Village

A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.

In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, and also for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village when it built a church.[1] In many cultures, towns and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them. The Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in mills and factories; the concentration of people caused many villages to grow into towns and cities. This also enabled specialization of labor and crafts, and development of many trades. The trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.

Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is often small, consisting of perhaps 5 to 30 families. Historically homes were situated together for sociability and defence, and land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were based on artisan fishing and located adjacent to fishing grounds.

Saldanada Village
Saldanda Village of Nepal
Colorful, bicycle, number plate, folk costume, automobile Fortepan 1595
Village in Hungary, 1939
KippelLötschental WoodenHouses
An alpine village in the Lötschental Valley, Switzerland
Hybe and the High Tatras
Hybe in Slovakia with Western Tatra mountains in background
Ourika berbere village
Berber village in Ourika valley, High Atlas, Morocco
Village of Bangladesh by Rezowan
A Village of Bangladesh

South Asia

India

A view of Villages and farms in south Rajasthan India
A typical rural peasant indian village in Rajasthan, India

"The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi[2] at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians (around 833.1 million people) live in 640,867 different villages.[3] The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following.

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, the village, or deh (Dari/Pashto: ده)[4] is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala (Dari: قلعه, Pashto: کلي),[5] though smaller than the town, or shār (Dari: شهر, Pashto: ښار).[6] In contrast to the qala, the deh is generally a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.

Central Asia

Auyl (Kazakh: Ауыл) is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan.[7] According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs (7.5 million people) live in 8172 different villages.[8] To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" often used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan.

East Asia

Typical Hainan village - 01
A typical small village in Hainan, China

People's Republic of China

In mainland China, villages are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

In the Republic of China (Taiwan), villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities. The village is called a tsuen or cūn (村) under a rural township (鄉) and a li (里) under an urban township (鎮) or a county-controlled city. See also Li (unit).

Japan

South Korea

Southeast Asia

Brunei

In Brunei, villages are officially the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims.[9] A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung (also spelt as kampong).[9][10] They may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may also comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head (Malay: ketua kampung). Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education which is compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country,[11] a mosque, and a community centre (Malay: balai raya or dewan kemasyarakatan).

Indonesia

Pariangan
The nagari of Pariangan, West Sumatra

In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa (officially kelurahan). A "Desa" (a term that derives from a Sanskrit word meaning "country" that is found in the name "Bangladesh"=bangla and desh/desha) is administered according to traditions and customary law (adat), while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are generally located in rural areas while kelurahan are generally urban subdivisions. A village head is respectively called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan (subdistrict), in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten (district) or kota (city).

The same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari (a term deriving from another Sanskrit word meaning "city", which can be found in the name like "Srinagar"=sri and nagar/nagari). In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take turns watching over the village at a command post. As a general rule, desa and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets (kampung in Indonesian, dusun in the Javanese language, banjar in Bali). a kampung is defined today as a village in Brunei and Indonesia.

Malaysia

Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, (sometimes spelling kampong or kompong in the English language) for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country".[12] In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu (village chief), who has the power to hear civil matters in his village (see Courts of Malaysia for more details).

A Malay village typically contains a "masjid" (mosque) or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on stilts. Malay and Indonesian villagers practice the culture of helping one another as a community, which is better known as "joint bearing of burdens" (gotong royong).[13] They are family-oriented (especially the concept of respecting one's family [particularly the parents and elders]), courtesy and practice belief in God ("Tuhan") as paramount to everything else. It is common to see a cemetery near the mosque. All Muslims in the Malay or Indonesian village want to be prayed for, and to receive Allah's blessings in the afterlife. In Sarawak and East Kalimantan, some villages are called 'long', primarily inhabited by the Orang Ulu.

Malaysian kampung are found in Singapore, but there are few kampung villages remaining, mostly on islands surrounding Singapore, such as Pulau Ubin. In the past, there were many kampung villages in Singapore but development and urbanization have replaced them.

The term "kampung", sometimes spelled "kampong", is one of many Malay words to have entered common usage in Malaysia and Singapore. Locally, the term is frequently used to refer to either one's hometown or a rural village, depending on context.

Philippines

In urban areas of the Philippines, the term "village" most commonly refers to private subdivisions, especially gated communities. These villages emerged in the mid-20th century and were initially the domain of elite urban dwellers. Those are common in major cities in the country and their residents have a wide range of income levels.

Such villages may or may not correspond to a barangay (the country's basic unit of government, also glossed as village), or be privately administered. Barangays correspond more to precolonial villages; the chairman (formerly the village datu) now settles administrative, intrapersonal, and political matters or polices the area though with much less authority and respect than in Indonesia or Malaysia.

Vietnam

Village, or "làng", is a basis of Vietnam society. Vietnam's village is the typical symbol of Asian agricultural production. Vietnam's village typically contains: a village gate, "lũy tre" (bamboo hedges), "đình làng" (communal house) where "thành hoàng" (tutelary god) is worshiped, a common well, "đồng lúa" (rice field), "chùa" (temple) and houses of all families in the village. All the people in Vietnam's villages usually have a blood relationship. They are farmers who grow rice and have the same traditional handicraft. Vietnam's villages have an important role in society (Vietnamese saying: "Custom rules the law" -"Phép vua thua lệ làng" [literally: the king's law yields to village customs]). It is common for Vietnamese villagers to prefer to be buried in their village upon death.

Central and Eastern Europe

Slavic countries

Lug village in northern Serbia
Lug, village in northern Serbia

Selo (Cyrillic: село; Polish: sioło) is a Slavic word meaning "village" in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine. For example, there are numerous sela (plural of selo) called Novo Selo in Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro and others in Serbia, and North Macedonia. Another Slavic word for a village is ves (Polish: wieś, wioska, Czech: ves, vesnice, Slovak: ves, Slovene: vas, Russian: весь). In Slovenia, the word selo is used for very small villages (fewer than 100 people) and in dialects; the Slovene word vas is used all over Slovenia. In Russia, the word ves is archaic, but remains in idioms and locality names, such as Vesyegonsk.

Bulgaria

Kovachevitsa village in southern Bulgaria
Kovachevitsa, a village in southern Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the different types of sela vary from a small selo of 5 to 30 families to one of several thousand people. According to a 2002 census, in that year there were 2,385,000 Bulgarian citizens living in settlements classified as villages.[14] A 2004 Human Settlement Profile on Bulgaria[15] conducted by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs stated that:

The most intensive is the migration "city – city". Approximately 46% of all migrated people have changed their residence from one city to another. The share of the migration processes "village – city" is significantly less – 23% and "city – village" – 20%. The migration "village – village" in 2002 is 11%.[14]

It also stated that

the state of the environment in the small towns and villages is good apart from the low level of infrastructure.[14]

In Bulgaria, it is becoming popular to visit villages for the atmosphere, culture, crafts, hospitality of the people and the surrounding nature. This is called selski turizam (Bulgarian: селски туризъм), meaning "village tourism".

Russia

Village near lake baikal 45230241 f3b18ea67c b
Nook of a village near Lake Baikal, Siberia

In Russia, as of the 2010 Census, 26.3% of the country's population lives in rural localities;[16] down from 26.7% recorded in the 2002 Census.[16] Multiple types of rural localities exist, but the two most common are derevnya (деревня) and selo (село). Historically, the formal indication of status was religious: a city (gorod, город) had a cathedral, a selo had a church, while a derevnya had neither.

The lowest administrative unit of the Russian Empire, a volost, or its Soviet or modern Russian successor, a selsoviet, was typically headquartered in a selo and embraced a few neighboring villages.

In the 1960s–1970s, the depopulation of the smaller villages was driven by the central planners' drive in order to get the farm workers out of smaller, "prospect-less" hamlets and into the collective or state farms' main villages or even larger towns and city, with more amenities.[17]

Most Russian rural residents are involved in agricultural work, and it is very common for villagers to produce their own food. As prosperous urbanites purchase village houses for their second homes, Russian villages sometimes are transformed into dacha settlements, used mostly for seasonal residence.

The historically Cossack regions of Southern Russia and parts of Ukraine, with their fertile soil and absence of serfdom, had a rather different pattern of settlement from central and northern Russia. While peasants of central Russia lived in a village around the lord's manor, a Cossack family often lived on its own farm, called khutor. A number of such khutors plus a central village made up the administrative unit with a center in a stanitsa (Russian: стани́ца; Ukrainian: станиця, stanytsia). Such stanitsas often with a few thousand residents, were usually larger than a typical selo in central Russia.

The term aul/aal is used to refer mostly Muslim-populated villages in Caucasus and Idel-Ural, without regard to the number of residents.

Ukraine

Маяки
Mayaky Village, Donetsk, Ukraine
Kosmach Doroha
The largest Ukrainian village (selo) Kosmach

In Ukraine, a village, known locally as a selo (село), is considered the lowest administrative unit. Villages may have an individual administration (silrada) or a joint administration, combining two or more villages. Villages may also be under the jurisdiction of a city council (miskrada) or town council (selyshchna rada) administration.

There is, however, another smaller type of settlement which is designated in Ukrainian as a selysche (селище). This type of community is generally referred to in English as a "settlement". In comparison with an urban-type settlement, Ukrainian legislation does not have a concrete definition or a criterion to differentiate such settlements from villages. They represent a type of a small rural locality that might have once been a khutir, a fisherman's settlement, or a dacha. They are administered by a silrada (council) located in a nearby adjacent village. Sometimes, the term "selysche" is also used in a more general way to refer to adjacent settlements near a bigger city including urban-type settlements (selysche miskoho typu) or villages. However, ambiguity is often avoided in connection with urbanized settlements by referring to them using the three-letter abbreviation smt instead.

The khutir (хутір) and stanytsia (станиця) are not part of the administrative division any longer, primarily due to collectivization. Khutirs were very small rural localities consisting of just few housing units and were sort of individual farms. They became really popular during the Stolypin reform in the early 20th century. During the collectivization, however, residents of such settlements were usually declared to be kulaks and had all their property confiscated and distributed to others (nationalized) without any compensation. The stanitsa likewise has not survived as an administrative term. The stanitsa was a type of a collective community that could include one or more settlements such as villages, khutirs, and others. Today, stanitsa-type formations have only survived in Kuban (Russian Federation) where Ukrainians were resettled during the time of the Russian Empire.

Western and Southern Europe

France

A commune is considered as a village if it is not part of a ville (urban unit). For the Insee, an urban unit has more than 2000 inhabitants living in buildings less than 200 metres from each others.[18] An independent association named Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, was created in 1982 to promote assets of small and picturesque French villages of quality heritage. As of 2008, 152 villages in France have been listed in "The Most Beautiful Villages of France".

Italy

Culino, part of the Forni Avoltri municipality, in Friuli, Italy
The village of Collina, part of the Forni Avoltri municipality, in Friuli, Italy

In Italy, villages are spread throughout the country. No legal definition of village exists in Italian law; nonetheless, a settlement inhabited by less than 2000 people is usually described as "village". More often, Italian villages that are a part of a municipality are called frazione, whereas the village that hosts the municipal seat is called paese (town) or capoluogo.

Spain

In Spain, a village (pueblo or aldea) refers to a small population unit, smaller than a town (villa) and a city (ciudad), typically located in a rural environment. While commonly it is the smallest administrative unit (municipio), it is possible for a village to be legally composed of smaller population units in its territory. There is not a clear-cut distinction between villages, towns and cities in Spain, since they had been traditionally categorized according to their religious importance and their relationship with surrounding population units.

Portugal

Villages are more usual in the northern and central regions, Azores Islands and in the Alentejo. Most of them have a church and a "Casa do Povo" (people's house), where the village's summer romarias or religious festivities are usually held. Summer is also when many villages are host to a range of folk festivals and fairs, taking advantage of the fact that many of the locals who reside abroad tend to come back to their native village for the holidays.

Netherlands

In the flood-prone districts of the Netherlands, particularly in the northern provinces of Friesland and Groningen, villages were traditionally built on low man-made hills called terpen before the introduction of regional dyke-systems. In modern days, the term dorp (lit. "village") is usually applied to settlements no larger than 20,000, though there's no official law regarding status of settlements in the Netherlands.

United Kingdom

A village in the UK is a compact settlement of houses, smaller in size than a town, and generally based on agriculture or, in some areas, mining (such as Ouston, County Durham), quarrying or sea fishing. They are very similar to those in Ireland.

Main street of the village of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England
The main street of the village of Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England

The major factors in the type of settlement are: location of water sources, organisation of agriculture and landholding, and likelihood of flooding. For example, in areas such as the Lincolnshire Wolds, the villages are often found along the spring line halfway down the hillsides, and originate as spring line settlements, with the original open field systems around the village. In northern Scotland, most villages are planned to a grid pattern located on or close to major roads, whereas in areas such as the Forest of Arden, woodland clearances produced small hamlets around village greens.[19][20] Because of the topography of the Clent Hills the north Worcestershire village of Clent is an example of a village with no centre but instead consists of series of hamlets scattered on and around the Hills.

Some villages have disappeared (for example, deserted medieval villages), sometimes leaving behind a church or manor house and sometimes nothing but bumps in the fields. Some show archaeological evidence of settlement at three or four different layers, each distinct from the previous one. Clearances may have been to accommodate sheep or game estates, or enclosure, or may have resulted from depopulation, such as after the Black Death or following a move of the inhabitants to more prosperous districts. Other villages have grown and merged and often form hubs within the general mass of suburbia—such as Hampstead, London and Didsbury in Manchester. Many villages are now predominantly dormitory locations and have suffered the loss of shops, churches and other facilities.

For many British people, the village represents an ideal of Great Britain. Seen as being far from the bustle of modern life, it is represented as quiet and harmonious, if a little inward-looking. This concept of an unspoilt Arcadia is present in many popular representations of the village such as the radio serial The Archers or the best kept village competitions.[21]

Bisley, Gloucestershire, a village in the Cotswolds
Bisley, Gloucestershire, a village in the Cotswolds

Many villages in South Yorkshire, North Nottinghamshire, North East Derbyshire, County Durham, South Wales and Northumberland are known as pit villages. These (such as Murton, County Durham) grew from hamlets when the sinking of a colliery in the early 20th century resulted in a rapid growth in their population and the colliery owners built new housing, shops, pubs and churches. Some pit villages outgrew nearby towns by area and population; for example, Rossington in South Yorkshire came to have over four times more people than the nearby town of Bawtry. Some pit villages grew to become towns; for example, Maltby in South Yorkshire grew from 600 people in the 19th century[22] to over 17,000 in 2007.[23] Maltby was constructed under the auspices of the Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Company and included ample open spaces and provision for gardens.[24]

In the UK, the main historical distinction between a hamlet and a village was that the latter had a church,[1] and so usually was the centre of worship for an ecclesiastical parish. However, some civil parishes may contain more than one village. The typical village had a pub or inn, shops, and a blacksmith. But many of these facilities are now gone, and many villages are dormitories for commuters. The population of such settlements ranges from a few hundred people to around five thousand. A village is distinguished from a town in that:

  • A village should not have a regular agricultural market, although today such markets are uncommon even in settlements which clearly are towns.
  • A village does not have a town hall nor a mayor.
  • If a village is the principal settlement of a civil parish, then any administrative body that administers it at parish level should be called a parish council or parish meeting, and not a town council or city council. However, some civil parishes have no functioning parish, town, or city council nor a functioning parish meeting. In Wales, where the equivalent of an English civil parish is called a Community, the body that administers it is called a Community Council. However, larger councils may elect to call themselves town councils.[25] In Scotland, the equivalent is also a community council, however, despite being statutory bodies they have no executive powers.[26]
  • There should be a clear green belt or open fields, as, for example, seen on aerial maps for Ouston surrounding its parish[27] borders. However this may not be applicable to urbanised villages: although these may not be considered to be villages, they are often widely referred to as being so; an example of this is Horsforth in Leeds.

Middle East

Lebanon

Saifivillage
The main square of Saifi Village in Centre Ville, Beirut, Lebanon

Like France, villages in Lebanon are usually located in remote mountainous areas. The majority of villages in Lebanon retain their Aramaic names or are derivative of the Aramaic names, and this is because Aramaic was still in use in Mount Lebanon up to the 18th century.[28]

Many of the Lebanese villages are a part of districts, these districts are known as "kadaa" which includes the districts of Baabda (Baabda), Aley (Aley), Matn (Jdeideh), Keserwan (Jounieh), Chouf (Beiteddine), Jbeil (Byblos), Tripoli (Tripoli), Zgharta (Zgharta / Ehden), Bsharri (Bsharri), Batroun (Batroun), Koura (Amioun), Miniyeh-Danniyeh (Minyeh / Sir Ed-Danniyeh), Zahle (Zahle), Rashaya (Rashaya), Western Beqaa (Jebjennine / Saghbine), Sidon (Sidon), Jezzine (Jezzine), Tyre (Tyre), Nabatiyeh (Nabatiyeh), Marjeyoun (Marjeyoun), Hasbaya (Hasbaya), Bint Jbeil (Bint Jbeil), Baalbek (Baalbek), and Hermel (Hermel).

The district of Danniyeh consists of thirty-six small villages, which includes Almrah, Kfirchlan, Kfirhbab, Hakel al Azimah, Siir, Bakhoun, Miryata, Assoun, Sfiiri, Kharnoub, Katteen, Kfirhabou, Zghartegrein, Ein Qibil.

Danniyeh (known also as Addinniyeh, Al Dinniyeh, Al Danniyeh, Arabic: سير الضنية) is a region located in Miniyeh-Danniyeh District in the North Governorate of Lebanon. The region lies east of Tripoli, extends north as far as Akkar District, south to Bsharri District and Zgharta District and as far east as Baalbek and Hermel. Dinniyeh has an excellent ecological environment filled with woodlands, orchards and groves. Several villages are located in this mountainous area, the largest town being Sir Al Dinniyeh.

An example of a typical mountainous Lebanese village in Dannieh would be Hakel al Azimah which is a small village that belongs to the district of Danniyeh, situated between Bakhoun and Assoun's boundaries. It is in the centre of the valleys that lie between the Arbeen Mountains and the Khanzouh.

Syria

General view to Al annaze1
view from Al-Annaze village, near Tartus, Syria

Syria contains a large number of villages that vary in size and importance, including the ancient, historical and religious villages, such as Ma'loula, Sednaya, and Brad (Mar Maroun's time). The diversity of the Syrian environments creates significant differences between the Syrian villages in terms of the economic activity and the method of adoption. Villages in the south of Syria (Hauran, Jabal al-Druze), the north-east (the Syrian island) and the Orontes River basin depend mostly on agriculture, mainly grain, vegetables, and fruits. Villages in the region of Damascus and Aleppo depend on trading. Some other villages, such as Marmarita depend heavily on tourist activity.

Mediterranean cities in Syria, such as Tartus and Latakia have similar types of villages. Mainly, villages were built in very good sites which had the fundamentals of the rural life, like water. An example of a Mediterranean Syrian village in Tartus would be al-Annazah, which is a small village that belongs to the area of al-Sauda. The area of al-Sauda is called a nahiya, which is a subdistrict.

Australasia and Oceania

Puamau on Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia
The village of Puamau on Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia

Pacific Islands Communities on Pacific islands were historically called villages by English speakers who traveled and settled in the area. Some communities such as several Villages of Guam continue to be called villages despite having large populations that can exceed 40,000 residents.

New Zealand The traditional Māori village was the , a fortified hill-top settlement. Tree-fern logs and flax were the main building materials. As in Australia (see below) the term is now used mainly in respect of shopping or other planned areas.

Australia The term village often is used in reference to small planned communities such as retirement communities or shopping districts, and tourist areas such as ski resorts. Small rural communities are usually known as townships. Larger settlements are known as towns.

South America

Argentina Usually set in remote mountainous areas, some also cater to winter sports or tourism. See Uspallata, La Cumbrecita, Villa Traful and La Cumbre.

North America

In contrast to the Old World, the concept of village in today's North America north of Mexico is largely disconnected from its rural and communal origins. The situation is different in Mexico because of its large bulk of indigenous population living in traditional villages.

Canada

Carlb-fogo-newfoundland-2002
A Newfoundland fishing village

United States

Church in Newfane, Vermont fall 2009
A church in Newfane, Vermont

Incorporated villages

In twenty[29] U.S. states, the term "village" refers to a specific form of incorporated municipal government, similar to a city but with less authority and geographic scope. However, this is a generality; in many states, there are villages that are an order of magnitude larger than the smallest cities in the state. The distinction is not necessarily based on population, but on the relative powers granted to the different types of municipalities and correspondingly, different obligations to provide specific services to residents.

In some states such as New York and Michigan, a village is usually an incorporated municipality, within a single town or civil township. In some cases, the village may be coterminous with the town or township, in which case the two may have a consolidated government. There are also villages that span the boundaries of more than one town or township; some villages may straddle county borders.

There is no population limit to villages in New York. Hempstead, the largest village, has 55,000 residents; making it more populous than some of the state's cities. However; villages in the state may not exceed five square miles (13 km²) in area. Michigan and Illinois also have no set population limit for villages and there are many villages that are larger than cities in those states. The village of Arlington Heights, Illinois had 75,101 residents as of the 2010 census.

In Michigan, a village is always legally part of a township. Villages can incorporate land in multiple townships and even multiple counties. The largest village in the state is Beverly Hills in Southfield Township which had a population of 10,267 as of the 2010 census.

In the state of Wisconsin, a village is always legally separate from the towns that it has been incorporated from. The largest village is Menomonee Falls, which has over 32,000 residents.

In Ohio villages are often legally part of the township from which they were incorporated, although exceptions such as Hiram exist, in which the village is separate from the township.[30] They have no area limitations, but become cities if they grow a population of more than 5,000.[31]

In Maryland, a locality designated "Village of ..." may be either an incorporated town or a special tax district.[32] An example of the latter is the Village of Friendship Heights.

In North Carolina, the only difference between cities, towns, and villages is the term itself.[33]

Unincorporated villages

Oracle AZ Mt Lemmon
Oracle, Arizona is an unincorporated rural town often called a village in local media

In many states, the term "village" is used to refer to a relatively small unincorporated community, similar to a hamlet in New York state. This informal usage may be found even in states that have villages as an incorporated municipality, although such usage might be considered incorrect and confusing.

In states that have New England towns, a "village" is a center of population or trade, including the town center, in an otherwise sparsely developed town or city — for instance, the village of Hyannis in the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts.

Africa

Nigeria

A Village in Kaita
A village in Kaita, Nigeria

Villages in Nigeria vary significantly because of cultural and geographical differences.

Northern Nigeria

In the North, villages were under traditional rulers long before the Jihad of Shaikh Uthman Bin Fodio and after the Holy War. At that time Traditional rulers used to have absolute power in their administrative regions. After Dan Fodio's Jihad in 1804,[34] political structure of the North became Islamic where emirs were the political, administrative and spiritual leaders of their people. These emirs appointed a number of people to assist them in running the administration and that included villages.[35]

Every Hausa village was reigned by Magaji (Village head) who was answerable to his Hakimi (mayor) at the town level. The Magaji also had his cabinet who assisted him in ruling his village efficiently, among whom was Mai-Unguwa (Ward Head).[36]

With the creation of Native Authority in Nigerian provinces, the autocratic power of village heads along with all other traditional rulers was subdued hence they ruled 'under the guidance of colonial officials'.[37]

Even though the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has not recognised the functions of traditional rulers, they still command respect in their villages[37] and political office holders liaise with them almost every time to reach people.

In Hausa language, village is called ƙauye and every local government area is made up of several small and large ƙauyuka (villages). For instance, Girka is a village in Kaita town in Katsina state in Nigeria. They have mud houses with thatched roofing though, like in most of the villages in the North, zinc roofing is becoming a common sight.

Still in many villages in the North, people do not have access to portable water.[38] So they fetch water from ponds and streams. Others are lucky to have wells within a walking distance. Women rush in the morning to fetch water in their clay pots from wells, boreholes and streams. However, government is now providing them with water bore holes.[39]

Electricity and GSM network are reaching more and more villages in the North almost every day. So bad feeder roads may lead to remote villages with electricity and unstable GSM network.[40]

Southern Nigeria

Village dwellers in the Southeastern region lived separately in "clusters of huts belonging to the patrilinage".[41] As the rainforest region is dominated by Igbo speaking people, the villages are called ime obodo (inside town) in Igbo language. A typical large village might have a few thousand persons who shared the same market, meeting place and beliefs.

South Africa

In South Africa the majority of people in rural areas reside in villages. They vary in size from having a population of less than 500 to around 1000

See also

Settlement types

Countries and localities

Developed environments

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Dr Greg Stevenson, "What is a Village?" Archived 23 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Exploring British Villages, BBC, 2006, accessed 20 October 2009
  2. ^ R.K. Bhatnagar. INDIA’S MEMBERSHIP OF ITER PROJECT. PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, BANGALORE
  3. ^ "Indian Census". Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  4. ^ "A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  5. ^ "A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  6. ^ "A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. ^ Қазақ тілі термиңдерінің салалық ғылыми түсіндірме сөздігі: География және геодезия. — Алматы: "Мектеп" баспасы, 2007. — 264 бет. ISBN 9965-36-367-6
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).
  9. ^ a b "Tutong District" (PDF). www.information.gov.bn. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Region2-city | Brunei Postcode". brn.postcodebase.com. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Brunei will remain a MIB-guided nation, thanks to religious education | Borneo Bulletin Online". borneobulletin.com.bn. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
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  14. ^ a b c "Human Settlement Country Profile, Bulgaria (2004)" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  15. ^ HUMAN SETTLEMENT COUNTRY PROFILE: BULGARIA. United Nations (2004)
  16. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  17. ^ "Российское село в демографическом измерении" (Rural Russia measured demographically) (in Russian). This article reports the following census statistics:
    Census year 1959 1970 1979 1989 2002
    Total number of rural localities in Russia 294,059 216,845 177,047 152,922 155,289
    Of them, with population 1 to 10 persons 41,493 25,895 23,855 30,170 47,089
    Of them, with population 11 to 200 persons 186,437 132,515 105,112 80,663 68,807
  18. ^ (in French) Ville - definition on the insee.fr site.
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  31. ^ "Ohio Revised Code Section 703.01(A)". Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  32. ^ 2002 Census of Governments, Individual State Descriptions (PDF)
  33. ^ 2012 Census of Governments, Individual State Descriptions (PDF)
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  35. ^ Sani Abubakar Lugga. The Great Province, Lugga Press Gidan Lugga, Kofar Marusa Road, Katsina Nigeria, ISBN 978-2105-48-1, p. 43
  36. ^ Sani Abubakar Lugga. The Great Province, Lugga Press Gidan Lugga, Kofar Marusa Road, Katsina Nigeria, ISBN 978-2105-48-1, p. 63
  37. ^ a b A Johnson Ugoji Anyaele. Comprehensive Government, A Johnson Publishers LTD. Surulere, Lagos. ISBN 978-2799-49-1, p. 123
  38. ^ Adesiyun, A. A.; Adekeye, J. O.; Umoh, J. U.; Nadarajab, M. (1983). "Studies on well water and possible health risks in Katsina, Nigeria". The Journal of hygiene. 90 (2): 199–205. doi:10.1017/S0022172400028862. PMC 2134251. PMID 6833745.
  39. ^ How Katsina state is doing so much with so little. abrahamplace.blogspot.jp (29 October 2012; original from peoplesdaily-online.com).
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  41. ^ Village. igboguide.org

External links

Administrative divisions of New York (state)

The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York.

The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages. Cities, towns and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature. Each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school and fire districts.New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 932 towns and 62 cities; it also has 10 Indian reservations. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions.

Administrative divisions of Wisconsin

The administrative divisions of Wisconsin include counties, cities, villages and towns. In Wisconsin, all of these are units of general-purpose local government. There are also a number of special-purpose districts formed to handle regional concerns, such as school districts.Whether a municipality is a city, village or town is not strictly dependent on the community's population or area, but on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the Wisconsin State Legislature. Cities and villages can overlap county boundaries; for example, the city of Whitewater is located in Walworth and Jefferson counties.

East Village, Manhattan

The East Village is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is roughly defined as the neighborhood east of the Bowery and Third Avenue, between 14th Street on the north and Houston Street on the south.The area was once generally considered to be part of the Lower East Side, with a large Russian, Ukrainian and Jewish population, but gradually changed and by the late 1960s, many artists, musicians, students and hippies began to move into the area, attracted by cheap rents and the base of Beatniks who had lived there since the 1950s. The neighborhood became a center of the counterculture in New York, and is known as the birthplace and historical home of many artistic movements, including punk rock and the Nuyorican literary movement. It has also been the site of protests and riots. Since at least the 2000s, some have argued that gentrification has changed the character of the neighborhood.East Village is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10003 and 10009. It is patrolled by the 9th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Elk Grove Village, Illinois

Elk Grove Village is a village located in northeastern Illinois adjacent to O'Hare International Airport and is a near northwest suburb, touching the city of Chicago. It is one of the Chicago metropolitan area's principal villages due to its large industrial park, located on the eastern border of the village. The village is located primarily in Cook County with a small portion in DuPage County. The population was 33,127 at the 2010 census. As the name suggests, Elk Grove Village is home to a small herd of elk kept in a grove at the eastern edge of the Busse Woods forest preserve for which the grove is named. Elk are not native to the area but were brought by train from Montana by an early resident, William Busse, in the 1920s. The elk are currently maintained by the Chicago Zoological Society veterinary staff and the Busse Woods Forest Preserve wildlife biologists.

Farmingdale, New York

The Incorporated Village of Farmingdale is an incorporated village on Long Island within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York, United States. The population was 8,189 at the 2010 Census.

As of 2012, the mayor was Ralph Ekstrand.The Lenox Hills neighborhood is adjacent to Bethpage State Park and the rest of the town is within a fifteen minute drive of the park. It is also approximately 37 mi (59 km) southeast of Midtown Manhattan and can be reached via the Ronkonkoma Branch of the LIRR. The Long Island Expressway and Seaford Oyster Bay Expressway is the best way to reach Farmingdale from the city and the mainland.

Gay village

A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood, gay enclave, gayvenue, gay ghetto, gaytto, gay district, gaytown or gayborhood) is a geographical area with generally recognized boundaries, inhabited or frequented by a large number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Gay villages often contain a number of gay-oriented establishments, such as gay bars and pubs, nightclubs, bathhouses, restaurants, boutiques and bookstores.

Among the most famous gay villages are New York City's Greenwich Village, Chelsea, and Hell's Kitchen neighborhoods; Fire Island and The Hamptons on Long Island; Boston's South End, Jamaica Plain and Provincetown, Massachusetts; Chicago's Boystown; Philadelphia's Gayborhood; Washington D.C.'s Dupont Circle; London's Soho, Birmingham's Gay Village, and Manchester's Canal Street, all in England; Los Angeles County's West Hollywood; as well as Barcelona Province's Sitges, Toronto's Church and Wellesley neighborhood, San Francisco's Castro, Madrid's Chueca, Sydney's Newtown, Berlin's Schöneberg, The Gay Street in Rome, Le Marais in Paris, Green Point in Cape Town; Melville in Johannesburg, South Africa; and Zona Rosa, Mexico City in Mexico.

In North America, the following gayborhoods are also noted: Asbury Park, Maplewood, Montclair, and Lambertville in New Jersey; Wilton Manors, Florida; Atlanta's Midtown, Montreal's Le Village, Houston's Montrose, Minneapolis' Uptown, San Diego's Hillcrest, St. Leo's, San Jose, Dallas' Oak Lawn, Sacramento's Lavender Heights, Belmont Shore in Long Beach, California; and Seattle's Capitol Hill, Vancouver’s Davie street village.

Such areas may represent a LGBTQ-friendly oasis in an otherwise hostile city, or may simply have a high concentration of gay residents and businesses. Much as other urbanized groups, some LGBT people have managed to utilize their spaces as a way to reflect their cultural value and serve the special needs of individuals in relation to society at large.

Today, these neighborhoods can typically be found in the upscale or trendy parts of town like in Manhattan, chosen for aesthetic or historic value, no longer resulting from the sociopolitical ostracization and the constant threat of physical violence from homophobic individuals that originally motivated these communities to live together for their mutual safety.

These neighborhoods are also often found in working-class parts of the city, or in the neglected fringe of a downtown area – communities which may have been upscale historically but became economically depressed and socially disorganized. In these cases, the establishment of a LGBT community has turned some of these areas into more expensive neighborhoods, a process known as gentrification – a phenomenon in which LGBT people often play a pioneer role. This process does not always work out to the benefit of these communities, as they often see property values rise so high that they can no longer afford them as high-rise condominiums are built and bars move out, or the only LGBT establishments that remain are those catering to a more upscale clientele. However, today's manifestations of "queer ghettos" bear little resemblance to those of the 1970s.

Gram panchayat

A gram panchayat (transl. 'village council') is the only grassroots-level of panchayati raj formalised local self-governance system in India at the village or small-town level, and has a sarpanch as its elected head.The failed attempts to deal with local matters at the national level caused, in 1992, the reintroduction of panchayats for their previously used purpose as an organisation for local self-governance. There are about 250,000 gram panchayats in India.

Greenwich Village

Greenwich Village ( GREN-itch, GRIN-, -⁠ij) often referred to by locals as simply "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan, New York City, within Lower Manhattan. Broadly, Greenwich Village is bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contains several subsections, including the West Village west of Seventh Avenue and the Meatpacking District in the northwest corner of Greenwich Village.

In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, and the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and '60s counterculture movements. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village (meaning "Green District"), was Anglicized to Greenwich. Greenwich Village contains Washington Square Park, as well as two of New York's private colleges, New York University (NYU) and the New School.Greenwich Village is part of Manhattan Community District 2, and is patrolled by the 6th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Greenwich Village has undergone extensive gentrification and commercialization; the four ZIP codes that constitute the Village – 10011, 10012, 10003, and 10014 – were all ranked among the ten most expensive in the United States by median housing price in 2014, according to Forbes, with residential property sale prices in the West Village neighborhood typically exceeding US$2,100 per square foot ($23,000/m2) in 2017.

Hoffman Estates, Illinois

Hoffman Estates is a village in Illinois, United States. The village is located primarily in Cook County, with a small section in Kane County. It is a suburb of Chicago. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,895, and as of 2017 the estimated population was 51,567.The village now serves as the headquarters for the Sears Holdings Corporation, the Midwest headquarters for AT&T and the American headquarters for Mori Seiki. The village owns the Sears Centre, home of the Chicago Bliss of the Legends Football League, and the Windy City Bulls of the NBA G League.

In 2009, the village hosted the Heartland International Tattoo, one of the largest music and dance festivals of its kind in the Midwest.

List of municipalities in Illinois

Illinois is a state located in the Midwestern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Illinois is the 5th most populous state with 12,831,549 inhabitants but the 24th largest by land area spanning 55,518.93 square miles (143,793.4 km2) of land. Illinois is divided into 102 counties and contains 1,299 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities, towns, and villages.

Panchayati raj

The Panchayat raj (Hindi: पंचायती राज panchayat- "village council", raj "rule") is a political system, originating from the Indian subcontinent, found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. It is the oldest system of local government in the Indian subcontinent, and historical mentions date to the c. 250 CE period. The word raj means "rule" and panchayat means "assembly" (ayat) of five (panch). Traditionally panchayats consisted of wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the local community. However, there were varying forms of such assemblies. Traditionally, these assemblies settled disputes between individuals and between villages.

The leader of the panchayat was often called the mukhiya, sarpanch or pradhan, an elected or generally acknowledged position. The modern panchayati raj of India and its gram panchayats are not to be confused with either the traditional system nor with the extra-constitutional khap panchayats (or caste panchayats) found in parts of northern India.

Mahatma Gandhi advocated panchayat raj as the foundation of India's political system. It would have been a decentralised form of government where each village would be responsible for its own affairs. The term for such a vision was Gram Swaraj ("village self-governance"). Instead India developed a highly centralised form of government. However, this has been moderated by the decentralisation of several administrative functions to the local level, empowering elected gram panchayats. There are significant differences between the traditional panchayati raj system, that envisioned by Gandhi, and the system formalised in India in 1992.The system is also found in Trinidad and Tobago.

Rosemont, Illinois

Rosemont is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. Located immediately northwest of Chicago, as of the 2010 census it had a population of 4,202. The village was incorporated in 1956, though it had been settled long before that. While Rosemont's land area and population are relatively small among municipalities in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, the village is a major center for commercial activity in the region and is a key component of the Golden Corridor.

Due to its proximity to several interstates, O'Hare International Airport, and downtown Chicago, it has emerged as a significant edge city and entertainment district, with corporate facilities, millions of square feet of office space, nearly 50 restaurants, 15 hotels, the 840,000-square-foot (78,000 m2) Donald E. Stephens Convention Center (home to conventions and trade shows), the 16,000+ seat Allstate Arena (home to the Chicago Wolves, Chicago Sky, DePaul Blue Demons until 2017, and concerts and other live entertainment events), the 4,000+ seat Rosemont Theatre, the 130-store Fashion Outlets of Chicago, the Rosemont Stadium (home to an outdoor collegiate-level baseball stadium and 140,000 sq ft indoor sports dome), and the entertainment complex Parkway Bank Park, which features restaurants, entertainment and a large common area used for summer concerts and ice skating in the winter. Rosemont is near Rivers Casino in Des Plaines and additional hotels, offices, restaurants, and corporate facilities in the adjacent O'Hare neighborhood of Chicago and nearby suburban communities such as Des Plaines and Schiller Park.

The residential sections of Rosemont are a gated community, as a result of the 1995 decision by residents to enclose the residential portions of the village (roughly half the area of the village), thereby restricting access to locals.

Sarpanch

A sarpanch is elected by the village-level constitutional body of local self-government called the Gram Sabha (village government) in India (gram panchayat). The sarpanch, together with other elected pancha

(members), constitute the gram panchayat. The sarpanch is the focal point of contact between government officers and the village community.

Schaumburg, Illinois

Schaumburg is a village in Cook County and DuPage County in northeastern Illinois, United States. It is a northwestern suburb of Chicago and part of the Golden Corridor. Schaumburg is roughly 28 miles (45 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop and 10 miles (16 km) northwest of O'Hare International Airport. As of the 2010 census, the village had a total population of 74,227.

In 2018, the Village of Schaumburg was ranked the Best Place to Live in Illinois by MONEY Magazine. In 2017, Money ranked Schaumburg the 9th best place to live in the United States.Schaumburg has one of Illinois's two IKEA stores. It contains the Woodfield Mall, the 11th largest mall in the United States, which at most times has over 300 stores. Schaumburg's transition from a rural community to a suburban city began with Alfred Campanelli's first large-scale suburban-style development in 1959 and Woodfield Mall's opening on September 9, 1971.

Schaumburg is bordered by Hoffman Estates and Palatine to the north, Rolling Meadows to the northeast, Elk Grove Village to the southeast, Roselle to the south, Hanover Park to the southwest, and Streamwood to the west.

The Henry Ford

The Henry Ford (also known as the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation and Greenfield Village, and as the Edison Institute) is a large indoor and outdoor history museum complex and a National Historic Landmark in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, Michigan, United States. The museum collection contains the presidential limousine of John F. Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln's chair from Ford's Theatre, Thomas Edison's laboratory, the Wright Brothers' bicycle shop, the Rosa Parks bus, and many other historical exhibits. It is the largest indoor-outdoor museum complex in the United States and is visited by over 1.7 million people each year. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969 as Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1981 as "Edison Institute".

The Village Voice

The Village Voice was an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly. Founded in 1955 by Dan Wolf, Ed Fancher, John Wilcock, and Norman Mailer, the Voice began as a platform for the creative community of New York City.

It still is kept alive online.

Over its 63 years of publication, The Village Voice received three Pulitzer Prizes, the National Press Foundation Award, and the George Polk Award. The Village Voice hosted a variety of writers and artists, including writer Ezra Pound, cartoonist Lynda Barry, and art critics Robert Christgau, Andrew Sarris, and J. Hoberman.

In October 2015, The Village Voice changed ownership and severed all ties with former parent company Voice Media Group (VMG). The Voice announced on August 22, 2017, that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture, on a date to be announced. The final printed edition, featuring a 1965 photo of Bob Dylan on the cover, was distributed on September 21, 2017.After halting print publication in 2017, the Voice provided daily coverage through its website until August 31, 2018, when it announced it was ceasing production of new editorial content.

Village (United States)

In the United States, the meaning of "village" varies by geographic area and legal jurisdiction. In many areas, "village" is a term, sometimes informal, for a type of administrative division at the local government level. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from legislating on local government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "villages" or not to and to define the word in many ways. Typically, a village is a type of municipality, although it can also be a special district or an unincorporated area. It may or may not be recognized for governmental purposes.

Village People

Village People is an American disco group best known for their on-stage costumes, catchy tunes, and suggestive lyrics. The group was originally formed by French producers Jacques Morali, Henri Belolo and lead singer Victor Willis following the release of the debut album Village People, which targeted disco's gay audience. The group's name refers to New York City's Greenwich Village, at the time known for its large gay population. The characters were a symbolic group of American masculinity and macho gay-fantasy personas.The group quickly became popular and moved into the mainstream, scoring several disco and dance hits internationally, including the hit singles "Macho Man", "In the Navy", "Go West" and their biggest hit, "Y.M.C.A.".

Village development committee (Nepal)

A Village Development Committee (VDC) (Nepali: गाउँ विकास समिति; ‘’gāun bikās samiti’’) in Nepal was the lower administrative part of its Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. Each district had several VDCs, similar to municipalities but with greater public-government interaction and administration. There were 3,157 village development committees in Nepal. Each VDC was further divided into several wards (Nepali: वडा) depending on the population of the district; the average being nine wards.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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