The Vietnam People's Navy (Vietnamese: Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam), commonly known as the Vietnamese navy or the Vietnamese People's Navy, is the naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of the country's national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the co-ordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defence force.
|Vietnam People's Navy|
|Hải quân Nhân dân Việt Nam|
|Active||1955 – present|
|Branch||Main branches: |
|Size||50,000 officers and sailors|
91 ships (excluding auxiliaries)
|Part of||Vietnam People's Army|
|Headquarters||Hai Phong, Vietnam|
|Motto(s)||Đảo là nhà, Biển cả là quê hương (Island is Home, Ocean is Fatherland)|
|March||Surfing to the sea|
|Anniversaries||7 May 1955|
54 Patrol vessel
6 Amphibious warfare ship
1 Training vessel
|Engagements||World War II|
Johnson South Reef Skirmish
MT Zafirah hijacking
|Commander-in-Chief||Nguyễn Phú Trọng|
|Chief of Navy||Vice Admiral Phạm Hoài Nam|
|Political Commissar||Vice Admiral Phạm Văn Vững|
|Chief of Staff||Vice Admiral Nguyễn Trọng Bình|
|Patrol||C-212, DHC-6, EC225|
On 19 July 1946, Acting President of Democratic Republic of Vietnam Huỳnh Thúc Kháng signed into law a decree establishing the modern Vietnamese navy. Then, on 10 September of that year, General Võ Nguyên Giáp started to build a flotilla as the core of the new navy. On 8 March 1949, Vietnam established the Department of Naval Research under the General Staff. This department has performed both research and training to prepare for combat missions.
Following the Geneva Conference in 1954, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam went about creating its own naval forces. On 7 May 1955 the Vietnam People's Navy was created with the establishment of the General Directorate of Coastal Defence, it formed the basis for the Navy Operational Command (based on the Vietnamese Ministry of Defence decree No. 284/ND signed by General Võ Nguyên Giáp to established Naval Research Board, under the General Staff, on 8 March 1949). The primary mission of the Navy was to patrol the coastal areas and the inland waterways.
Throughout the Vietnam War the role played by the Vietnam People's Navy (or North Vietnamese Navy) was largely unknown to the public. However, on 2 August 1964, three North Vietnamese Swatow-class patrol boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The second attack, which the United States claimed to have occurred on 4 August, was dismissed by the North Vietnamese as a fabrication.
The North Vietnamese, however, had maintained their own version of the events which took place. According to official VPN accounts Maddox penetrated North Vietnamese waters on 31 July 1964, and provoked a battle with the North Vietnamese. In response to American provocation, three 123K-class torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Boat Battalion were dispatched to intercept the American destroyer. The resulting clash became known as the 'Battle of Thanh Hóa' in which North Vietnamese "torpedo boats succeeded in driving the Maddox out of Vietnam's territorial waters, shooting down a U.S. aircraft and damaging another".
Apart from patrolling territorial waters, the Navy also had the mission of transporting military supplies to support the Vietnam People's Army and their NLF ally during the Vietnam War. On 31 October 1961, a sea route version of the Ho Chi Minh trail was established by the North Vietnam Navy, with the 759th Transport Unit responsible for carrying military supplies and other goods for the Communist ground forces in South Vietnam. To avoid detection by the South Vietnamese and U.S navies, North Vietnamese transport ships were often disguised as fishing trawlers. On 16 February 1965, a 100-ton North Vietnamese trawler from the Transportation Group 125 was discovered at Vung Ro Bay. This led to the creation of Operation Market Time by the US Navy to intercept disguised enemy ships.
On 19 April 1972, the North Vietnamese Navy and Air Force participated in the Battle of Đồng Hới off the coast of North Vietnam. During this battle it was believed that the U.S Navy destroyed a Soviet-made cruise missile for the first time. The destroyer USS Higbee was damaged after an VPAF MiG-17 dropped a 250 lb (110 kg) bomb, destroying a 5-inch (127 mm) aft gun mount.
In the years following the complete withdrawal of U.S and other allied forces, the North Vietnamese went back on the offensive. As part of the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, the North Vietnamese Navy increased the transportation of military supplies, food and uniform to the Communist forces in the South. When the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) occupied the northern provinces of South Vietnam in 1975, captured South Vietnamese vessels were pressed into service with the Vietnam People's Navy. In April 1975, ex-South Vietnamese Navy vessels carried North Vietnamese troops to capture the Spratly Islands. Opening battle in the island Southwest Cay (Vietnamese: Song Tử tây) on 4 April 1975, amphibious raid by sea of the Naval Marine corps number 1 (precursor of the 126th Brigade Naval Marine corps) and three vessels of the 125 corps coordinated with the commandos of the 5th Military Region, after 30 minutes, Vietnamese Navy controlled the main battle area, facilitating the solution development process release of the other islands. Then, Vietnamese Navy continue control Sand Cay island (26 April), Namyit Island (27 April), Sin Cowe Island (28 April) and Spratly Island (29 April). At around the same time the Chinese Navy took over control of the Paracel Islands from the South Vietnamese Navy. These islands are also claimed by Vietnam, however they have no current presence there.
Prior to 1975, the North Vietnamese Navy operated fewer than forty patrol boats along with the coastal junk force. With the collapse of the Republic of Vietnam on 30 April 1975, the Vietnam People's Navy was expanded with ships from the defunct South Vietnamese Navy. Captured vessels included two patrol frigates, over one hundred patrol craft, and about fifty amphibious warfare ships.
In the late 1970s the naval infantry (or marines) was formed to be stationed on the areas claimed by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the Spratly Islands. The naval infantry is equipped with PT-76 light tanks, BTR-60 personnel carriers and naval infantrymen are armed with AK-74 rifle, AKM-47 assault rifles, Makarov PM pistol (Officers), and PKM machinegun infantry weapons, and more.
In 1988, Vietnam People's Navy fought against the Chinese Navy at Johnson Reef of sovereignty of the Spratly Islands, causing the losses to the Vietnamese of several transport ships and up to 64 deaths. The battle was won by the Chinese Navy who outgunned and outnumbered them, using a fleet of frigates against Vietnamese lightly armed transport ships. This prompted the Vietnamese Navy to modernise its naval weapons and its overall naval capabilities.
Organisational levels of Vietnam People's Navy, from highest to lowest are:
On 26 October 1975, the Ministry of Defence issued Decision No.141/QD-QP which established five Coastal Areas of Naval Command and jurisdiction provisions of the five regions. In 1978, they were renamed as the following naval regions:
|Surface Ships||Naval Commando||Marine Corps.||Naval Aviation||Coastal Defence Missiles||Submarines|
|Vietnam People's Army|
The Vietnam People's Navy system does not feature the rank of Fleet Admiral. Vietnam People's Navy ranks are divided into four categories: Commissioned Officer, Non-commissioned Officer, and Soldiers/Seamen. Officer ranks use the executive curl on the sleeves of their service and full dress blue uniforms, similar to those used in various navies worldwide.
|Flag Officers||Senior Officers||Junior Officers|
|Đô đốc||Phó Đô đốc||Chuẩn Đô đốc||Đại tá||Thượng tá||Trung tá||Thiếu tá||Đại úy||Thượng úy||Trung úy||Thiếu úy|
|Admiral||Vice Admiral||Rear Admiral||Commodore||Captain||Commander||Lt.Commander||Senior Lieutenant||Lieutenant||Sub-lieutenant||Ensign|
|Học viên Sĩ quan||Thượng sĩ||Trung sĩ||Hạ sĩ||Binh nhất||Binh nhì|
|Midshipman||Master Chief Petty Officer||Chief Petty Officer||Petty Officer First Class||Leading Seaman||Seaman|
The Vietnamese naval academy, with its headquarters in Nha Trang, is the main institute for training naval commanding officers for the divisional level, and commanding staffs at tactical/campaign levels. Students include both undergraduates and postgraduates serving in the military.
The forerunner of the Vietnam Naval Academy, the Coastal Training School, was established on 26 April 1955 by the General Staff. The school has changed name several times, such as the Naval Training School in 1959, the Naval School of Vietnam in 1961, the Naval Officers School in 1967, and the School of Naval Engineering Command in 1980. The school renamed itself the Naval Academy in 1993.
After 55 years of development, combat and growth, the academy has trained thousands of officers and technical staff for major specialised fields such as vessel control, mining and anti-mine operations, anti-submarine missiles, gunships, information, radar, sonar, coastal radar, shipyard work, the Coast Guard, and Border Defence Force.
The current total manpower of the navy is around 50,000 officers and enlisted personnel, including naval infantry and other specialised units.
Main article: List of equipment of the Vietnam People's Navy
Giáp Văn Cương (1921-1990) was an Admiral of the Vietnam People's Navy. He was born on September 13, 1921 in Bắc Giang Province, Vietnam.Komar-class missile boat
The Soviet Project 183R class, more commonly known as Komar (NATO reporting name, meaning mosquito), is a class of missile boats, the first of its kind, built in the 1950s and 1960s. Notably, they were the first to sink another ship with anti-ship missiles in 1967.List of equipment of the Vietnam People's Navy
Since the Vietnam War, most of Vietnamese vessels were supplied by the Soviet Union and presently by Russia, while hundreds more were integrated into the navy after it was left over from South Vietnam although many have been decommissioned due to lack of parts. However, due to rising tensions in the South China Sea, many nearby nations such as Japan have shown support in developing Vietnam's Navy and Coast Guard.The Vietnam People's Navy is the branch of the Vietnam People's Army with the fastest modernisation as the Vietnamese government put it as a main priority, with constant upgradation of its weapons, ammunition and combat capability.Pauk-class corvette
The Pauk class is the NATO reporting name for a class of small patrol corvettes built for the Soviet Navy and export customers between 1977 and 1989. The Russian designation is Project 1241.2 Molniya-2. These ships are designed for coastal patrol and inshore anti-submarine warfare. The design is the patrol version of the Tarantul class which is designated Project 1241.1, but is slightly longer and has diesel engines. The ships are fitted with a dipping sonar which is also used in Soviet helicopters.Sonya-class minesweeper
The Sonya class are a group of minesweepers built for the Soviet Navy and Soviet allies between 1971 and 1991. The Soviet designation is Project 1265 Yakhont.Tarantul-class corvette
The Project 1241 are a class of Soviet missile corvettes. They have the NATO reporting name Tarantul (not to be confused with the Stenka-class patrol boat, whose official Soviet name is also "Tarantul"). These ships were designed to replace the Project 205 Tsunami (NATO: "Osa") missile boats.Type 010 minesweeper
The Type 010 class minesweeper is the Chinese versions of the Russian Soviet T-43 class oceangoing minesweeper.Type 082 mine countermeasure vessel
The Type 082 class minesweeper is a Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy ship class. It is also known as Wosao class in the west, but the Chinese name is Wusao, short for armed (Wu-zhuang, 武裝) mine sweeping boat (Sao-lei-ting, 掃雷).USS Absecon (AVP-23)
The second USS Absecon (AVP-23) was a United States Navy Barnegat-class seaplane tender in commission from 1943 to 1947, converted during construction to serve as a catapult training ship during World War II. The ship was in commission in the United States Coast Guard as the cutter USCGC Absecon (WAVP-374), later WHEC-374, from 1949 to 1972. Transferred to South Vietnam in 1972, she served in the Republic of Vietnam Navy as the frigate RVNS Pham Ngu Lao (HQ-15) until she was captured by North Vietnam at the conclusion of the Vietnam War in 1975. After that, she served in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam's Vietnam People's Navy as PRVSN Pham Ngu Lao (HQ-01).USS Bulloch County (LST-509)
USS Bulloch County (LST-509) was an LST-491-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Bulloch County, Georgia, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.
LST-509 was laid down on 7 October 1943 at Jeffersonville, Indiana by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company; launched on 23 November 1943; sponsored by Lieutenant (j.g.) Dorothy L. Nims, USCG(W); and commissioned on 20 January 1944 with Lieutenant J. B. Malcom, USNR, in command.
During World War II, LST-509 was assigned to the European Theater and participated in the Invasion of Normandy in June, 1944. Following the war, LST-509 returned to the United States and was redesignated USS Bulloch County (LST-509) on 1 July 1955.
She was recommissioned in 1966 and served in the Vietnam War until she was transferred to the Republic of Vietnam Navy in April 1970.
She was used primarily for provisioning forward coastal and river US Marine bases such as Tân Mỹ Base (now Thuan An) and Cửa Việt Base located in I Corps and bases further south such as Vung Tau, Cam Ranh Bay and Nha Trang.
Other duties included coastal picket and resupply duty during Operation Market Time in which she resupplied and provided off-patrol berthing for Patrol Craft Fast crews interdicting Viet Cong communication and supply routes.
The starboard screw and rudder were once damaged by a floating mine in the Cua Viet River. She continued operations on one screw until another could be fitted at Da Nang. She suffered serious enough storm damage during a typhoon during a voyage to Okinawa in 1969, to require emergency repairs while beached and more complete repairs in a graving dock at Sasebo, Japan.
On 8 April 1970, the ship was decommissioned and leased to the Republic of Vietnam under the Security Assistance Program for service as Qui Nhon (HQ-504). After 1975, she served in the Vietnam People's Navy with new registration as HQ-505.
In 1988 she was heavily damaged in the Johnson South Reef Skirmish by the Chinese frigate Yingtan. The Vietnam People's Navy, in an effort to save her, tried to bring her to Cam Ranh Bay for repair but she sank south of Great Discovery Reef in the Spratly Islands area. The ship and her crew were granted the title of Hero of the People's Armed Forces.
LST-509 earned one battle star for World War II service.USS Coconino County (LST-603)
USS Coconino County (LST-603), originally USS LST-603, was a United States Navy LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II and in commission from 1944 to 1955 and from 1966 to 1969. Named after Coconino County, Arizona, she was the only U.S. Navy vessel to bear the name.USS Forster (DE-334)
USS Forster (DE-334) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She was launched on 13 November 1943 by Consolidated Steel Corporation, Orange, Texas, sponsored by Mrs. E. W. Forster, widow of Machinist Edward W. Forster, who was killed in action during the Battle of Savo Island, 9 August 1942 with the sinking of USS Vincennes. Forster was commissioned 25 January 1944 and served as an escort in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Florida on 15 June 1946.USS Marion County (LST-975)
USS Marion County (LST-975) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation. She was later named after counties in seventeen U. states, she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.USS Prowess (AM-280)
USS Prowess (AM-280) was an Admirable-class minesweeper built for the United States Navy during World War II. At war's end she was placed in reserve. In the mid-1960s, she was converted into a training ship for U.S. Naval Reserve personnel. She was transferred to South Vietnam in June 1970 as RVNS Ha Hoi (HQ-13) in the Republic of Vietnam Navy. In 1975, Ha Hoi was seized by North Vietnamese forces and incorporated into the Vietnamese People's Navy. She remained in service until 1998, when she was converted into a training ship. She has since been scrapped.USS Sentry (AM-299)
USS Sentry (AM-299) was an Admirable-class minesweeper built for the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean and was awarded six battle stars, a Navy Unit Commendation, and a Presidential Unit Citation. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve in 1946. In August 1962, the former Sentry was transferred to South Vietnam as RVNS Ky Hoa (HQ-09) in the Republic of Vietnam Navy. Her fate after 1962 is unreported in secondary sources.Vietnamese frigate Ly Thai To (HQ-012)
HQ-012 Ly Thai To is a Gepard-class frigate (Gepard 3.9 type) in the Vietnam People's Navy. She was built by the Zelenodolsk shipyard in Russia under signed contract to the Vietnamese Navy.Ly Thai To is designed to perform searches, track and destroy floating target ships, air defense, anti-submarine (limited), escort, and patrol territorial waters and special areas with economic rights. Ly Thai To can enter combat independently or in squadrons, and is equipped with stealth technology, to present a minimum presence on enemy radar screens.
Vietnam and Russia signed a contract worth USD $350 million to build two Gepard-class frigates designed by the Institute ZPKB in Zelenodolsk.According to the manufacturer, Ly Thai To's interior has been modified to increase crew comfort, improved compared to Dinh Tien Hoang – the previous Gepard 3.9 in Vietnam People's Navy. She has more convenient maintenance and operation, improved seaworthiness, higher maneuverability, and is better able to handle a range of situations.Ly Thai To, launched on 16 March 2011, was named after Lý Thái Tổ, the Đại Việt Emperor and founder of the Lý Dynasty, who reigned from 1009 AD to 1028 AD.
Ly Thai To visited Indonesia from 12–15 November, Brunei from 19–21 November and the Philippines from 24–26 November 2014.Vietnamese submarine Hồ Chí Minh City
Hồ Chí Minh City is a Kilo-class submarine of the Vietnam People's Navy. She is one of six Kilo-class submarines in service with Vietnam. In 2014 it had to sail though a frozen lake.Yevgenya-class minesweeper
The Yevgenia class are a group of minesweepers built for the Soviet Navy and export customers between 1967 and 1980. The Soviet designation was Project 1258 Korund.Yurka-class minesweeper
The Yurka class were a group of minesweepers built for the Soviet Navy and export customers between 1963 and 1970. The Soviet designation was Project 266 Rubin.
Militaries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
|Royal Brunei Armed Forces|
|Royal Cambodian Armed Forces|
|Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Lao People's Armed Forces|
|Malaysian Armed Forces|
|Myanmar Armed Forces|
|Armed Forces of the Philippines|
|Singapore Armed Forces|
|Royal Thai Armed Forces|
|Vietnam People's Armed Forces|