Austria. Some is made into sparkling wine in the far northeast around Poysdorf. Along the Danube to the west of Vienna, in Wachau, Kremstal and Kamptal, it grows with Riesling in terraces reminiscent of Donau, on slopes so steep they can barely retain any soil. The result is a very pure, mineral wine capable of long aging, that stands comparison with some of the great wines of the world. In recent blind tastings organized by the Austrian Wine Marketing Board, Grüner Veltliners have beaten world-class Chardonnays from the likes of Mondavi and Maison Louis Latour.Outside of Austria, Grüner Veltliner is the second most widely grown white grape variety in the Czech Republic, encompassing approximately 2,120 hectares (5,200 acres) and resulting in approximately 11% of Czech wine production. In recent years a few US wineries have started to grow and bottle Grüner Veltliner, including wineries and vineyards in Massachusetts, Oregon, Maryland, the North Fork of Long Island AVA and Finger Lakes AVA regions of New York State, Napa Valley, Clarksburg AVA, Monterey AVA and Santa Ynez Valley AVA in California, Ashtabula County, Ohio, Southern New Jersey winery Bellview Winery, Pennsylvania, and along the Lake Michigan Shore AVA of Southwest Michigan. Gruner Veltliner is also planted in Australia, particularly in the Adelaide Hills wine region in South Australia, as well as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada.
Some ampelographers (such as Hermann Goethe in his 1887 handbook of ampelography) have long assumed that Grüner Veltliner is not related to the other varieties with "Veltliner" in their name (such as Roter Veltliner), or that it is only distantly related. A first DNA analysis in the late 1990s secured Traminer as one parent of Grüner Veltliner, but was not able to identify the other parent among the candidates studied. The other parent was later found to be an originally unnamed variety of which only a single, abandoned, very old and weakened vine was found in Sankt Georgen am Leithagebirge outside Eisenstadt in Austria. The grape is therefore referred to as St. Georgener-Rebe or "St. Georgen-vine".Grüner Veltliner has a reputation of being a particularly food-friendly wine and is a popular offering on restaurant wine lists. It is made into wines of many different styles - much is intended for drinking young in the Heuriger (bars serving new wine) of Vienna, a little is made into sparkling wine, but some is capable of long aging. The steep, Donau-like vineyards of the Danube west of Vienna produce very pure, mineral Grüner Veltliners intended for laying down. Down in the plains, citrus and peach flavors are more apparent, with spicy notes of pepper and sometimes tobacco.History of Chianti
The history of Chianti dates back to at least the 13th century with the earliest incarnations of Chianti as a white wine. Today this Tuscan wine is one of Italy's most well known and recognizable wines. In the Middle Ages, the villages of Gaiole, Castellina and Radda located near Florence formed as a Lega del Chianti (League of Chianti) creating an area that would become the spiritual and historical "heart" of the Chianti region and today is located within the Chianti Classico Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG). As the wines of Chianti grew in popularity other villages in Tuscany wanted their lands to be called Chianti. The boundaries of the region have seen many expansions and sub-divisions over the centuries. The variable terroir of these different macroclimates contributed to diverging range of quality on the market and by the late 20th century consumer perception of Chianti was often associated with basic mass-market Chianti sold in a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called fiasco.In addition to changing boundaries, the grape composition for Chianti has changed dramatically over the years. The earliest examples of Chianti were a white wine but gradually evolved into a red. Baron Bettino Ricasoli, the future Prime Minister in the Kingdom of Italy created the first known "Chianti recipe" in 1872, recommending 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo and 15% Malvasia bianca. In 1967, the Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) regulation set by the Italian government firmly established the "Ricasoli formula" of a Sangiovese-based blend with 10-30% Malvasia and Trebbiano. However some producers desired to make Chianti that did not conform to these standards-such as a 100% variety Sangiovese wine, or all red wine grape varieties and perhaps with allowance for French grape varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot to be used. A few producers went ahead and made their "chianti" as they desired but, prohibited from labeling, sold them as simple vino da tavola. Despite their low level classifications, these "super Chiantis" became internationally recognized by critics and consumers and were coined as Super Tuscans. The success of these wines encouraged government officials to reconsider the DOCG regulations with many changes made to allow some of these vino da tavola to be labeled as Chiantis.Lyre (disambiguation)
A lyre is a stringed musical instrument.
Lyre(s) may also refer to:
Lyre (vine system), a vine training system
Lyre, County Cork, Ireland, a village
Lyre (horse), a Thoroughbred racehorse
Lyre River, in Washington U.S.
Lyres (band), an American alternative rock band
Lyra, a constellation
A music standParral
Parral may refer to:
El Parral, Avila, Spain
Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico
The village and monastery of Santa Maria del Parral, near Segovia, Spain
Parral (vine system), a vine training system
Parral, nickname of Geraldo José da Silva FilhoPergola
A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that usually support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice, often upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave. As a type of gazebo, it may also be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees.
Pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours ("arbors" in American English), and the terms are often used interchangeably. An arbour is generally regarded as a wooden bench seat with a roof, usually enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants. A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure and does not normally include integral seating.Pruning (disambiguation)
Pruning is the practice of removing unwanted portions from a plant.
Pruning may also refer to:
Synaptic pruning, the reformation of neural structure by pruning "excess" neurons or neural clusters
Decision tree pruning, a method of simplification of a decision tree
The Pruning (morphology) algorithm, a technique used in digital image processing based on mathematical morphology
Pruning (viticulture), how pruning is used in vine training systems
Pruning (vascular), in prenatal development, the disappearance of blood vessels which are no longer needed
Pruning (microeconomics), the removal of "excess" items from a budget
Pruning (maceration), in dermatology, the softening, whitening, and wrinkling of skin that is soaked in water
Retinal vessels pruning, the disappearance of the ends of the small vessels in the area affected (as in case of retinal venous occlusion).Scott Henry
Scott Henry may refer to:
Scott Henry (cricketer) (born 1989), Australian cricketer
Scott Henry (golfer) (born 1987), Scottish golfer
Scott Henry (vine training system)Trellis (architecture)
A trellis (treillage) is an architectural structure, usually made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal that is normally made to support and display climbing plants, especially shrubs. There are many types of trellis for different places and for different plants, from agricultural types, especially in viticulture, which are covered at vine training systems, to garden uses for climbers such as grapevines, clematis, ivy, and climbing roses or other support based growing plants. The rose trellis is especially common in Europe and other rose-growing areas, and many climbing rose varieties require a trellis to reach their potential as garden plants. Some plants will climb and wrap themselves round a trellis without much artificial help being needed while others need training by passing the growing shoots through the trellis and/or tying them to the framework.
Trellis can also be referred to as panels, usually made from interwoven wood pieces, attached to fences or the roof or exterior walls of a building. A pergola usually refers to trellis-work that is laid horizontally above head height to provide a partial "roof" in a garden (pergolas are also used in agricultural settings).Venetian wine
Venetian wine is produced in Veneto, a highly productive wine region in north-eastern Italy.
The broader area comprising Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is known collectively as the Tre Venezie, after the Republic of Venice. Veneto is the most populous and biggest denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) producer of the three regions. Although the Tre Venezie collectively produce more red wine than white, the Veneto region produces more whites under DOC and is notably home to the Prosecco and Soave wines.
The region is protected from the harsh northern European climate by the Alps, the foothills of which form Veneto's northern extremes. These cooler climes are well-suited to white varieties like Garganega (the main grape for Soave wines), while the warmer Adriatic coastal plains, river valleys, and Garda Lake zone are the places where the renowned Valpolicella, Amarone and Bardolino DOC reds are produced.
In Veneto, two different wine areas are clearly distinguishable: an Eastern part, close to the Venice Lagoon between the hills of Treviso, the plain of Piave river and Adriatic coast, where it is typical to produce the famous Prosecco (Glera), and other varieties are grown like Merlot, Carmenere, Verduzzo, Raboso Piave, Refosco, Tocai, Verdiso, Marzemino; and the Western part, close to Garda Lake and the city of Verona, famous for the wines based on the varieties Corvina, Rondinella, Garganega, Trebbiano of Soave, and Oseleta.
In the central part of Veneto the winemaking transitions between the varieties and styles of the Eastern and Western parts. In that area you can find the Colli Euganei, the hills close to Padua, that is a special Mediterranean microclimatic zone; it is even famous for the Moscato fior d'arancio production, a sparkling dessert wine.
Another area in the North-center of Veneto, close to Asiago, is Breganze, where the dessert wine Torcolato is produced with the Vespaiolo grape.
The traditional vine training system of the eastern part is the Sylvoz system, today replaced by the Guyot system, while in the western part there is more traditionally the Pergola system.
Veneto's growers use modern growing methods and systems in the vineyard and for wine making. While most of the 'classic' wines from this area are based on native grape varieties, like Glera (formerly known as Prosecco) and Verduzzo, high demand for Veneto wines in the European and US markets has galvanized the region's producers into experimentation with Cabernets, Chardonnay and Pinot varieties, among others. One of Italy's leading wine schools, Conegliano, is based here and the nation's most important wine fair, Vinitaly, takes place each spring in Verona.Veneto is the 8th largest region of Italy in land mass, and a population of 4,371,000 ranks it 6th in that regard. It has over 90,000 hectares (220,000 acres) of vineyards, of which 35,400 are acclaimed DOC. Annual production totals 8,500,000 hectolitres, 1,700,000 or 21% of which is DOC, making it the biggest DOC producer in Italy. White wine accounts for 55% of the DOC production in Veneto.Vine
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work.In parts of the world (including the British Isles), the term "vine" usually applies exclusively to grapevines (Vitis), while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.Vineyard track
A vineyard track (Czech: viniční trať) is a term used in the legislature of the Czech Republic, meaning a site suitable for vineyards growing.Vitis
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere. It is economically important as the source of grapes, both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce wine. The study and cultivation of grapevines is called viticulture.
Most Vitis varieties are wind-pollinated with hermaphroditic flowers containing both male and female reproductive structures. These flowers are grouped in bunches called inflorescences. In many species, such as Vitis vinifera, each successfully pollinated flower becomes a grape berry with the inflorescence turning into a cluster of grapes. While the flowers of the grapevines are usually very small, the berries are often big and brightly colored with sweet flavors that attract birds and other animals to disperse the seeds contained within the berries.Grapevines usually only produce fruit on shoots that came from buds that were developed during the previous growing season. In viticulture, this is one of the principles behind pruning the previous year's growth (or "One year old wood") that includes shoots that have turned hard and woody during the winter (after harvest in commercial viticulture). These vines will be pruned either into a cane which will support 8 to 15 buds or to a smaller spur which holds 2 to 3 buds.