Vihren (Bulgarian: Вихрен) is the highest peak of Bulgaria's Pirin Mountains. Reaching 2,914 metres (9,560 ft), it is Bulgaria's second and the Balkans' third highest, after Musala and Mount Olympus. Although due to the karst topography Vihren is deprived of lakes and streams, a number of Pirin's lakes are located around the peak, as is Europe's southernmost glacial mass, the Snezhnika glacielet. Until 1942 Vihren was known as Eltepe (peak of storms); it was also called Buren (stormy) and Malnienosets (lightning-bringer). The UNESCO World Heritage Site Pirin National Park was originally known as the Vihren National Park. Vihren is included in the 100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria under No. 2.
Vihren from the north
|Elevation||2,914 m (9,560 ft) |
|Prominence||1,783 m (5,850 ft) |
Location in Bulgaria
|Location||Blagoevgrad Province, Bulgaria|
|Parent range||Pirin Mountains|
|Easiest route||Hike/scramble from Vihren refuge|
Vihren is situated in the northern subdivision of Pirin on the mountain's main ridge between the summits of Kutelo (2,908 m) to the north-west and Hvoynati Vrah (2,635 m) to the south-east. It is connected with these two peaks via the saddles of Premkata (2,610 m) to the north and Kabata (2,535 m) to the south. The summit is located between the valleys of the rivers Vlahina reka of the Struma drainage to the west and Banderitsa of the Mesta drainage to the east.
Seen from the town of Bansko, situated at the foothills of Pirin to the north-east of Vihren, the peak looks like a truncated pyramid, and from the south — like а tetrahedral pyramid. The summit is built up marbles and has a karst topography which determines the lack of streams and lakes around Vihren. The closest lakes are the Vlahini Lakes to the south-west. To the north are situated the deep and waterless cirques Golemiya Kazan and Malkiya Kazan, known as the Kazanite (the cauldrons). Below the 450 m-high walls of Vihren facing Golemiya Kazan there is a small glacier called Snezhnika, which is Europe's southernmost glacial mass. Its size in summer is 80x90 m.
The average annual minimal temperature varies between –25° and –21°С, while the maximal temperatures are between 15° and 23°С. The mean annual precipitation is 1150 mm; the snow cover reaches depth of 3 m. There is a meteorological station at 1,950 m.
The wildlife is alpine. The flora of Vihren's slopes consists of herbaceous plants and lichens. Vihren is home to a number of habitats, including alpine and sub-alpine open calcareous grasslands that at inclination of 30–45° at altitude over 2,500 m on the marble bedrock forms phytocenosis dominated by Sesleria korabensis, and alpine and sub-alpine closed calcareous grasslands on very rocky bedrock. With less abundance is the relict plant Carex rupestris; some plant communities have an abundance of Carex kitaibeliana and Sesleria coerulans. There are also Alyssum cuneifolium, Bellardiochloa variegata, Bromus lacmonicus, Cerastium lanatum, Koeleria eriostachya, Onobrychis pindicola, Scutellaria alpina, Sesleria coerulans, etc. Rare or endemic herbaceous plants that grow on the slopes of Vihren are edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum), Pirin poppy (Papaver degenii), Oxytropis urumovii, Alyssum pirinicum, Timmia norvegica, Thymus perinicus, etc.
Vihren is among the 100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria under No. 2 and stamps to verify the visit can be found in the Museum of Nikola Vaptsarov in Bansko and in Vihren refuge. The summit is part of the initiative of the Bulgarian Tourist Union "Conqueror of the Top Ten Mountain Peaks" to promote mountaineering.
Vihren was first climbed in winter on 9 January 1925 by T.Atanasov, D.Stoykov, V.Baynov and N.Bozhinov. The classical route to climb the peak is from the Vihren refuge (1,950 m) to the south via the Kabata saddle; this route takes three to four hours in summer and is steep reaching denivelation of almost 1,000 m in а short time. Other routes include those from the Banderitsa refuge (1,810 m) or across the knife-edge crest Koncheto from the north. From the Kazanite cirques in the north there is a 400 m-high steep wall which has several tracks from alpine climbing. This wall was first climbed in 1934 by the German alpinists W.Mosel and F.Auer; in winter it was first ascended in 1949 by Al.Belkovski and Vl.Lobodin.
The 2006–07 Bulgarian Cup was the 67th season of the Bulgarian Cup. Levski Sofia won the competition, beating Litex Lovech 1–0 after extra time in the final at the Beroe Stadium in Stara Zagora.2008–09 A Group
The 2008–09 A Group was the 85th season of the Bulgarian national top football division, and the 61st of A Group as the top tier football league in the country.. It began on 9 August 2008 and ended on 13 June 2009. CSKA Sofia were the defending champions, but they were unable to retain it and Levski Sofia won the title, which was their 26th overall.Anton Kostadinov
Anton Kostadinov (Bulgarian: Антон Костадинов; born 24 June 1982) is a Bulgarian footballer currently playing as a midfielder for Spartak Varna.Daniel Zlatkov
Daniel Zlatkov (Bulgarian: Даниел Златков; born 6 March 1989) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Vihren Sandanski. He is also a MMA fighter. He played for several years in the Bulgarian A PFG.Georgi Bachev
Georgi Krumov Bachev (Bulgarian: Георги Бачев) (born 18 April 1977 in Blagoevgrad) is a Bulgarian former football player and currently manager.Gjoko Hadžievski
Gjoko Hadžievski or Ǵoko Hadžievski (Macedonian: Ѓоко Хаџиевски; born 31 March 1955) is a football coach from the Republic of Macedonia.
He played for Teteks and Pelister.He coached teams from Bulgaria (CSKA Sofia, Vihren Sandanski), Greece (Kastoria, Doxa Drama), Azerbaijan (FK Baku), Japan (Júbilo Iwata), Saudi Arabia (Najran SC) and Macedonia.José Emílio Furtado
José Emílio Robalo Furtado (born 14 March 1983) is a Cape Verdean professional former footballer who played as a striker. He also holds Portuguese citizenship.List of foreign football players in A PFG
This is a list of foreign football players in Bulgarian A Professional Football Group. The players written with bold text are currently playing in the A PFG.List of mountains in Bulgaria
Mountains constitute a significant part of Bulgaria and are dominant in the southwest and central parts. Bulgaria's highest mountains are Rila (highest peak Musala, 2925 m; the highest in the Balkans) and Pirin (highest peak Vihren, 2914 m). The large mountain chain of Stara planina (Balkan Mountains) runs west-east across the entire country, bisecting it and giving the name to the entire Balkan peninsula. Other extensive mountains are the massifs Rhodopes and Strandzha in the south.Martin Stankev
Martin Stankev (Bulgarian: Мартин Станкев; born 29 July 1989) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Vitosha Bistritsa.Stankev joined Etar at the beginning of the 2017–18 season but was released shortly afterwards.Milen Stoev
Milen Stoev (Bulgarian: Милен Стоев; born 29 September 1999) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Arda Kardzhali.OFC Vihren Sandanski
OFC Vihren (Bulgarian: Вихрен Сандански) is a Bulgarian football club from the town of Sandanski, currently playing in the South-West Third League. Sandanski's home ground is the Sandanski Stadium in Sandanski with a capacity of 6,000. Vihren Sandanski's team colours are green and white.Petar Dimitrov
Petar Dimitrov (Bulgarian: Петър Димитров; born 28 February 1982) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a winger or forward. Dimitrov is an attacking right midfielder.Pirin National Park
Pirin National Park (Bulgarian: Национален парк "Пирин"), originally named Vihren National Park, encompasses the larger part of the Pirin Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria, spanning an area of 403.56 km2 (155.82 sq mi). It is one of the three national parks in the country, the others being Rila National Park and Central Balkan National Park. The park was established in 1962 and its territory was expanded several times since then. Pirin National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. The altitude varies from 950 m to 2,914 m at Vihren, Bulgaria's second highest summit and the Balkans' third.
The park is situated in Blagoevgrad Province, the nation's south-westernmost region, on the territory of seven municipalities: Bansko, Gotse Delchev, Kresna, Razlog, Sandanski, Simitli and Strumyani. There are no populated places within its territory. Two nature reserves are located within the boundaries of Pirin National Park, Bayuvi Dupki–Dzhindzhiritsa and Yulen. Bayuvi Dupki–Dzhindzhiritsa is among the oldest in Bulgaria, established in 1934 and is included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme. The whole territory is part of the network of nature protection areas of the European Union, Natura 2000.
Pirin is renowned for its 118 glacial lakes, the largest and the deepest of them being Popovo Lake. Many of them are situated in cirques. There are also a few small glaciers, such Snezhnika, located in the deep Golemiya Kazan cirque at the steep northern foot of Vihren, and Banski Suhodol. They are the southernmost glaciers in Europe.
Pirin National Park falls within the Rodope montane mixed forests terrestrial ecoregion of the Palearctic temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. Forests cover 57.3% of the parks area and almost 95% of them are coniferous forests. The average age of the forests is 85 years. Bulgaria's oldest tree, Baikushev's pine, is located in the park. With an approximate age of about 1,300 years it is a contemporary of the foundation of the Bulgarian state in 681 AD. The fauna of the Pirin National Park is diverse and includes 45 species of mammals, 159 species of birds, 11 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibia and 6 species of fish.Todor Pramatarov
Todor Pramatarov (Bulgarian: Тодор Праматаров) (born 8 August 1968) is a former Bulgarian football (soccer) player. He was the top scorer of the 1997 championship (with 26 goals for Slavia Sofia).
A native of Sofia, Pramatarov played as a forward for FC Lyulin, PFC Montana, Lokomotiv Sofia, CSKA Sofia, Slavia Sofia, PFC Shumen, Litex Lovech, Greek AO Kavala, Velbazhd Kyustendil, Pirin Blagoevgrad, Vihren Sandanski and in Cypriot Aris Limassol.
During his career Pramatarov played in 440 matches and scored 223 goals.Vihren (village)
Vihren is a village in the municipality of Sandanski, in Blagoevgrad Province, Bulgaria.Vihren refuge
The Vihren refuge (Bulgarian: Хижа Вихрен) is situated in the Pirin mountain, southwestern Bulgaria at an altitude of 1,915 m. It is composed of two massive buildings and bungalows. There is a road from Bansko, which makes the refuge one of the most visited parts in the mountain as well as one of the most polluted. The refuge is a starting point for the tourists to Vihren and some other peaks, lakes and refuges.Vladislav Zlatinov
Vladislav Zlatinov (Bulgarian: Владислав Златинов; born 23 March 1983) is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a forward who plays for Pirin Blagoevgrad. He is a product of CSKA Sofia's youth system and was the Bulgarian Second Division's top scorer for 2004 with 21 goals.On 10 March 2017, Zlatinov joined Bansko but left the club at the end of the season. In August 2017, Zlatinov joined Gamma Ethniki side Mylopotamos. In January 2018, Zlatinov returned to his hometown club Vihren.In June 2018, Zlatinov made another return to Pirin Blagoevgrad where his brother Petar was appointed as manager.Zdravko Lazarov
Zdravko Lazarov (Bulgarian: Здравко Лазаров; born 20 February 1976) is a Bulgarian retired professional footballer who is the current manager of Vihren Sandanski.
Lazarov's professional playing career as a winger spanned nearly 30 years, during which he played for 15 different clubs in Bulgaria, Turkey and Russia.
Lazarov was capped 31 times for the Bulgarian national team, scoring 3 times. He appeared in the 2004 UEFA European Championship.