Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat (IAST: Vikrama Samvat) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS)); Listen ) (also called the Bikrami calendar or sometimes just Hindu calendar) is the historical Hindu calendar from the Indian subcontinent and the official calendar of modern-day India and Nepal.[1][2] It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years.

History

The Vikram Samvat is notable because many ancient and medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava.[3] In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain. However, later epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and very likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era that was already in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira.[4]

Vikramaditya legends

Westindischer Maler um 1400 001
The Jain monk Kalakacharya and the Saka King (Kalakacharya Katha manuscript, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, Mumbai)

According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.

Kalakacharya Kathanaka ("An account of the monk Kalakacharya") by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, who was the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gandharvasena himself was forgiven. The defeated king retired to the forest, where he was killed by a tiger. His son, Vikramaditya, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana (modern Paithan in Maharashtra). Later on, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era". The Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, and the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana.

Historical origins

The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE. The earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa (343 CE and 371 CE), Kritaa (404 CE), the era of the Malava tribe (424 CE), or simply, Samvat.[5][6]

The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE. This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, and is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda (16 April 842 CE). The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE. The earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha (993-994 CE) by the Jain author Amitagati.[6]

For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a later king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, and changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé also believed that he conquered Kashmir, and is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini.[6]

Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian (Śaka) king King Azes. However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, which is dated in two eras.[7] The theory seems to be now thoroughly discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE.[8]

Culture

The traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, and participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, and coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Bengal, Burma, Cambodia, Kerala, Kashmir, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand.

In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is also recognized in North and East India, and in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on Lunar calendar, not Solar calendar which is based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Vesak or Buddha's Birthday. It commemorates the birth, Enlightenment, and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June. Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays typically fall in the same month (Baishakh) of the Bengali, Hindu, and Theravada Buddhist calendars, and are related historically through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent.

In Gujarat, the second day of Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar which is the first day of the month Kartik.[9]

Popularity

The Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been historically used by Hindus and Sikhs.[10] It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, and it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days.[10][11] The lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra.[12] This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India.[13]

The Vikrami Samvat (Bikrami Samvat system) has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, and remains in use by the Hindus in north, west and central India as well as Nepal.[3] In south India, and some parts of east and west India such as Assam, West Bengal, and Gujarat, saka era has been widely used.[14]

With the arrival of the Islamic rule era, the Hijri Islamic calendar became the official calendar of various Sultanates and the Mughal Empire. During the british colonial rule of the Indian subcontinent, the Gregorian calendar was adopted and it is commonly used in the urban areas of India and Nepal.[15] The predominantly Muslim countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh use the Islamic calendar since 1947, but older texts variously included the Bikrami and Gregorian calendar systems. In 2003, the India-based Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee of Sikhism adopted the Nanakshahi calendar, a move that continues to be debated.[10] The Vikrami calendar is the official calendar of Nepal.[16]

The calendar system

The Vikrami calendar is similar in conceptual design to the Gregorian calendar, but different from the Jewish calendar.[10] Unlike Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to lunar month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles (354 lunar days)[17] and nearly 365 solar days, the Vikrami and Jewish calendars maintain the integrity of the lunar month, but insert an extra full month by complex rules, every 4 years, to ensure that the festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season. This Indian system of calendar keeping is one of the lunisolar calendar systems innovated in ancient human cultures.[10][11] Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar, later Vikrami calendar, and then local Buddhist calendars. Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system.[18]

The Vikram Samvat has two alternative systems. It started in 56 BCE in the southern (purnimanta) and 57–56 BCE in the northern (amanta) systems of the Hindu calendar. The Shukla Paksha, when most festivals occur, coincides in both systems. The era is named after King Vikramaditya of India.[14][5]

The lunisolar Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar. For example, the year 2075 VS began in 2018 CE and will end in 2019 CE.

The Rana rulers of Nepal made Vikram Samvat the official Hindu calendar in 1901 CE, which started as Samvat 1958.[19] In Nepal, the new year begins with the first day of the month of Baishakh, which usually falls around 13–15 April in the Gregorian calendar. The first day of the new year is passionately celebrated in a historical carnival that takes place every year in Bhaktapur, called Bisket Jatra. From 2007 AD, Nepal Sambat is recognized as the national calendar.

In India, the reformulated Saka Calendar is officially used (although not for computing the dates of the traditional festivals). In the Hindi version of the Preamble of the Constitution of India, however, the date of adoption of the constitution, 26 November 1949, is presented in Vikram Samvat (Margsheersh Shukla Saptami Samvat 2006). There have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as India's official calendar.[20]

Divisions of a year

The classical Vikram Samvat uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. Because 12 months do not match a sidereal year exactly, correctional months (adhika māsa) are added or, occasionally, subtracted (kshaya masa). A lunar year consists of 12 months. A lunar month has two fortnights. The lunar days are called "tithis". Each month has 30 tithis, which may vary from 20 – 27 hours. During the waxing phases, tithis are called "shukla" or the bright phase — the auspicious fortnight, beginning with the day after the new moon called "Amavasya". Tithis for the waning phases are called "krishna" or the dark phase, which is regarded as the inauspicious fortnight,[21] starting from the day after the full moon or "purnima".

Lunar metrics

Months of the Vikram Samvat:

No. Name Gujarati Nepali Hindi Days Corresponding Gregorian months
1 Kartik કારતક कार्तिक or कातिक्क कार्तिक 29 / 30(29.879 exactly) mid-October to mid-November
2 Mangsir માગશર मंसिर or मार्ग मार्ग or मंसिर/अगहन 29 / 30(29.475 exactly) mid-November to mid-December
3 Poush પોષ पुष or पौष पौष or पुष/पूस 29 / 30(29.310 exactly) mid-December to mid-January
4 Magh મહા माघ माघ 29 / 30(29.457 exactly) mid-January to mid-February
5 Falgun ફાગણ फागुन or फाल्गुन/फागु फाल्गुन 29 / 30(29.841 exactly) mid-February to mid-March
6 Chaitra ચૈત્ર चैत or चैत्र चैत्र 30 / 31(30.377 exactly) mid-March to mid-April
7 Baishakh વૈશાખ बैशाख बैशाख 30 / 31(30.950 exactly) mid-April to mid-May
8 Jestha જેઠ जेठ or जेष्ठ जेष्ठ 31 / 32(31.429 exactly) mid-May to mid-June
9 Ashadh અષાઢ असार or अषाढ़ आषाढ़ 31 / 32(31.638 exactly) mid-June to mid-July
10 Shrawan શ્રાવણ साउन or श्रावण श्रावण or सावन 31 / 32(31.463 exactly) mid-July to mid-August
11 Bhadra ભાદરવો भदौ or भाद्र भाद्र or भादो 31 / 32(31.012 exactly) mid-August to mid-September
12 Ashwin આસો असोज or आश्विन आश्विन or कुआर/क्वार 30 / 31(30.428 exactly) mid-September to mid-October

The exact length of each month is the time taken by the Sun to move through a full zodiac sign.

Lunar calendar

The solar months correspond to Sun's position through the sidereal zodiac signs. For the whole month of Vaisakh, the Sun is in Aires ( Mesha), the Sun is in Vrish for the month of Jyestha, and so on. The table below starts the calendar from the Lunar month of Vaisakh.

The names of months are

S.No. Solar Month Name Duration
1. Visakh (Besakh) (Baisakh) Mid of April to Mid of May
2. Jeth (Jestha) Mid of May to Mid of June
3. Harh (Ashad) Mid of June to Mid of July
4. Sawan (Shrawan) Mid of July to Mid of August
5. Bhadon (Bhadhray) (Bhadra) Mid of August to Mid of September
6. Asooj (Assun) (Ashwin) Mid of September to Mid of October
7. Kattek (Kattun) (Kartik) Mid of October to Mid of November
8. Maghar (Marga or Margsheersh) Mid of November to Mid of December
9. Poh (Poush) Mid of December to Mid of January
10. Maah (Magh) Mid of January to Mid of February
11. Phaggan (Falgun) Mid of February to Mid of March
12. Chetar (Chaitra) Mid of March to Mid of April

A day consists of 8 Peh'r/Pahars, every Peh'r/Pahar equals to 3 hours of the modern clock. These Pahars are named:

1: Sajar vela or Sver vela = Morning/Day-break (6'o clock to 9'o clock).
2: Dhammi vela = Pre- noon time(9'o clock to 12'o clock).
3: Paishee vela = Noon(12'o clock to 3'o clock).
4: Deegar vela = Afternoon(3'o clock to 6'o clock).
5: nimasheen/namashan vela = Sunset + Evening + Early hours of night(6'o clock to 9'o clock).
6: Kuftain vela = Pre-midnight time (9'o clock to 12'o clock).
7: Adh Raat vela = Midnight to 3'o clock (12'o clock to 3'o clock).
8: Sarghee vela = Pre Dawn/Very early morning before the sunrise(3'o clock to 6'o clock).

The word vela (or vailaa) means "time of the day", whereas the word Adh means half. 'Dowpahar/dowpeh'r' denotes noon time; and 'shikardowpehr' when sun is right above.

Converting Vikram Samvat to CE

While an approximate conversion can be made by subtracting 56 or 57, a precise computation requires identification of the version of Vikam Samvat that was used:

  • Year expired (default) or current
  • Kartikadi (older or western India) or Chaitradi (modern northern India). Kartikadi starts 7 months later in Kartika. Until 12th century Kartikadi year was common even in North India.
  • Months Amanta (south) or Purminata (north). Amanta Chaitra Krishna Paksha is Purminata Vaishakh Krishna Paksha. For the Shukla Paksh, the month is the same.

A software program, Pancanga, is available to make the calculations.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Masatoshi Iguchi (2015). Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. TPL. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-78462-885-7.
  2. ^ Edward Simpson (2007). Muslim Society and the Western Indian Ocean: The Seafarers of Kachchh. Routledge. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-1-134-18484-2.
  3. ^ a b Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.
  4. ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–183, 194–195. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.
  5. ^ a b Ashvini Agrawal (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 174–175. ISBN 978-81-208-0592-7.
  6. ^ a b c M. Srinivasachariar (1974). History of Classical Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 94–111. ISBN 9788120802841.
  7. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2011). Reading the Fifth Veda: Studies on the Mahābhārata. BRILL. p. 103. ISBN 90-04-18566-6.
  8. ^ Falk and Bennett (2009), pp. 197-215.
  9. ^ "Gujarat CM to exchange Diwali-New Year greetings with people". 19 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d e Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
  11. ^ a b Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85.
  12. ^ Davivajña, Rāma (1996) Muhurtacintāmaṇi. Sagar Publications
  13. ^ India.gov.in
  14. ^ a b Richard Salomon (1398). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 181–183. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.
  15. ^ Tim Harper; Sunil Amrith (2014). Sites of Asian Interaction: Ideas, Networks and Mobility. Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-1-316-09306-1.
  16. ^ Bal Gopal Shrestha (2012). The Sacred Town of Sankhu: The Anthropology of Newar Ritual, Religion and Society in Nepal. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-4438-3825-2.
  17. ^ Orazio Marucchi (2011). Christian Epigraphy: An Elementary Treatise with a Collection of Ancient Christian Inscriptions Mainly of Roman Origin. Cambridge University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-521-23594-5., Text: "...the lunar year consists of 354 days..."
  18. ^ Anita Ganeri (2003). Buddhist Festivals Through the Year. BRB. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-1-58340-375-4.
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of New Year's Holidays Worldwide, William D. Crump, Publisher McFarland, 2014 p.38
  20. ^ "Vikram Samvat should be declared national calendar". The Free Press Journal. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  21. ^ http://hinduism.about.com/od/history/a/calendar.htm
  22. ^ a b c Burgess, Ebenezer Translation of the Sûrya-Siddhânta: A text-book of Hindu astronomy, with notes and an appendix originally published: Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 6, (1860), pp. 141–498, Chapter 14, Verse 12
  23. ^ Pancanga; online; version 3.14

Further reading

  • Harry Falk and Chris Bennett (2009). "Macedonian Intercalary Months and the Era of Azes." Acta Orientalia 70, pp. 197–215.
  • "The Dynastic Art of the Kushan", John Rosenfield.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Samvat" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

External links

Ashvin

Ashwin or Ashvin (; Nepali: आश्विन , असोज, Bengali: আশ্বিন; Hindi: अश्विन; Malay/Indonesian: Aswin; Thai: Asawin), also known as Aswayuja, is the seventh month of the lunisolar Hindu calendar, the Vikram Samvat, which is the official solar calendar of Nepal and the parts of India. It is the sixth month in the solar Bengali calendar and seventh in the lunar Indian national calendar of the Deccan Plateau. It falls in the season of Shôrot, (Hindi Sharad) or Autumn. In Vedic Jyotish, Ashwin begins with the Sun's enter in Virgo.

It overlaps September and October of the Gregorian calendar and is the month preceding Diwali or Tihar the festival of lights. In lunar religious calendars, Ashwin begins on the new moon after the autumn equinox.

Asind

Asind is a city and a municipality in Bhilwara district, Rajasthan, India. It is a Tehsil (sub-division) for many villages The city have a magistrate office, lower justice court and many administrative hub for many major villages. Some of major villages and towns are,

Badnor,Shambhugrah,Patan, Motras,Parasoli. Asind is popular for Devnarayan temple. Mythology has it that he was an incarnation of Vishnu and he is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh.[2][3] According to tradition, he was born to Sri Sawai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari[4] on the seventh day of the bright half (shukla saptami) of the month of Maagh in the Hindu Calendar in Vikram Samvat 968 (911 AD).According to one view historical Devnarayan belonged to 10th century of Vikram Samvat, according another view, he lived in between 1200-1400 (Vikram Samvat era).First view is endorsed by many scholars

Balipratipada

Bali Pratipadā (Sanskrit: बालि प्रतिपदा, Marathi: बळी-प्रतिपदा or Pāḍavā पाडवा, Kannada: ಬಲಿ ಪಾಡ್ಯಮಿ or Bali Pāḍyami) is the fourth day of Deepavali (Diwali), the Hindu festival of lights. It is celebrated in honour of the notional return of the (Daitya)-king Bali to earth. Bali Padyami falls in the Gregorian calendar months October–November. It is the first day of the Hindu month Kartika and is the first day of the bright lunar fortnight (day after new moon day) in the month. It is also called the Akashadipa (lights of the sky). It is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, in Western India. It is celebrated as New Year Day in Gujarat and marks beginning of New Vikram Samvat Year.

According to Hindu scriptures, Bali Padyami commemorates the victory of god Vishnu in his dwarf incarnation Vamana, the fifth incarnation of the Dashavatara (ten major incarnations of Vishnu) defeating Bali, and pushing him to the nether world. But Bali was bestowed a boon by Vishnu to return to earth for one day on this day to be honoured and celebrated for his devotion to the Lord and for his noble deeds to his people..

Bhai Dooj

Bhai Dooj (भाई दूज) / Bhau-Beej / Bhai Tika / Bhai Phonta (ভাইফোঁটা) is a festival celebrated by Hindus of the Indian subcontinent, notably India and Nepal, on the second lunar day of Shukla Paksha (bright fortnight) in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar or of Shalivahan Shaka calendar month of Kartika. It is celebrated during the Diwali or Tihar festival.

The celebrations of this day are similar to the festival of Raksha Bandhan. On this day, brothers give gifts to their sisters.

In the southern part of the country, the day is celebrated as Yama Dwitiya.

In the kayastha community, two Bhai doojs are celebrated. The more famous one comes on the second day after Diwali. But the lesser known one is celebrated a day or two after Holi.

In Haryana, basically, a special ritual also followed, a dry coconut (named as gola in regional language) with klewa tied along its width for worshipping is also used at the time of doing aarti of your brother.

Chaitra

Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar.

In the standard Hindu calendar and India's national civil calendar, Chaitra is the first month of the year. It is the last month in the Bengali calendar, where it is called Choitro. Chaitra or Chait is also the last month in the Nepali calendar (the Vikram Samvat), where it commences in mid-March. Chithirai is the first month in the Tamil calendar. In Sindhi calendar, this month is referred to as Chet and is marked by celebration of the Cheti Chand (birth of Jhulelal, an incarnation of Vishnu). In the Vaishnava calendar, Vishnu governs this month.

In the more traditional reckoning, the first month commences in March or April of the Gregorian Calendar, depending upon whether the Purushottam Maas (extra month for alignment of lunar or solar calendar) was observed in the year. There is no fixed date in Gregorian calendar for 1st day of Chaitra, i.e., the beginning of the Hindu New Year.

Date and time notation in Nepal

YYYY-MM-DD is official Nepali Vikram Samvat. An example of Vikram Samvat YYYY-DD-MM usage used is the online news portal Onlinekhabar. But for Gregorian calendar DD-MM-YY . The DD-MM-YY is the predominant short form of the numeric date usage. Almost all government documents need to be filled up in the YYYY-DD-MM format. An example of YYYY-DD-MM usage is the passport application form.

Dev Dham Jodhpuriya

Dev Dham Jodhpuriya is a temple dedicated to Devnarayan.It is situated in Newai municipality of Tonk district, Rajasthan. It is 75 kilometres (47 mi) from Jaipur on the Jaipur-Kota national highway (NH-12), near to Mashi dam, Manoharpura in Newai municipality of Tonk district.

Devnarayan is worshiped as incarnation of Vishnu. Tradition is that he was incarnated in Vikram Samvat 968 as a son of a warrior, Sawai Bhoj Bagaravat, and Saadu Maata Gurjari.

Devnarayan

Devnarayan was a Gurjar warrior from Rajasthan, India, who founded Baisla Clan. Mythology has it that he was an incarnation of Vishnu and he is worshipped as a folk deity, mostly in Rajasthan and north-western Madhya Pradesh. According to tradition, he was born to Sri Savai Bhoj and Sadu mata Gurjari on the seventh day of the bright half (shukla saptami) of the month of Maagh in the Hindu Calendar in Vikram Samvat 968 (911 AD).According to one view historical Devnarayan belonged to 10th century of Vikram Samvat, according another view, he lived in between 1200-1400 (Vikram Samvat era).First view is endorsed by many scholars.The epic of Devnarayan is one of the longest and most popular religious oral narratives of Rajasthan. The epic of Devnarayan has been classified under the category of 'martial epics.

Engineer's Day

Engineer's Day is observed in several countries on various dates of the year.

Gadhawa Rural Municipality

Gadhawa Rural Municipality (Nepali: गढवा गाउँपालिका sometimes गडवा गाउँपालिका) is located in Deukhuri valley of Dang district of Province No. 5, Nepal. This rural municipality was declared on Falgun 12, 2073 Vikram Samvat. It lies from 195 meter to 885 meter above sea level.

Former Gadhawa VDC office is the administrative center of Gadhawa Rural Municipality. According to the population census 2068, Gadhawa Rural Municipality has 38592 population where male and female comprises 18489 (47.9%) and 20103 (52.1%) population respectively. During local level restructuring, this rural municipality was formed by annexing former four VDCs named Gobardiya, Gangapraspur,Gadhawa and Koilabas. This Rural Municipality has 358.57 square km area and it has divided into 8 wards. It is surrounded by Arghakhanchi and Kapilvastu district from the east,Rajapur Rural Municipality in the west, Lamahi Municipality and Rapti Rural Municipality in the north and India in the south direction.

Gahoi

Gahoi is a merchant community in central India.

Gahois are divided into 12 gotras, each gotra is divided into six alls. They have traditionally interdined with the Parwar Jain community of Bundelkhand.The "Grahapati" family mentioned in the Grahapati Kokkala inscription is believed to be from the same community that is now known as Gahoi. This inscription at Khajuraho, dated Vikram Samvat 1056, Kartika (1000–1001 AD), is the earliest known reference to the Grahapati family. Unlike all other Chandella-era Grahapati inscriptions which are Jain, this refers to a Shiva temple, although Verse 3 suggests that the builder also worshipped Jinas. An inscription is of Vikram samvat 1011 mentioning Pahilla, regarded to have been a Grahapati, who built a Jain temple during the reign of Dhanga at Khajuraho. This temple is among those that still exist at Khajuraho.A bronze Jain Altarpiece with Parshvanatha, Shantinatha, and Vasupujiya is preserved in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. It was installed by Sadhu Sandhan, son of Kuntha, of Grahapati family in Vikram 1121 (1178 AD).

Indian New Year's days

There are numerous days throughout the year celebrated as New Year's Day in the different regions of India. Observance is determined by whether the lunar calendar is being following or the solar calendar. Those regions which follow the Solar calendar, the new year falls on Sankranti of the first month of the calendar, i.e., Vaishakha. Generally, this day falls during 14th or 15th of the month of January. Those following Lunar calendar consider the month of Chaitra (corresponding to March-April) as the first month of the year, so the new year is celebrated on the first day of this month. Similarly, few regions in India consider the period between consecutive Sankarantis as one month and few others take the period between consecutive Purnimas as a month.

Kartik (Nepali calendar)

Kartik (Nepali: कार्तिक) is the seventh month in the Vikram Samvat, the official Calendar for Nepalese. This month usually starts on 18 October till 16 November. This month is mostly 30 days long.

Kartik is also known as the month of festivals because two major festivals, Dashain and Tihar, usually falls in this month.

Maghe Sankranti

Maghe Sankranti (Nepali:माघे सङ्क्रान्ति, Mathili:माघि, Nepal Bhasa:घ्यःचाकु संल्हु) is a Nepalese festival observed on the first of Magh in the Vikram Sambat (B.S) calendar (about 14 January) bringing an end to the winter solstice containing month of Poush. Maghe Sankranti is similar to solstice festivals in other religious traditions.Observant Hindus take ritual baths during this festival, notably at auspicious river locations. These include Sankhamul on the Bagmati near Patan; In the Gandaki/Narayani river basin at Triveni, Devghat near Chitwan Valley and Ridi on the Kaligandaki; and in the Koshi River basin at Dolalghat on the Sun Koshi. Festive foods like laddoo, ghee and sweet potatoes are distributed. The mother of each household wishes good health to all family members.

Maithili New Year

Maithili New Year (or, Jude Sheetal) is the celebration of the first day of the Maithili new year. This day which usually falls on 14 April on Gregorian calendar is celebrated by the Maithils in Mithila region of India and Nepal. This is also called Nirayana Mesh Sankranti and Tirhuta new year. The festive occasion is in keeping with the Maithil Panchang, a calendar used in whole of Mithila region.

Sakela

Sakela (साकेला) is the main festival of Rai people which is celebrated twice a year and is distinguished by two names Ubhauli and Udhauli. Sakela Ubhauli is celebrated during Baisakh Purnima (full moon day in the month of Baishak) and Sakela Udhauli is celebrated during the full moon day in the month of Mangsir.

Tihar (festival)

Tihar (Nepali: तिहार), also known as Deepawali and Yamapanchak or Swanti (Nepal Bhasa: स्वन्ती:), is a five-day-long Hindu festival celebrated in the Indian subcontinent, notably in Nepal and the Indian states of Assam and Sikkim including in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It is the festival of lights, as diyas are lit inside and outside the houses to make it illuminate at night. It is popularly known as Swanti among the Newars and as Deepawali among Madhesis. Set in the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag Tihar in Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha and ends with Bhai Tika in Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year.Tihar is the second biggest Nepalese festival after Dashain. It is considered to be of great importance as it shows contribution to not just the humans and the gods, but also to the animals like crows, cows, and dogs that maintain an intimate relationship with humans. People make patterns on the floor of living rooms or courtyards using materials such as colored rice, dry flour, colored sand or flower petals outside their house, called Rangoli, which is meant to be a sacred welcoming area for the Gods and Goddesses of Hinduism

mainly Goddess Laxmi.Crows and ravens are worshiped by offerings of sweets and dishes placed on the roofs of houses. The cawing of crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and grief in Hinduism, so devotees offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes. Tihar represents the divine attachment between humans and other animals.

Tristutik Gaccha

Tristutik Gaccha was a Murtipujaka Svetambara Jain Gaccha (religious grouping) preceding the founding of the Tapa Gaccha by Acharya Rajendrasuri. It was re-established in 1194 AD ( Vikram Samvat 1250.) It was known as Agama Gaccha in ancient times. The Tristutik believed in devotion to the Tirthankaras alone in most rituals, although offerings to helper divinities were made during large ceremonies.

The Tristutik Gaccha was reformed by Acharya Rajendrasuri and as per tradition of Jainism it is a part of Tapa Gachca. Presently this sect has a total 357 monks and nuns with four Acharyas.

Vat Purnima

Vat Purnima or pournima chavan or Wat Purnima (वट पूर्णिमा, vaṭapūrṇimā, also called Vat Savitri is a celebration observed by married women in the Western Indian states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa and some regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh. On this Purnima or "full moon" during the three days of the month of Jyeshtha in the Hindu calendar (which falls in May-June in the Gregorian calendar) a married woman marks her love for her husband by tying a ceremonial thread around a banyan tree. The celebration is based on the legend of Savitri and Satyavan as narrated in the epic Mahabharata.

Months of the Hindu calendar
Months of the Nepali calendar
Systems
Nearly universal
In wide use
In more
limited use
Historical
By specialty
Proposals
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Year naming
and
numbering

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