Vietnam

Vietnam (UK: /ˌvjɛtˈnæm, -ˈnɑːm/, US: /ˌviːət-/ (listen);[9] Vietnamese: Việt Nam pronounced [vîət nāːm] (listen)), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, part of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast.[n 3] Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

During the 3rd century BC, ancient Vietnamese people inhabited modern-day northern Vietnam and established the state of Âu Lạc.[11] The independent state was annexed by Nam Việt in 179 BC.[n 4] Nam Việt was subsequently annexed by the Han Empire and became part of Imperial China for over a millennium from 111 BC to 939 AD. An independent Vietnamese state emerged in 939 following Vietnamese victory in the battle of Bạch Đằng against the Southern Han. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia until the Indochina Peninsula was colonised by the French in the mid-19th century.

French Indochina saw the Japanese occupation in 1940 amidst the escalation of World War II. Following Japanese defeat in 1945, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War. On 2 September 1945, Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared Vietnam's independence from France and therefrom established a provisional communist state. After nine years of war, the Vietnamese declared victory in the decisive battle of Điện Biên Phủ in 1954. The nation was thereafter divided into two rival states, communist North—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and anti-communist South—the Republic of Vietnam. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War with extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973. The war ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

North and South Vietnam were then reunified under a communist government in 1976. The newly established country remained impoverished and politically isolated until 1986 when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into the world economy. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries. Since 2000, Vietnam's GDP growth rate has been among the highest in the world. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the WTO in 2007. Vietnam is also a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

Coordinates: 16°N 108°E / 16°N 108°E

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)
Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc
"Independence – Freedom – Happiness"
Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
(English: "Army March")
Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of Vietnam (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

CapitalHanoi
21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E
Largest cityHo Chi Minh City
Official language
and national language
Vietnamese
Official scriptLatin alphabet
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Vietnamese
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
• President
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
2 September 1945
21 July 1954
2 July 1976[3]
28 November 2013[n 2]
Area
• Total
331,212 km2 (127,882 sq mi) (65th)
• Water (%)
6.38
Population
• 2016 estimate
94,569,072[5] (15th)
• Density
276.03/km2 (714.9/sq mi) (46th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$707.620 billion[6] (35th)
• Per capita
$7,482[6] (128th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$241.434 billion[6] (47th)
• Per capita
$2,552[6] (129th)
Gini (2014)37.6[7]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.694[8]
medium · 116th
Currencyđồng (₫) (VND)
Time zoneUTC+7 (Vietnam Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+84
ISO 3166 codeVN
Internet TLD.vn

Etymology

The name Việt Nam (Vietnamese pronunciation: [viə̀t naːm]) is a variation of Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越; pinyin: Nányuè; literally "Southern Việt"), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty of the 2nd century BC.[12] The word Việt originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt (Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè), a group of people then living in southern China and Vietnam.[13] The form "Vietnam" (越南) is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình. The name has also been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Hải Phòng that dates to 1558.[14] In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (later become Emperor Gia Long) established the Nguyễn dynasty, and in the second year, he asked the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty to confer him the title 'King of Nam Viet/Nanyue' (南越 in Chinese) after seizing Annam's ruling power but the latter refused since the name was related to Zhao Tuo's Nanyue which includes the regions of Guangxi and Guangdong in southern China by which the Qing Emperor decide to call the area as "Viet Nam" instead.[n 5][16] Between 1804 and 1813, the name Vietnam was used officially by Emperor Gia Long.[n 5] It was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Châu's History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ).[17] The country was usually called Annam until 1945, when both the imperial government in Huế and the Việt Minh government in Hanoi adopted Việt Nam.[18]

History

Prehistory

DrumFromSongDaVietnamDongSonIICultureMid1stMilleniumBCEBronze
A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC.

Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of humans in what is now Vietnam as early as the Paleolithic age. Homo erectus fossils dating to around 500,000 BC have been found in caves in Lạng Sơn and Nghệ An provinces in northern Vietnam.[19] The oldest Homo sapiens fossils from mainland Southeast Asia are of Middle Pleistocene provenance, and include isolated tooth fragments from Tham Om and Hang Hum.[20][21][22] Teeth attributed to Homo sapiens from the Late Pleistocene have also been found at Dong Can,[23] and from the Early Holocene at Mai Da Dieu,[24][25] Lang Gao[26][27] and Lang Cuom.[28] By about 1,000 BC, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River floodplains led to the flourishing of the Đông Sơn culture,[29][30] notable for its elaborate bronze Đông Sơn drums.[31][32][33] At this time, the early Vietnamese kingdoms of Văn Lang and Âu Lạc appeared, and the culture's influence spread to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Maritime Southeast Asia, throughout the first millennium BC.[32][34]

Dynastic Vietnam

Territorial expansion of Vietnam from Lý dynasty to Nguyễn dynasty (1009–1834)
Territorial expansion of Vietnam, 1009–1834

The Hồng Bàng dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered to be the first Vietnamese state, known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang.[35][36] In 257 BC, the last Hùng king was defeated by Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt and Âu Việt tribes to form the Âu Lạc, proclaiming himself An Dương Vương.[37] In 179 BC, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue.[30] However, Nanyue was itself incorporated into the empire of the Chinese Han dynasty in 111 BC after the Han–Nanyue War.[16][38] For the next thousand years, what is now northern Vietnam remained mostly under Chinese rule.[39][40] Early independence movements, such as those of the Trưng Sisters and Lady Triệu,[41] were only temporarily successful,[42] though the region gained a longer period of independence as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lý dynasty between AD 544 and 602.[43][44][45] By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not sovereignty, under the Khúc family.[46]

In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam after a millennium of Chinese domination.[47][48][49] Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation enjoyed a golden era under the Lý and Trần dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions.[50][51] Meanwhile, Buddhism of Mahāyāna tradition flourished and became the state religion.[49][52] Following the 1406–7 Ming–Hồ War which overthrew the Hồ dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty.[53] The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460–1497).[54][55] Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến ("southward expansion"),[56] eventually conquering the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.[57][58][59]

From the 16th century onward, civil strife and frequent political infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc dynasty challenged the Lê dynasty's power.[60] After the Mạc dynasty was defeated, the Lê dynasty was nominally reinstalled, but actual power was divided between the northern Trịnh lords and the southern Nguyễn lords, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s.[61] During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Central Highlands and the Khmer lands in the Mekong Delta.[57][59][62] The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers established a new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long, and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn lords, led by Nguyễn Ánh and aided by the French.[63] Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long.[62]

French Indochina

Since the 1500s, the Portuguese have become acquainted with Vietnamese coast where they reportedly erected a stele in Chàm Islands to mark their presence.[64] By 1533, the Portuguese began to land into the Vietnamese delta but were forced to leave due to local turmoil and fighting. They also had less interest in the territory than in both kingdoms in China and Japan.[64] After having successfully settled Macau and Nagasaki to begin the profitable Macau-Japan trade, the Portuguese began to be involved in trade with Hội An where many Portuguese traders and their Catholic missionaries set their foot into the Vietnamese kingdom.[64] The Dutch also tried to establish contact with Vietnam through the central part of Quinam in 1601 but failed to maintain a long presence there after several violent encounter with the locals. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) only managed to establish official relations with Tonkin in the spring of 1637 after leaving Dejima in Japan to establishing trade for silk.[65] Meanwhile, the English first attempt through the East India Company (EIC) to establishing contact with Hội An in 1613 are failed following a violent incident involving their merchant but the English return to establishing relations with Tonkin by 1672 where they were allowed to reside in Phố Hiến.[66]

ExpositionHanoi1902 GrandPalais (1)
Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair as Hanoi became French Indochina's capital.

From between 1615–1753, French traders also engaged in trade in the area around Đàng Trong and actively spreading missionaries.[67][68] Following the detention of several missionaries as the Vietnamese kingdom feel threatened with the continuous Christianisation activities,[69] the French Navy received approval from their government to intervene in Vietnam in 1834 with the aim to free imprisoned Catholic missionaries from a kingdom that was perceived as xenophobic against foreign influence.[70] Vietnam's kingdom independence was then gradually eroded by France which was aided by the Spanish and large Catholic militias in a series of military conquests between 1859 and 1885.[71][72] In 1862, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina.[73] By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the central and northern parts of Vietnam separated in the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in 1887.[74][75] The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society.[76] A Western-style system of modern education was developed and Catholicism was propagated widely.[77] Most French settlers in Indochina were concentrated in Cochinchina, particularly in the region of Saigon and in Hanoi, the capital of the colony.[78]

Guerrillas of the royalist Cần Vương movement massacred around a third of Vietnam's Christian population during the colonial period as part of their rebellion against French rule,[79][80] but were defeated in the 1890s after a decade of resistance by the Catholics as a reprisal of their earlier massacres.[81][82] Another large-scale rebellion, the Thái Nguyên uprising was also suppressed heavily.[83] The French developed a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee,[84] however, they largely ignored the increasing demands for civil rights and self-government. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Bội Châu, Phan Châu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi, and Hồ Chí Minh fighting or calling for independence.[85] This resulted in the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDĐ) which was suppressed heavily by the French. The mutiny caused an irreparable split that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communist converts.[86][87][88] The French maintained full control over their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1940. Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro-Vichy French colonial administration to continue.[89][90] Japan exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945 and the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which caused up to two million deaths.[91][92]

First Indochina War

First Indochina War map 1954 en
Situation of the First Indochina War at the end of 1954.
  Areas under Việt Minh control
  Areas under French control
  Việt Minh guerrilla encampment / fighting

In 1941, the Việt Minh, a nationalist liberation movement based on a Communist ideology, emerged under the Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. The Việt Minh sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation.[93][94] Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, anarchy, rioting and murder were widespread since Saigon's administrative services collapsed.[95] The Việt Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September.[94] Earlier in July, the Allies decide to divide Indochina into half at the 16th parallel to allow Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China receive Japanese surrender in the north while Lord Louis Mountbatten of the British receive the surrender in the south with the Allies agreeing that Indochina belonged to France.[96][97]

French Indochina post partition
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference

However, as the French were weakened as a result of German occupation, the British-Indian forces together with the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France re-establish control through the 1945–1946 War in Vietnam.[98] Hồ Chí Minh at the time chose a moderate stance to avoid military conflict with France by which he asked the French to withdraw their colonial administrators, and asked for aid from French professors and engineers to help build a modern independent Vietnam.[94] These requests, including the idea for independence, however, could not be accepted by the Provisional Government of the French Republic, which dispatched the French Far East Expeditionary Corps instead to restore colonial rule, causing the Việt Minh to launch a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946.[93][94][99] Matters also turned worse when the Republic of China gradually fell to the communists in the Chinese Communist Revolution. The resulting First Indochina War lasted until July 1954. The defeat of French and Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 battle of Điện Biên Phủ allowed Hồ Chí Minh to negotiate a ceasefire from a favourable position at the subsequent Geneva Conference.[94][100]

Hanoi Theatre
Hanoi Opera House, taken in the early 20th century, from rue Paul Bert (now Trang Tien street).

The colonial administration was ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954 into three countries: Vietnam and the kingdoms of Cambodia and Laos. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarised Zone, approximately along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956.[n 6] A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists.[105][106] The partition of Vietnam was not intended to be permanent by the Geneva Accords, which stipulated that Vietnam would be reunited after elections in 1956.[107] However, in 1955, the State of Vietnam's Prime Minister, Ngô Đình Diệm toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam.[107] At that point the internationally recognised State of Vietnam effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam in the south and Hồ Chí Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north.[107]

Vietnam War

Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression.[108] During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions.[109] Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time.[109][110] However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500.[111] In the South, Diệm countered North Vietnamese subversion (including the assassination of over 450 South Vietnamese officials in 1956) by detaining tens of thousands of suspected communists in "political re-education centers".[112][113] This was a ruthless program that incarcerated many non-communists, although it was also successful at curtailing communist activity in the country, if only for a time.[114] The North Vietnamese government claimed that 2,148 individuals were killed in the process by November 1957.[115] The pro-Hanoi Việt Cộng began a guerrilla campaign in the late 1950s to overthrow Diệm's government.[116] From 1960, the Soviet Union and North Vietnam signed treaties providing for further Soviet military support.[117][118][119]

Agent Orange Cropdusting
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of the overall herbicidal warfare operation called Trail Dust with the aim to deprive the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971.

In 1963, Buddhist discontent with Diệm's regime erupted into mass demonstrations, leading to a violent government crackdown.[120] This led to the collapse of Diệm's relationship with the United States, and ultimately to the 1963 coup in which Diệm and Nhu were assassinated.[121] The Diệm era was followed by more than a dozen successive military governments, before the pairing of Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu took control in mid-1965.[122] Thiệu gradually outmaneuvered Kỳ and cemented his grip on power in fraudulent elections in 1967 and 1971.[123] Under this political instability, the communists began to gain ground. To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States began increasing its contribution of military advisers, using the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident as a pretext for such intervention.[124] US forces became involved in ground combat operations in 1965, and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000.[125][126] The US also engaged in a sustained aerial bombing campaign. Meanwhile, China and the Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with significant material aid and 15,000 combat advisers.[117][118][127] Communist forces supplying the Việt Cộng carried supplies along the Hồ Chí Minh trail, which passed through the Kingdom of Laos.[128]

The communists attacked South Vietnamese targets during the 1968 Tết Offensive. Although the campaign failed militarily, it shocked the American establishment, and turned US public opinion against the war.[129] During the offensive, communist troops massacred over 3,000 civilians at Huế.[130][131] Facing an increasing casualty count, rising domestic opposition to the war, and growing international condemnation, the US began withdrawing from ground combat roles in the early 1970s. This process also entailed an unsuccessful effort to strengthen and stabilise South Vietnam.[132] Following the Paris Peace Accords of 27 January 1973, all American combat troops were withdrawn by 29 March 1973.[133] In December 1974, North Vietnam captured the province of Phước Long and started a full-scale offensive, culminating in the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.[134] South Vietnam was briefly ruled by a provisional government for almost eight years while under military occupation by North Vietnam.[135]

Reunification and reforms

Parade Unification
Reunification parade following the fall of Saigon, with the city being renamed as Ho Chi Minh City, 1975.

On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[136] The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million.[137][138][139] In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the US and the defunct South Vietnamese government, confounding Western fears.[140] However, up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to re-education camps, where many endured torture, starvation and disease while being forced to perform hard labour.[141] The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivisation of farms and factories.[142] In 1978, as a response towards the Khmer Rouge who had been invading and massacring Vietnamese residents in the border villages in the districts of An Giang and Kiên Giang,[143] the Vietnamese military invaded Cambodia and removed them from power after overtaking Phnom Penh.[144] The intervention was a success, resulting in the establishment of a new pro-Vietnam socialist government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea which ruled until 1989.[145] This action however worsened relations with China, who had been supporting the Khmer Rouge where they later launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam in 1979 and causing Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid with the mistrust towards the Chinese government began to escalate.[146]

At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.[147][148] The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.[147] Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms known as Đổi Mới ("Renovation") which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".[149][150] Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under Đổi Mới, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.[150][151] The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports and foreign investment although these reforms have also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.[152][153][154]

Geography

Geography of Vietnam
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls.

Vietnam is located on the eastern Indochinese Peninsula between the latitudes and 24°N, and the longitudes 102° and 110°E. It covers a total area of approximately 331,212 km2 (127,882 sq mi).[n 7] The combined length of the country's land boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi), and its coastline is 3,444 km (2,140 mi) long.[155] At its narrowest point in the central Quảng Bình Province, the country is as little as 50 kilometres (31 mi) across, though it widens to around 600 kilometres (370 mi) in the north.[156] Vietnam's land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country's land area,[157] and tropical forests cover around 42%.[158] The Red River Delta in the north, a flat, roughly triangular region covering 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi),[159] is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta in the south. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits.[160][161] The delta, covering about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), is a low-level plain no more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) above sea level at any point. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances 60 to 80 metres (196.9 to 262.5 ft) into the sea every year.[162][163]

I'm coming, PXP
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, a part of the Fansipan which is the highest summit in the country.

Southern Vietnam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land.[164] The soil in much of the southern part of Vietnam is relatively low in nutrients as a result of intense cultivation.[165] Several minor earthquakes have been recorded in the past with most occurred near the northern Vietnamese border in the provinces of Điện Biên, Lào Cai and Sơn La while some are recorded in the offshore of the central part of the country.[166][167] The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Fansipan (also called as Phan Xi Păng) which is located in Lào Cai Province is the highest mountain in Vietnam, standing 3,143 m (10,312 ft) high.[168] From north to south Vietnam, the country also has numerous islands with Phú Quốc being the largest.[169] The Hang Sơn Đoòng Cave is considered as the current largest cave passage in the world since its discovery in 2009 while both the Ba Bể Lake and Mekong River being the largest lake and longest river in the country respectively.[170][171][172]

Climate

Nha Trang skyline
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.

Due to differences in latitude and the marked variety in topographical relief, the climate tends to vary considerably for each region.[173] During the winter or dry season, extending roughly from November to April, the monsoon winds usually blow from the northeast along the Chinese coast and across the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up considerable moisture.[174] The average annual temperature is generally higher in the plains than in the mountains, especially in southern Vietnam compared to the north. Temperatures vary less in the southern plains around Ho Chi Minh City and the Mekong Delta, ranging from between 21 and 35 °C (69.8 and 95.0 °F) over the course of the year.[175] In Hanoi and the surrounding areas of Red River Delta, the temperatures are much lower between 15 and 33 °C (59.0 and 91.4 °F),[175] while seasonal variations in the mountains and plateaus and in the northernmost are much more dramatic, with temperatures varying from 3 °C (37.4 °F) in December and January to 37 °C (98.6 °F) in July and August.[176] As Vietnam received high rain precipitation with an average amount of rainfall from 1,500 millimetres to 2,000 millimetres during the monsoon seasons; this often causes flooding, especially in the cities with poor drainage systems.[177] The country is also affected by tropical depressions, tropical storms and typhoons.[177] Vietnam is one of world's most vulnerable countries to climate change with 55% of the population living in low-elevation coastal areas.[178]

Biodiversity

Wildlife of Vietnam
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.

As the country is located inside the Indomalayan realm, Vietnam is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a uniquely high level of biodiversity as also been stated in the country National Environmental Condition Report in 2005.[179] It is ranked 16th worldwide in biological diversity, being home to approximately 16% of the world's species. 15,986 species of flora have been identified in the country, of which 10% are endemic, while Vietnam's fauna include 307 nematode species, 200 oligochaeta, 145 acarina, 113 springtails, 7,750 insects, 260 reptiles, 120 amphibians, 840 birds and 310 mammals, of which 100 birds and 78 mammals are endemic.[179] Vietnam has two World Natural Heritage Sites, the Hạ Long Bay and Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park together with nine biosphere reserves including Cần Giờ Mangrove Forest, Cát Tiên, Cát Bà, Kiên Giang, the Red River Delta, Mekong Delta, Western Nghệ An, Cà Mau and Cu Lao Cham Marine Park.[180][181][182]

Lotus flower (978659)
Pink lotus, widely regarded by Vietnamese as the national flower of the country which symbolising beauty, commitment, health, honour and knowledge.[183][184][n 8]

Vietnam is furthermore home to 1,438 species of freshwater microalgae, constituting 9.6% of all microalgae species, as well as 794 aquatic invertebrates and 2,458 species of sea fish.[179] In recent years, 13 genera, 222 species, and 30 taxa of flora have been newly described in Vietnam.[179] Six new mammal species, including the saola, giant muntjac and Tonkin snub-nosed monkey have also been discovered, along with one new bird species, the endangered Edwards's pheasant.[186] In the late 1980s, a small population of Javan rhinoceros was found in Cát Tiên National Park. However, the last individual of the species in Vietnam was reportedly shot in 2010.[187] In agricultural genetic diversity, Vietnam is one of the world's twelve original cultivar centres. The Vietnam National Cultivar Gene Bank preserves 12,300 cultivars of 115 species.[179] The Vietnamese government spent US$49.07 million on the preservation of biodiversity in 2004 alone, and has established 126 conservation areas, including 30 national parks.[179]

Environment

Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities.

In Vietnam, poaching had become a main issue for their wildlife. Since 2000, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) called Education for Nature - Vietnam has been founded to instill the importance of wildlife conservation in the country.[188] Following this, the seeds of the conservation movement starting to bloom with the foundation of another NGO called GreenViet by Vietnamese youngsters for the enforcement of wildlife protection. Through collaboration between the NGO and local authorities, many local poaching syndicates managed to be crippled with the arrestment of their leaders.[188] As Vietnam have also become the main destination for rhinoceros horn illegal export from South Africa, a study in 2018 found the demands are due to medical and health-related reasons.[189]

The main environmental concern that persists in Vietnam until present is the chemical herbicide legacy of Agent Orange that causing birth defects and many health problems towards Vietnamese residents especially in the southern and central areas that was affected most by the chemicals with nearly 4.8 million Vietnamese have been exposed.[190][191][192] In 2012, approximately 50 years after the war,[193] the United States began to start a US$43 million joint clean up project in the former chemical storage areas in Vietnam that was heavily affected with each clearance will be done through several phases.[191][194] Following the completion of the first phase in Đà Nẵng in late 2017,[195] the United States announced its further commitment to clean other sites especially in another heavily impact site of Biên Hòa which is four times larger than the previous site with an additional estimate cost of $390 million.[196]

The Vietnamese government spends over VNĐ10 trillion each year ($431.1 million) for monthly allowance and physical rehabilitation of the Vietnamese victims caused by the chemicals.[197] In 2018, Japanese Engineering Group, Shimizu Corporation also working with Vietnamese military to build a plant in Vietnam for the treatment of Agent Orange polluted soils with the plant construction costs to be funded by the company itself.[198][199] One of the long-term plans to restore southern Vietnam damaged ecosystems is through reforestation efforts which the Vietnamese government has done since the end of the war, starting with the replantation of mangrove forests in the Mekong Delta regions and in Cần Giờ outside of the main city where mangroves are important to prevent more serious flooding during the monsoon seasons.[200]

Apart from herbicide problems, arsenic exposure to ground water in the Mekong Delta and Red River Delta has also become a major concern,[201][202] along with unexplored ordnances (UXO) that pose dangers towards human and habitat life as another bitter legacy from the long wars.[203] As part of the continuous campaign for demining/removal of UXOs, various international bomb removal agencies including those from the United Kingdom,[204] Denmark,[205] South Korea[206] as well the United States[207] itself have been providing help. The Vietnam government spends over VNĐ1 trillion ($44 million) annually on demining operations and additional hundreds billions of đồng for treatment, assistance, rehabilitation, vocational training and resettlement for the victims of UXOs.[208] Apart from the removal of explosives from the legacy of civil war, the neighbouring Chinese government also has removed 53,000 land mines and explosives from the legacy of war between the two countries in an area of 18.4 square kilometres in the Chinese province of Yunnan bordering the China–Vietnam border in 2017.[209]

Panoramic view of Hạ Long Bay
Panoramic view of Hạ Long Bay

Government and politics

Vietnam is a unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic, one of the two communist states (the other being Laos) in Southeast Asia.[210] Although Vietnam remains officially committed to socialism as its defining creed, its economic policies have grown increasingly capitalist,[211][212] with The Economist characterising its leadership as "ardently capitalist communists".[213] Under the constitution, the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) asserts their role in all branches of politics and society in the country.[210] The President is the elected head of state and the commander-in-chief of the military, serving as the Chairman of the Council of Supreme Defence and Security, holds the second highest office in Vietnam as well as performing executive functions and state appointments and setting policy.[210]

The General Secretary of the CPV performs numerous key administrative functions, controlling the party's national organisation.[210] The Prime Minister is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of five deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions. Only political organisations affiliated with or endorsed by the CPV are permitted to contest elections in Vietnam. These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front and worker and trade unionist parties.[210]

National Assembly of Vietnam
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi

The National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral legislature of the state, composed of 498 members.[214] The legislature is open to all parties. Headed by a Chairman, it is superior to both the executive and judicial branches, with all government ministers being appointed from members of the National Assembly.[210] The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, headed by a Chief Justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Assembly. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Military courts possess special jurisdiction in matters of national security. Vietnam maintains the death penalty for numerous offences.[215]

Foreign relations

Trần Đại Quang and Vladimir Putin, 2016-01
President Trần Đại Quang with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 19 November 2016.
Secretary Tillerson Joins Commercial Deals Signing Ceremony at the Presidential Palace in Vietnam (38322247422)
US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson accompanies US President Donald Trump to a commercial deals signing ceremony with Vietnamese President on 12 November 2017.

Throughout its history, Vietnam's main foreign relationship has been with various Chinese dynasties.[216] Following the partition of Vietnam, the relations are divided between relations with Eastern Bloc for North Vietnam while Western Bloc for South Vietnam.[216] Despite the differences, Vietnam's sovereign principles and insistence on cultural independence have been laid down in numerous documents over the centuries since before its independence, such as the 11th-century patriotic poem "Nam quốc sơn hà" and the 1428 proclamation of independence "Bình Ngô đại cáo". Though China and Vietnam are now formally at peace,[216] significant territorial tensions in the South China Sea remain between the two countries.[217] Vietnam holds membership of 63 international organisations, including the United Nations (UN), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), International Organisation of the Francophonie (La Francophonie) and World Trade Organization (WTO). It also maintains relations with over 650 non-government organisations.[218] Until 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries.[219]

Vietnam current foreign policy is to implement consistently the policy of independence, self-reliance, peace, co-operation and development as well the openness and diversification/multilateralisation of international relations,[220][221] with the country further declares itself as a friend and partner of all countries in the international community regardless of their political affiliation by actively taking part in international and regional co-operation especially in country development.[150][220] Since the 1990s, several key steps had been taken by Vietnam to restore diplomatic ties with Western countries.[222] Relations with the United States began to improve in August 1995 with both nations upgraded their liaison offices to an embassy status.[223] As diplomatic ties between the two nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City while Vietnam opened its consulate in San Francisco. Full diplomatic relations were also restored with New Zealand who opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995,[224] while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003.[225] Pakistan also reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000 with Vietnam reopened their embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.[226][227] In May 2016, US President Barack Obama further normalised relations with Vietnam after he announced the lifting of an arms embargo on sales of lethal arms to Vietnam.[228]

Military

Vietnam People's Armed Forces
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.

The Vietnam People's Armed Forces consists of the Vietnam People's Army, the Vietnam People's Public Security and the Vietnam Civil Defence Force. The Vietnam People's Army (VPA) is the official name for the active military services of Vietnam, and is subdivided into the Vietnam People's Ground Forces, the Vietnam People's Navy, the Vietnam People's Air Force, the Vietnam Border Defence Force and the Vietnam Coast Guard. The VPA has an active manpower of around 450,000, but its total strength, including paramilitary forces, may be as high as 5,000,000.[229] In 2015, Vietnam's military expenditure totalled approximately US$4.4 billion, equivalent to around 8% of their total government spending.[230] Joint military exercises and war games also being held with Brunei,[231] India,[232] Japan,[233] Laos,[234] Russia,[235][236] Singapore[231] and the United States.[237]

Administrative divisions

Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces (Vietnamese: tỉnh, from the Chinese , shěng).[238] There are also five municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc trung ương), which are administratively on the same level as provinces.


Bắc Ninh
Hà Nam
Hải Dương
Hưng Yên
Nam Định
Ninh Bình
Thái Bình
Vĩnh Phúc
Hà Nội (municipality)
Hải Phòng (municipality)


Bắc Giang
Bắc Kạn
Cao Bằng
Hà Giang
Lạng Sơn
Lào Cai
Phú Thọ
Quảng Ninh
Thái Nguyên
Tuyên Quang
Yên Bái


Điện Biên
Hòa Bình
Lai Châu
Sơn La


Hà Tĩnh
Nghệ An
Quảng Bình
Quảng Trị
Thanh Hóa
Thừa Thiên–Huế


Đắk Lắk
Đắk Nông
Gia Lai
Kon Tum
Lâm Đồng


Bình Định
Bình Thuận
Khánh Hòa
Ninh Thuận
Phú Yên
Quảng Nam
Quảng Ngãi
Đà Nẵng (municipality)


Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu
Bình Dương
Bình Phước
Đồng Nai
Tây Ninh
Hồ Chí Minh City (municipality)


An Giang
Bạc Liêu
Bến Tre
Cà Mau
Đồng Tháp
Hậu Giang
Kiên Giang
Long An
Sóc Trăng
Tiền Giang
Trà Vinh
Vĩnh Long
Cần Thơ (municipality)

Tay Ho Communist propaganda posters in 2015 11
The Communist Party's propaganda poster in Hanoi

The provinces are subdivided into provincial municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh), townships (thị xã) and counties (huyện), which are in turn subdivided into towns (thị trấn) or communes (). The centrally controlled municipalities are subdivided into districts (quận) and counties, which are further subdivided into wards (phường).

Human rights

Under the current constitution, the Communist Party of Vietnam is the only one allowed to rule, the operation of all other political parties being outlawed. Other human rights issues concern freedom of association, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. In 2009, Vietnamese lawyer Lê Công Định was arrested and charged with the capital crime of subversion; several of his associates were also arrested.[239][240] Amnesty International named him and his arrested associates prisoners of conscience.[239]

Economy

Share of world GDP (PPP)[6]
Year Share
1980 0.18%
1990 0.23%
2000 0.32%
2010 0.43%
2018 0.52%
Viet Nam Export Treemap
Tree map of Vietnam export in 2012

Throughout the history of Vietnam, its economy has been largely on agriculture based on wet rice cultivation.[241] There is also an industry for bauxite mining in central Vietnam, an important material for the production of aluminium.[242] Since reunification, the country economy is shaped primarily by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) through the Five Year Plans which are being decided from the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses.[243] The collectivisation of farms, factories, and capital goods was carried out as components in establishing central planning, with millions of people working in state enterprises. Despite strict state control, Vietnam's economy continued to be plagued with inefficiency and corruption in state-owned enterprises, poor quality and underproduction.[244][245][246] With the decrease of Soviet economic aid as the main trading partners for Vietnam following the erosion of the Eastern bloc in the late 1980s and subsequent Soviet Union collapse in addition to the negative impacts from the post-war trade embargo imposed by the United States,[247][248] Vietnam began to liberalise its trade by devaluing its exchange rate to increase exports and embark on a policy of economic development.[249]

HVNLM 2018
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City.

In 1986, the Sixth National Congress of the CPV introduced socialist-oriented market economic reforms as part of the Đổi Mới reform program with private ownership began to be encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture and state enterprises were restructured to operate under market constraints,[250][251] resulting the old-fashioned five-year economic plans are being replaced with socialist market mechanism.[252] As a result of these reforms, Vietnam achieved around 8% annual Gross domestic product (GDP) growth between 1990 and 1997,[253][254] with the United States also ended its economic embargo against Vietnam in early 1994.[255] Despite the 1997 Asian financial crisis affecting Vietnam and causing economic slow down to 4-5% growth per annum, its economy began to recover in 1999,[250] with growth at an annual rate of around 7% from 2000 to 2005 and making the country as one of the world's fastest growing economies.[256][257] According to General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), growth remained strong even in the face of the late-2000s global recession, holding at 6.8% in 2010, although Vietnam's year-on-year inflation rate hit 11.8% in December 2010 with the country currency, the Vietnamese đồng are being devalued three times.[258][259]

Vinfast, mô hình SUV Lux SA2.0
VinFast company is a Vietnamese car manufacturer.

Deep poverty which defined as the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day has declined significantly in Vietnam and the relative poverty rate is now less than that of China, India and the Philippines.[260] This decline in the poverty rate can be attributed to equitable economic policies aimed at improving living standards and preventing the rise of inequality;[261] these policies have included egalitarian land distribution during the initial stages of the Đổi Mới program, investment in poorer remote areas, and subsidising of education and healthcare.[262][263] Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has applied sequenced trade liberalisation, a two-track approach opening some sectors of the economy to international markets.[261][264] Manufacturing, information technology and high-tech industries now form a large and fast-growing part of the national economy. Though Vietnam is a relative newcomer to the oil industry, it is currently the third-largest oil producer in Southeast Asia with a total 2011 output of 318,000 barrels per day (50,600 m3/d).[265] In 2010, Vietnam was ranked as the 8th largest crude petroleum producers in the Asia and Pacific region.[266] The United States was the country that purchased the highest amount of Vietnam's exports,[267] while goods from China were the most popular Vietnamese import.[268]

According to a December 2005 forecast by Goldman Sachs, the Vietnamese economy will become the world's 21st-largest by 2025,[269] with an estimated nominal GDP of $436 billion and a nominal GDP per capita of $4,357.[270] Based on a findings by International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2012, the unemployment rate in Vietnam stood at 4.46%.[6] Along the same year, Vietnam's nominal GDP reached US$138 billion, with a nominal GDP per capita of $1,527.[6] The HSBC also predicted that Vietnam's total GDP would surpass those of Norway, Singapore and Portugal by 2050.[270][271] Another forecast by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2008 stating that Vietnam may be the fastest-growing of the world's emerging economies by 2025, with a potential growth rate of almost 10% per annum in real dollar terms.[272] Apart from the primary sector economy, tourism has contributed significantly to Vietnam's economic growth with 7.94 million foreign visitors are recorded in 2015.[273]

Agriculture

Terraced fields Sa Pa 3
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa

As a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam has become a major exporter of agricultural products. It is now the world's largest producer of cashew nuts, with a one-third global share;[274] the largest producer of black pepper, accounting for one-third of the world's market;[275] and the second-largest rice exporter in the world after Thailand since the 1990s.[276] Subsequently, Vietnam is also the world's second largest exporter of coffee.[277] The country has the highest proportion of land use for permanent crops together with other nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[278] Other primary exports include tea, rubber and fishery products although agriculture's share of Vietnam's GDP has fallen in recent decades, declining from 42% in 1989 to 20% in 2006 as production in other sectors of the economy has risen.

Science and technology

TOPIO 3
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.[279][280]

In 2010, Vietnam's total state spending on science and technology equalled around 0.45% of its GDP.[281] Since the dynastic era, Vietnamese scholars has developed many academic fields especially in social sciences and humanities. Vietnam has a millennium-deep legacy of analytical histories, such as the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư of Ngô Sĩ Liên. Vietnamese monks led by the abdicated Emperor Trần Nhân Tông developed the Trúc Lâm Zen branch of philosophy in the 13th century.[282] Arithmetics and geometry have been widely taught in Vietnam since the 15th century, using the textbook Đại thành toán pháp by Lương Thế Vinh as a basis. Lương Thế Vinh introduced Vietnam to the notion of zero, while Mạc Hiển Tích used the term số ẩn (en: "unknown/secret/hidden number") to refer to negative numbers. Vietnamese scholars furthermore produced numerous encyclopaedias, such as Lê Quý Đôn's Vân đài loại ngữ. In modern times, Vietnamese scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. Hoàng Tụy pioneered the applied mathematics field of global optimisation in the 20th century,[283] while Ngô Bảo Châu won the 2010 Fields Medal for his proof of fundamental lemma in the theory of automorphic forms.[284][285] Since the establishment of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) by the government in 1975, the country is working to develop its first national space flight program especially after the completion of the infrastructure of Vietnam Space Centre (VSC) in 2018.[286][287] Vietnam has also made significant advances in the development of robots, such as the TOPIO humanoid model.[279][280] Vietnam's main messaging apps, Zalo is developed by Vương Quang Khải, a Vietnamese hacker who later work with the country largest information technology service company, the FPT Group.[288]

Svhutech nckh4
Vietnamese science students making an experiment in their university lab.

According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Vietnam devoted 0.19% of its GDP for science research and development in 2011.[289] Between 2005 and 2014, the number of scientific publications recorded in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science increased at a rate well above the average for Southeast Asia, albeit from a modest starting point.[290] Publications focus mainly on life sciences (22%), physics (13%) and engineering (13%), which is consistent with recent advances in the production of diagnostic equipment and shipbuilding.[290] Almost 77% of all papers published between 2008 and 2014 had at least one international co-author. The autonomy which Vietnamese research centers have enjoyed since the mid-1990s has enabled many of them to operate as quasi-private organisations, providing services such as consulting and technology development.[290] Some have 'spun off' from the larger institutions to form their own semi-private enterprises, fostering the transfer of public sector science and technology personnel to these semi-private establishments. One comparatively new university, the Tôn Đức Thắng University which built in 1997 has already set up 13 centers for technology transfer and services that together produce 15% of university revenue. Many of these research centers serve as valuable intermediaries bridging public research institutions, universities, and firms.[290]

Tourism

Pont-pagode "japonais" de Hoi-an, vue de nuit
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site is a major tourist destination.

Tourism is an important element of economic activity in the country, contributing 7.5% of the gross domestic product. Vietnam welcomed over 12.9 million visitors in 2017, an increase of 29.1% over the previous year, making Vietnam one of the fastest growing tourist destination in recent years. The vast majority of visitors to Vietnam in 2017 came from Asia, numbering 9.7 million. China (4 million), South Korea (2.6 million) and Japan (798,119) made up half of all international arrivals in 2017.[291] Vietnam also attracts large numbers of visitors from Europe with almost 1.9 millions of visitors in 2017. Russia (574,164), United Kingdom (283,537), followed closely by France (255,396) and Germany (199,872) were the largest source of international arrivals from Europe. Other significant international arrivals by nationality include the United States (614,117) and Australia (370,438).[291] The most visited destinations in Vietnam is Ho Chi Minh City with 5.8 million international arrivals, followed by Hanoi with 4.6 million and Hạ Long, including Hạ Long Bay with 4.4 million arrivals. All three are ranked in the top 100 most visited cities in the world.[292] Vietnam is home to 8 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the equal highest by the number of sites in Southeast Asia. In 2018, Travel + Leisure ranked Hội An as the world's top 15 best destinations to visit.[293]

Infrastructure

Transport

Much of Vietnam's modern transportation network traced its roots since the French colonial era where it was used to facilitate the transportation of raw materials to main ports before being extensively expanded and modernised following the partition of Vietnam.[294] Vietnam's road system includes national roads administered at the central level, provincial roads managed at the provincial level, district roads managed at the district level, urban roads managed by cities and towns and commune roads managed at the commune level.[295] In 2010, Vietnam road system has a total length of about 188,744 kilometres (117,280 mi) with 93,535 kilometres (58,120 mi) are asphalt road comprising national, provincial and district roads.[295] The national road system length is about 15,370 kilometres (9,550 mi) with 15,085 kilometres (9,373 mi) of its length are paved, the provincial road has around 27,976 kilometres (17,383 mi) paved road while district road has 50,474 kilometres (31,363 mi) paved road.[295]

Tan Son Nhat International Airport
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.

Bicycles, motorcycles and motor scooters remain the most popular forms of road transport in the country as one of the legacy of French through transportation although the number of privately owned cars have been rising in recent years.[296] Public buses operated by private companies are the main mode of long-distance travel for much of the population. Road accidents remain the major safety issue in Vietnamese transportation with an average of 30 people lost their lives daily,[297] while traffic congestion is a growing problem in both major cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City especially with the growing of individual car ownership.[298][299] Vietnam's primary cross-country rail service is the Reunification Express from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi with a distance of nearly 1,726 kilometres (1,072 mi).[300] From Hanoi, railway lines branch out to the northeast, north, and west; the eastbound line runs from Hanoi to Hạ Long Bay, the northbound line from Hanoi to Thái Nguyên, and the northeast line from Hanoi to Lào Cai. In 2009, Vietnam and Japan signed a deal to build a high-speed railway by using the technology of Japanese Shinkansen;[301] numerous Vietnamese engineers were later sent to Japan to receive training in the operation and maintenance of high-speed trains.[302] The planned railway will be a 1,545 kilometres (960 mi) long express route serving a total of 23 stations including in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City with 70% of its route will running on bridges and through underground tunnels,[303][304], while the trains will travelling at a maximum speed of 350 kilometres (220 mi) per hour.[304][305] The plan for the country first high-speed rail, however, are being postponed with the Vietnamese government made a decision to putting the main priority on the development of both Hanoi Metro and Ho Chi Minh City Metro as well the expansion of road networks instead.[300][306][307]

Chùa Vẽ Terminal, Port of Hải Phòng
Port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.

Vietnam operates 20 major civil airports, including three international gateways: Noi Bai in Hanoi, Da Nang International Airport in Đà Nẵng and Tan Son Nhat in Ho Chi Minh City. Tan Son Nhat is the nation's largest airport by which it handling the majority of international passenger traffic.[308] According to a state-approved plan, Vietnam will have another seven international airports by 2015, these include Vinh International Airport, Phu Bai International Airport, Cam Ranh International Airport, Phu Quoc International Airport, Cat Bi International Airport, Can Tho International Airport and Long Thanh International Airport. The planned Long Thanh International Airport will have an annual service capacity of 100 million passengers once it becomes fully operational in 2025.[309] Vietnam Airlines, the state-owned national airline maintains a fleet of 86 passenger aircraft and aims to operate 170 by 2020.[310] Several private airlines are also in operation in Vietnam, including Air Mekong, Bamboo Airways, Jetstar Pacific Airlines, VASCO and VietJet Air. As a coastal country, Vietnam has many major sea ports, including Cam Ranh, Đà Nẵng, Hải Phòng, Ho Chi Minh City, Hạ Long, Qui Nhơn, Vũng Tàu, Cửa Lò and Nha Trang. Further inland, the country's extensive network of rivers play a key role in rural transportation with over 47,130 kilometres (29,290 mi) of navigable waterways carrying ferries, barges and water taxis.[311]

Energy

Sơn La Dam
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.[312]

Vietnam's energy sector is largely dominated by Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) nationwide. As of 2017, EVN contributed about 61.4% of the country power generation system with a total power capacity of 25,884 MW.[313] Other energy source are distributed by PetroVietnam (4,435 MW), Vinacomin (1,785 MW) and by build–operate–transfer (BOT) with other investors (10,031 MW).[314] Most of the powers are generated from either hydropower, fossil fuel power such as coal, oil and gas while the remaining are from diesel, small hydropower and renewable energy.[314] The Vietnamese government also previously planning to develop their first nuclear reactor as the path to establish another source of electric energy from nuclear power but the plan was abandoned in late 2016 with a majority oppose vote through the country National Assembly due to large concerns from Vietnamese society over radioactive contamination.[315] The household gas sector in Vietnam is dominated by PetroVietnam which controls nearly 70% of the country domestic market for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).[316] Since 2011, the company also operating five renewable energy power plants including the Nhơn Trạch 2 Thermal Power Plant (750 MW), Phú Quý Wind Power Plant (6 MW), Hủa Na Hydro-power Plant (180 MW), Dakdrinh Hydro-power Plant (125 MW) and Vũng Áng 1 Thermal Power Plant (1,200 MW).[317] According to statistics by the British Petroleum (BP), Vietnam is listed among the 52 countries that have oil and gas potential in the world with proven crude oil reserves of the country in 2015 were approximately 4.4 billion barrels and ranked first place in Southeast Asia, while the proven gas reserves was about 0.6 trillion cubic meters (tcm) and ranked the third place in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and Malaysia.[318]

Telecommunication

Telecommunications services in Vietnam are wholly provided by the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications General Corporation (now the VNPT Group) which is a state-owned company.[319] The VNPT retained its monopoly until 1986 before the telecom sector being reformed in 1995 when the Vietnamese government started to implement a competitive policy with the creation of two domestic telecommunication companies, the Military Electronic and Telecommunication Company (Viettel which is wholly owned by the Vietnamese Ministry of Defence) and the Saigon Post and Telecommunication Company (SPT or SaigonPostel), with 18% of it are owned by VNPT.[319] The whole monopoly by VNPT was finally removed by the government in 2003 with the issuance of a decree.[320] By 2012, the top three major telecom operators in Vietnam is Viettel, Vinaphone and MobiFone while the remaining is owned by EVNTelecom, Vietnammobile and S-Fone.[321] With the shift towards a more market-orientated economy, Vietnam's telecommunications market is continuously being reformed to attract foreign investment which includes the supply of services and the establishment of telecom infrastructure nationwide.[322]

Water supply and sanitation

Village vietnam sapa bridge
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.

Vietnam has 2,360 rivers with an average annual discharge of 310 billion by which raining season accounts for 70% of the whole year discharge.[323] Most urban water supply systems in the country have been developed without proper management since the past 10 years. Based on a 2008 survey by Vietnam Water Supply and Sewerage Association (VWSA), the existing water production capacity even exceeded the demand but the service coverage is still very low since most of clean water supply infrastructures are not much developed where it only been delivered to a small proportion of the population with about one third of 727 district towns having some form of piped water supply.[324] There is also concern on the safety of existing water resources for urban and rural water supply systems since domestic and industrial factories releasing their wastewater directly into the water sources without treatment where the government does not take more urgent measures to address the problem with the majority of domestic wastewater is discharged back to the environment and polluting the surface water.[324]

In recent years, there have been some efforts and collaboration between local and foreign universities to developing access to safe water in the country by introducing water filtration system with the growing concern from local population about the serious public health issues associated with water contamination caused by pollution as well the high levels of arsenic in their groundwater sources.[325] The government of Netherlands also have been providing aid by focusing its entirety investments in the country mainly on water-related sectors including in water treatment projects.[326][327][328] Regarding sanitation, 78% of the population in Vietnam had access to "improved" sanitation or 94% of the urban population and 70% of the rural population despite there are still about 21 million people in the country lacked accessed to "improved" sanitation according to a survey conducted in 2015.[329] In 2018, the construction ministry said that the country water supply and drainage industry had been applying hi-tech methods and information technology (IT) but facing problems such as limited funding, climate change, and pollution.[330] The health ministry also have announced that water inspection units will be established in the country nationwide from June 2019 with inspections to be conducted without notice since there have been many cases involving health caused by poor and polluted water supply as well hygiene conditions are reported every year.[331]

Health

Cổng bệnh viện Chợ Rẫy 2016
Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City's largest general hospital

By 2015, 97% of the population had access to improved water sources.[332] In 2016, Vietnam's national life expectancy stood at 80.9 years for women and 71.5 for men, and the infant mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births.[7][333][334] Despite these improvements, malnutrition is still common in the rural provinces.[154] Since the partition, North Vietnam has established a public health system that reached down to the hamlet level.[335] After the national reunification in 1975, a nationwide health service was established.[154] In the late 1980s, the quality of healthcare declined to some degree as a result of budgetary constraints, a shift of responsibility to the provinces and the introduction of charges.[262] Inadequate funding has also contributed to a shortage of nurses, midwives and hospital beds; in 2000, Vietnam had only 24.7 hospital beds per 10,000 people before declining to 23.7 in 2005 as stated in the annual report of Vietnamese Health Ministry.[336] The controversial use of herbicides as a chemical weapon by the US military during the war has left tangible, long-term impacts upon the Vietnamese people that still persists in the country until present.[337][338] For instance, it led to 3 million Vietnamese people suffering health problems, one million birth defects caused directly by exposure to the chemical and 24% of the area of Vietnam being defoliated.[339]

Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has made significant progress in combating malaria, with the malaria mortality rate falling to about 5% of its 1990s equivalent by 2005 after the country introduced improved antimalarial drugs and treatment.[340] Tuberculosis (TB) cases however are on the rise which become the second most infectious diseases in the country after respiratory-related illness.[341] With an intensified vaccination program, better hygiene and foreign assistance, Vietnam hopes to reduce sharply the number of TB cases and annual new TB infections.[342] In 2004, government subsidies covering about 15% of health care expenses.[343] Along the same year, the United States announced that Vietnam would be one of 15 nations to receive funding as part of its global AIDS relief plan.[344] By the following year, Vietnam had diagnosed 101,291 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases, of which 16,528 progressed to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with 9,554 have died.[345] The actual number of HIV-positive individuals is estimated to be much higher as on average as between 40–50 new infections are reported daily in the country. In 2007, 0.4% of the population is estimated to be infected with HIV and the figure has remained stable since 2005.[346] More global aid are being delivered through The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to fight the spread of the diseases in the country.[342] In September 2018, the Hanoi People's Committee urged the citizens of the country to stop eating dog and cat meat as it can cause other diseases like rabies and leptospirosis as more than 1,000 stores in the capital city of Hanoi are found to be selling both meats. The decision received positive comments among Vietnamese society on social media despite many still disagreed as it has been a habit that couldn't be resisted.[347]

Education

VNU lethanhtong 900x600
Indochina Medical College in Hanoi, the first modern university in Vietnam

Vietnam has an extensive state-controlled network of schools, colleges, and universities and a growing number of privately run and partially privatised institutions. General education in Vietnam is divided into five categories: kindergarten, elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, and universities. A large number of public schools have been constructed across the country to raise the national literacy rate, which stood at 90% in 2008.[348] Most universities are located in major cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City with the country education system continuously undergoing a series of reform by the government. Basic education in the country is relatively free for the poor although some families may still have trouble paying tuition fees for their children without some form of public or private assistance.[349] Regardless, school enrolment is among the highest in the world,[350][351] and the number of colleges and universities increased dramatically in the 2000s from 178 in 2000 to 299 in 2005. In higher education, the government provide subsidised loans for students through national bank although there are deep concerns about its access as well the burdens among students in repaying.[352][353]Since 1995, enrolment in higher education has grown tenfold to over 2.2 million with 84,000 lecturers and 419 institutions of higher education.[354] A number of foreign universities operate private campuses in Vietnam, including Harvard University (USA) and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). The government's strong commitment to education has fostered significant growth but still need to be sustained to retain academics. In 2018, a decree on university autonomy to operate independently without a ministry control above their heads are in its final stages of approval with the government will continue to invest in education especially for the poor to have access on basic education.[355]

Demographics

Population[5]
Year Million
1950 24.8
2000 80.3
2016 94.6

As of 2016, the population of Vietnam is standing at approximately 94.6 million people.[5] The population had grown significantly from the 1979 census, which showed the total population of reunified Vietnam to be 52.7 million.[356] In 2012, the country's population was estimated at approximately 90.3 million.[357] Based on the 2009 census, 70.4% of the Vietnamese population are living in rural areas while only 29.6% living in urban areas although the average growth rate of the urban population have recently increasing which mainly attributed to migration and rapid urbanisation.[358] The dominant Viet or Kinh ethnic group constituted nearly 73.6 million people or 85.8% of the population,[357] with most of their population is concentrated mainly in the alluvial deltas and coastal plains of the country. As a majority ethnic group, the Kinh possess significant political and economic influence over the country.[359] Despite this, Vietnam is also home to other 54 ethnic minority groups, including the Hmong, Dao, Tày, Thai and Nùng.[357] Many ethnic minorities such as the Muong who are closely related to the Kinh dwell in the highlands which cover two-thirds of Vietnam's territory.[360]

Other uplanders in the north migrated from southern China between the 1300s and 1800s.[361] Since the partition of Vietnam, the population of the Central Highlands was almost exclusively Degar (including over 40 tribal groups); however, the South Vietnamese government at the time enacted a program of resettling Kinh in indigenous areas.[362][363] The Hoa (ethnic Chinese) and Khmer Krom people are mainly lowlanders.[359][361] Throughout Vietnam history, many Chinese people mainly from South China migrated to the country as administrators, merchants and even refugees.[364] Since the reunification in 1976 with the increase of communist policies nationwide that resulting the nationalisation of property and subsequently causing many rich people property in the city especially among the Hoa in the south are being confiscated by the government, this has led many of them to leave Vietnam.[365][366] Furthermore, with the deteriorating Sino-Vietnamese relations as a result of border invasion by Chinese government in 1979 which added by doubtful among Vietnamese society on the Chinese government intention had indirectly causing more Hoa people in the north to leave the country.[364][367]

Urbanisation

Ho Chi Minh City metro panorama, the city in Vietnam with the highest urbanisation rate.
Ho Chi Minh City metro panorama, the city in Vietnam with the highest urbanisation rate.
Ho Chi Minh City Skyline (night)
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.

The number of people live in urbanised area in 2017 is estimated to be around 32.753 million of people (with urbanisation rate at 35.7%).[368] Since 1986, Vietnam's urbanisation rates have surged rapidly after the Vietnamese government implemented the Đổi Mới economic program, changing the system into socialist and liberalising property rights. As a result, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (the two major cities in the Red River Delta and Southeast regions respectively) increased their share of the total urban population from 8.5% and 24.9% to 15.9% and 31% respectively.[369] The Vietnamese government through its construction ministry forecasts that the country will have a 45% urbanisation rates by 2020 with urbanisation is said to have a positive correlation with economic growth as any country with higher urbanisation rates would have a higher growth rate of GDP.[370] Furthermore, the urbanisation movements in Vietnam is mainly between the rural areas and the country Southeast region. Ho Chi Minh City has received a large population of in-migrants mainly due to better weather and economic opportunities.[371]

West Hanoi
Urbanisation in west Hanoi

A study also shows that rural-to-urban area migrants have a higher standard of living than both non-migrants in rural areas and non-migrants in urban areas which also leads to changes in economic structures. In 1985, agriculture took up 37.2% of Vietnam's GDP; nevertheless, in 2008, that number went down to 18.5%, a decreasing of 18.7%.[372] In 1985, the industry took only a small fraction of Vietnam GDP, around 26.2%. But in 2008, that number has increased up to 43.2%. Urbanisation also helps to improve basic services which increase people's standards of living. Access to electricity has increased tremendously from 14% of total households having electricity in 1993 to above 96% in 2009.[372] In terms of accessing to fresh water, data from 65 utility companies show that only 12% of households in the area covered by the companies had access to the water network in 2002. By 2007, more than 70% of the population in the area was connected. Though urbanisation has many benefits, it has some drawbacks since it creates more traffic, air, and water pollution.[372]

Since Vietnam has a big consumption of mopeds in their transportation due to the relatively cheap and easy to commute, large numbers of mopeds have been known for causing traffic and air pollution in Vietnam. In the capital city alone, the consumption of mopeds has increased from 0.5 million in 2001 to 4.7 million in 2013.[372] With the rapid development, factories have sprung up rapidly which indirectly polluting air and water as been exampled from the 2016 Vietnam marine life disaster caused by the Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Company which killing many fish and marine habitats in Vietnamese waters and directly causing major losses to the country economy.[373] There are some government's interventions and solutions trying to decrease air pollution by decreasing the number of motorcycles while increasing public transportation and having more regulations for factories to handle their wastes. Although the authorities also have a time schedules for collecting different types of waste, waste disposal has become another problem of urbanisation since the amount of solid waste generated in urban areas has increased unimaginably by more than 200% from 2003 to 2008. Industrial solid waste alone took up 181% of that 200%. One of the government's efforts is trying to promote campaigns to encourage the locals to sort household waste since waste sorting are still not been practised entirely by most Vietnamese society.[374]

Religion

Religion in Vietnam (2014)[2]

  Vietnamese folk religion or not religious population (73.2%)
  Buddhism (12.2%)
  Catholicism (6.8%)
  Caodaism (4.8%)
  Protestantism (1.5%)
  Hoahaoism (1.4%)
  Others (0.1%)

Under Article 70 of the 1992 Constitution of Vietnam, all citizens enjoy freedom of belief and religion,[375] which means that they can follow any religion or be irreligious and that all religions are equal before the law and that each place of worship is protected under Vietnamese state law, but religious beliefs cannot be misused to undermine state law and policies.[375][376] According to a survey in 2007, 81% of the Vietnamese people do not believe in a god.[377] Based on new government findings in 2009, the number of religious people has increased by 932,000.[358] Through the latest official statistics presented by the Vietnamese government to the United Nations special rapporteur in 2014,[2] the overall number of followers of recognised religions is about 24 million from the total population of almost 90 million.[2] Formally recognised religious communities include 11 million Buddhists, 6.2 million Catholics, 1.4 million Protestants, 4.4 million Caodaisms followers, 1.3 million Hoahaoism Buddhists as well as 75,000 Muslims, 7,000 Baha'ís and 1,500 Hindus.[2]

Mahāyāna is the dominant branch of Buddhism among the Kinh majority who follows the religion, while Theravāda are practised in almost entirely by the Khmer minority. About 7% of the population are Christians, totalling around six million Roman Catholics and one million Protestants.[2] Catholicism has been introduced to Vietnam by nearby Portuguese missionaries (Jesuits) from Portuguese Macau and Malacca towards Annam and from remnants of the persecuted Japanese Catholic between the 16th and 17th centuries before being massively propagated by French missionaries aided by Spanish missionaries (Dominicans) from neighbouring Spanish East Indies towards Tonkin in the 19th and 20th centuries.[378][379][380] A significant number of Vietnamese people are also adherents of Caodaism, an indigenous folk religion which has structured itself on the model of the Catholic Church together with another Buddhist section of Hoahaoism.[381] Protestantism was only recently spread by American and Canadian missionaries throughout the modern civil war,[382] where it was largely accepted among the highland Montagnards of South Vietnam.[383] The largest Protestant churches are the Southern Evangelical Church of Vietnam (SECV) and the Evangelical Church of Vietnam North (ECVN) with around 770,000 of the country Protestants come from members of ethnic minorities.[382] Although it is one of the country minority religion and has a shorter history than Catholicism, Protestantism is found to be the country's fastest-growing religion, expanding at a rate of 600% in recent decades.[382][384] Several other minority faiths exist in Vietnam, these includes Bani, Sunni and non-denominational section of Islam which is primarily practised among the ethnic Cham minority,[385] though there were also a few Kinh adherents of Islam along with other minority adherents of Baha'is as well Hindus among the Cham's.[386][387]

Languages

Vietnamese Book Store in District 1, HCMC
Vietnamese language books in a bookstore in Ho Chi Minh City.

The official national language of the country is Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt), a tonal Austroasiatic languages (Mon–Khmer) which is spoken by the majority of the population. In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters before a different meaning set of Chinese characters known as Chữ nôm developed between the 7th–13th century.[388][389][390] The folk epic Truyện Kiều ("The Tale of Kieu", originally known as Đoạn trường tân thanh) by Nguyễn Du was written in Chữ nôm.[391] Quốc ngữ as the romanised Vietnamese alphabet used for spoken Vietnamese, was developed in the 17th century by the Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes and several other Catholic missionaries by using the alphabets of Romance languages, particularly the Portuguese alphabet which later became widely used through Vietnamese institutions during the French colonial period.[388][392] Vietnam's minority groups speak a variety of languages, including Tày, Mường, Cham, Khmer, Chinese, Nùng and Hmong. The Montagnard peoples of the Central Highlands also speak a number of distinct languages as their language is derived from both the Austroasiatic and Malayo-Polynesian language groups.[393] In recent years, a number of sign languages have developed in the major cities.

The French language, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by many educated Vietnamese as a second language, especially among the older generation and those educated in the former South Vietnam, where it was a principal language in administration, education, and commerce. Vietnam remains a full member of the International Organisation of the Francophonie (La Francophonie) and education has revived some interest in the language.[394] Russian and to a much lesser extent German, Czech and Polish are known among some northern Vietnamese whose families had ties with the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.[395] With improved relations with Western countries and recent reforms in Vietnamese administration, English has been increasingly used as a second language and the study of English is now obligatory in most schools either alongside or in place of French.[396][397] The popularity of Japanese and Korean have also grown as the country's ties with other East Asian nations have strengthened.[398][399][400]

Culture

Ópera, Ciudad Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 2013-08-14, DD 02
The Municipal Theatre (Saigon Opera House) in Ho Chi Minh City

Vietnam's culture has developed over the centuries from indigenous ancient Đông Sơn culture with wet rice cultivation as its economic base.[29][32] Some elements of the national culture have Chinese origins, drawing on elements of Confucianism, Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism in its traditional political system and philosophy.[401][402] Vietnamese society is structured around làng (ancestral villages);[403] all Vietnamese mark a common ancestral anniversary on the tenth day of the third lunar month.[404][405] The influence of Chinese culture such as the Cantonese, Hakka, Hokkien and Hainanese cultures are more evidenced in the north with the national religion of Buddhism is strongly entwined with popular culture.[406] Despite this, there is also a Chinatown in the south such as in Chợ Lớn where many of the Chinese have intermarried with Kinh and are presently indistinguishable among them.[407] In the central and southern part, traces of Champa and Khmer culture are evidenced through the remains of ruins, artefacts as well within their population as the successor of the ancient Sa Huỳnh culture.[408][409] In recent centuries, the influence of Western cultures have become popular among newer Vietnamese generations.[402]

Ao-dai-xu-Hue-2
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.

The traditional focuses of Vietnamese culture are based on humanity (nhân nghĩa) and harmony (hòa); in which family and community values are highly regarded.[406] Vietnam reveres a number of key cultural symbols,[410] such as the Vietnamese dragon which is derived from crocodile and snake imagery; Vietnam's national father, Lạc Long Quân is depicted as a holy dragon.[404][411][412] The lạc is a holy bird representing Vietnamese national mother of Âu Cơ is another prominent symbol, while turtle, buffalo and horse images are also revered.[413] Many Vietnamese also believes in supernatural and spiritualism where illness could be brought on by a curse or sorcery or caused by non-observance of a religious ethic where it needs to be treated through traditional medical practitioners, amulets and other forms of spiritual protection where religious practices may be employed to treating the ill person.[414] In the modern era, the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and cultural programs.[402] For many decades, foreign cultural influences especially those of Western origin were shunned. But since the recent reformation, Vietnam has seen a greater exposure to neighbouring Southeast Asian, East Asian as well to Western culture and media.[415]

The main Vietnamese formal dress, the áo dài is worn for special occasions such as in weddings and religious festivals. White áo dài is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across the country. Other examples of traditional Vietnamese clothing include the áo tứ thân, a four-piece woman's dress; the áo ngũ, a form of the thân in 5-piece form, mostly worn in the north of the country; the yếm, a woman's undergarment; the áo bà ba, rural working "pyjamas" for men and women; the áo gấm, a formal brocade tunic for government receptions; and the áo the, a variant of the áo gấm worn by grooms at weddings.[416][417] Traditional headwear includes the standard conical nón lá and the "lampshade-like" nón quai thao.[417][418] In tourism, a number of popular cultural tourist destinations include the former imperial capital of Hué, the World Heritage Sites of Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Hội An and Mỹ Sơn, coastal regions such as Nha Trang, the caves of Hạ Long Bay and the Marble Mountains.[419][420]

Literature

Dragon on Emperor Khải Định’s scroll, 1917 (British Library)
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.

Vietnamese literature has centuries-deep history and the country has a rich tradition of folk literature based on the typical 6–to-8-verse poetic form named ca dao which usually focuses on village ancestors and heroes.[421] Written literature has been found dating back to the 10th century Ngô dynasty, with notable ancient authors including Nguyễn Trãi, Trần Hưng Đạo, Nguyễn Du and Nguyễn Đình Chiểu. Some literary genres play an important role in theatrical performance, such as hát nói in ca trù.[422] Some poetic unions have also been formed in Vietnam, such as the tao đàn. Vietnamese literature has in recent times been influenced by Western styles, with the first literary transformation movement of thơ mới emerging in 1932.[423] Vietnamese folk literature is an intermingling of many forms. It is not only an oral tradition, but a mixing of three media: hidden (only retained in the memory of folk authors), fixed (written), and shown (performed). Folk literature usually exists in many versions, passed down orally and have unknown authors. Myths consist of stories about supernatural beings, heroes, creator gods and reflect the viewpoint of ancient people about human life.[424] They consist of creation stories, stories about their origins (Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ), culture heroes (Sơn Tinh and Thủy Tinh) which is referred as a mountain and water spirit respectively and many other folklore tales.[407][425]

Music

Ca trù performance
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam

Traditional Vietnamese music varies between the country's northern and southern regions.[426] Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest musical form and is traditionally more formal. The origins of Vietnamese classical music can be traced since the Mongol invasions in the 13th century when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera troupe.[427] Throughout its history, Vietnamese has been the most heavily impacted by the Chinese musical tradition as an integral part along with Japan, Korea and Mongolia.[428] Nhã nhạc is the most popular form of imperial court music, Chèo is a form of generally satirical musical theatre while Xẩm or hát xẩm (xẩm singing) is a type of Vietnamese folk music. Quan họ (alternate singing) is popular in the former Hà Bắc Province (which is now divided into Bắc Ninh and Bắc Giang Provinces) and across Vietnam. Another form of music called Hát chầu văn or hát văn is used to invoke spirits during ceremonies. Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s while ca trù (also known as hát ả đào) is a popular folk music. "Hò" can not be thought of as the southern style of Quan họ. There are a range of traditional instruments, including the đàn bầu (a monochord zither), the đàn gáo (a two-stringed fiddle with coconut body), and the đàn nguyệt (a two-stringed fretted moon lute. In recent times, there have been some efforts to mixing Vietnamese traditional music especially folk music with modern music to revive and promote national music in the modern context and educating the younger generations about Vietnam's traditional musical instruments and singing styles.[429]

Bolero music has gained its position in the country since the 1930s, albeit with a different style from a combination between traditional Vietnamese music with Western elements.[430] However, the modern Vietnamese music industry, known as V-pop, is currently making its mark in the entertainment field. Many Vietnamese artists have started to collaborate with foreign artists and producers, especially South Korean, to facilitate the entrance of K-pop into the Vietnamese market while also promoting V-pop overseas.[431] For example, in 2014, the South Korean seven-member boy band BTS (방탄소년단) collaborated with Vietnamese singer Thanh Bùi on the single called "Danger".[431][432] In 2018, South Korean artist and idol Park Ji-yeon (박지연) collaborated with Soobin Hoàng Sơn in two versions of the title track called "Between Us" (Vietnamese: Đẹp Nhất Là Em; Korean: 우리사이) to promote the two countries’ partnership in terms of the music industry.[433] V Live, which is a South Korean live video streaming service also collaborated with RBW Entertainment Vietnam (a subsidiary of the Korean entertainment company) to produce Vietnamese-based shows. V Live also launched special monthly mini-concerts called "V Heartbeat Live" to connect V-pop and K-pop idols.[434] Furthermore, South Korean entertainment company SM Entertainment signed an agreement with IPP Group to advance into the country's market and promote joint business.[435] The company held its 2018 Global Audition in both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City in search for new talents among the Vietnamese youth.[436]

Cuisine

Cuisine of Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.

Vietnamese cuisine traditionally features a combination of five fundamental taste "elements" (Vietnamese: ngũ vị): spicy (metal), sour (wood), bitter (fire), salty (water) and sweet (earth).[437] Common ingredients include fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables. Vietnamese recipes use lemongrass, ginger, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander, Saigon cinnamon, bird's eye chilli, lime and basil leaves.[438] Traditional Vietnamese cooking is known for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of oil and reliance on herbs and vegetables where it is considered one of the healthiest cuisines worldwide.[439] The use of such meats as pork, beef and chicken was relatively limited in the past, and as a result freshwater fish, crustaceans particularly crabs and molluscs became widely used. Fish sauce, soy sauce, prawn sauce and limes are among the main flavouring ingredients. There is an estimate of 40 Vietnamese dishes with many are usually served as a norm in the country street food culture.[440] Many notable Vietnamese dishes such as bánh cuốn (ride noodle roll), bún riêu (rice vermicelli soup) and phở noodles are originated from the north and were carried to central and southern Vietnam by northern migrants.[441][442] Local foods in the north are often less spicy than southern dishes as the colder northern climate limits the production and availability of spices.[443] Black pepper is used in place of chillis to produce spicy flavours. Vietnamese drinks in the south also are usually served cold with ice cube especially during the annual hot seasons compared to the north where hot drinks are much more preferable in colder climate. Some examples of basic Vietnamese drinks include cà phê đá (Vietnamese iced coffee), cà phê trứng (egg coffee), chanh muối (salted pickled lime juice), cơm rượu (glutinous rice wine), nước mía (sugarcane juice) and trà sen (Vietnamese lotus tea).[444]

Media

Vietnam's media sector is regulated by the government in accordance with the 2004 Law on Publication.[445] It is generally perceived that the country media sector is controlled by the government to follow the official communist party line, though some newspapers are relatively outspoken.[446][447] The Voice of Vietnam (VOV) is the official state-run national radio broadcasting service, broadcasting internationally via shortwave using rented transmitters in other countries and providing broadcasts from its website while Vietnam Television (VTV) is the national television broadcasting company. Since 1997, Vietnam has extensively regulated public internet access using both legal and technical means. The resulting lockdown is widely referred to as the "Bamboo Firewall".[448] The collaborative project OpenNet Initiative classifies Vietnam's level of online political censorship to be "pervasive",[449] while Reporters Without Borders (RWB) considers Vietnam to be one of 15 global "internet enemies".[450] Though the government of Vietnam maintains that such censorship is necessary to safeguard the country against obscene or sexual explicit content, many political and religious sensitive websites that are deemed to be undermining state authority are also being blocked.[451]

Holidays and festivals

Đèn kéo quân
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday

The country has eleven national recognised holidays which includes the New Year's Day on 1 January, Vietnamese New Year (Tết) from last day of the last lunar month to fifth day of the first lunar month, Hung Kings Commemorations on 10th day of the third lunar month, Day of liberating the South for national reunification on 30 April, International Workers' Day on 1 May and National Day Celebration on 2 September.[452][453][454] During Tết, many Vietnamese from the major cities will return to their villages for family reunions and praying for dead ancestors.[455][456] Older people will usually give the young a lì xì (red envelope) while special holiday food of bánh chưng (rice cake) in a square shape together with variety of dried fruits as the festival sweets are presented in the house for visitors.[457] Many other festivals are celebrated throughout the seasons in a year including the Lantern Festival (Tết Nguyên Tiêu), Mid-Autumn Festival (Tết Trung Thu) and various temple and nature festivals.[458] In the highlands, Elephant Race Festival are held annually during the spring where riders will ride their elephants for about 1.6 kilometres and the winning elephant will be given sugarcane.[459] Traditional Vietnamese weddings remain widely popular and are often celebrated by expatriate Vietnamese in Western countries.[460] In Vietnam, dress has been influenced by Western styles with the wearing of white wedding dresses and black tuxedos although there were also many who still prefer to choose Vietnamese traditional wedding costumes for traditional ceremonies.[461]

Sports

The Vovinam, kim ke and bình định martial arts are widespread in Vietnam,[462][463] while football is the country's most popular sport.[464] Its national team won the ASEAN Football Championship twice in 2008 and 2018 and reaching the quarter-finals of 2019 AFC Asian Cup,[465][466][467] its junior team of under-23 became the runners-up of 2018 AFC U-23 Championship and reach fourth place in 2018 Asian Games while the under-20 managed to qualify the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup for the first time in their football history.[468][469] Its women team also dominating the Southeast Asian Games with main rival of Thailand. Other Western sports such as badminton, tennis, volleyball, ping-pong and chess are also widely popular. Vietnam has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1952 when it competed as the State of Vietnam. After the partition of the country in 1954, only South Vietnam competed in the games, sending athletes to the 1956 and 1972 Olympics. Since the reunification of Vietnam in 1976, it has competed as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, attending every Summer Olympics from 1988 onwards. The present Vietnam Olympic Committee was formed in 1976 and recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1979.[470] Vietnam has never participated in the Winter Olympic Games. In 2016, Vietnam participated in the 2016 Summer Olympics where they won their first gold medal.[471] In 2020, Vietnam will host the inaugural Formula One Vietnam Grand Prix in the city of Hanoi.[472]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Communist Party of Vietnam 2004.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bielefeldt 2014.
  3. ^ Jeffries 2007, p. 4.
  4. ^ Constitution of Vietnam 2014.
  5. ^ a b c United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g International Monetary Fund.
  7. ^ a b World Bank 2016a.
  8. ^ Human Development Report 2018, p. 23.
  9. ^ Jones 2011, p. 532.
  10. ^ Cham 2012.
  11. ^ Taylor 1983, p. XVII.
  12. ^ a b Woods 2002, p. 38.
  13. ^ Yue Hashimoto 1972, p. 1.
  14. ^ Phan 1976, p. 510.
  15. ^ Shaofei & Guoqing 2016.
  16. ^ a b Ooi 2004, p. 932.
  17. ^ Tonnesson & Antlov 1996, p. 117.
  18. ^ Tonnesson & Antlov 1996, p. 126.
  19. ^ McKinney 2009.
  20. ^ Akazawa, Aoki & Kimura 1992, p. 321.
  21. ^ Rabett 2012, p. 109.
  22. ^ Dennell & Porr 2014, p. 41.
  23. ^ Matsumura et al. 2008, p. 12.
  24. ^ Matsumura et al. 2001.
  25. ^ Oxenham & Tayles 2006, p. 36.
  26. ^ anon. 1985, p. 16.
  27. ^ Karlström & Källén 2002, p. 83.
  28. ^ Oxenham & Buckley 2015, p. 329.
  29. ^ a b Higham 1984.
  30. ^ a b Nang Chung & Giang Hai 2017, p. 31.
  31. ^ de Laet & Herrmann 1996, p. 408.
  32. ^ a b c Calò 2009, p. 51.
  33. ^ Kiernan 2017, p. 31.
  34. ^ Cooke, Li & Anderson 2011, p. 46.
  35. ^ Pelley 2002, p. 151.
  36. ^ Cottrell 2009, p. 14.
  37. ^ Đức Trần & Thư Hà 2000, p. 8.
  38. ^ Yao 2016, p. 62.
  39. ^ Holmgren 1980.
  40. ^ Taylor 1983, p. 30.
  41. ^ Pelley 2002, p. 177.
  42. ^ Cottrell 2009, p. 15.
  43. ^ Thái Nguyên & Mừng Nguyẽ̂n 1958, p. 33.
  44. ^ Chesneaux 1966, p. 20.
  45. ^ anon. 1972, p. 24.
  46. ^ Tuyet Tran & Reid 2006, p. 32.
  47. ^ Hiẻ̂n Lê 2003, p. 65.
  48. ^ Hong Lien & Sharrock 2014, p. 55.
  49. ^ a b Kiernan 2017, p. 226.
  50. ^ Cottrell 2009, p. 16.
  51. ^ Hong Lien & Sharrock 2014, p. 95.
  52. ^ Keyes 1995, p. 183.
  53. ^ Hong Lien & Sharrock 2014, p. 111.
  54. ^ Hong Lien & Sharrock 2014, p. 120.
  55. ^ Kiernan 2017, p. 265.
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Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Also called Kinh people.[1]
  2. ^ In effect since 1 January 2014.[4]
  3. ^ The South China Sea is referred to in Vietnam as the East Sea (Biển Đông).[10]
  4. ^ Nam Việt is the Vietnamese pronunciation for Nanyue.
  5. ^ a b At first, Gia Long requested the name "Nam Việt", but the Jiaqing Emperor refused.[12][15]
  6. ^ Neither the American government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. The non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam; however, the French accepted the Việt Minh proposal[101] that Vietnam be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions".[102] The United States, with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom, countered with the "American Plan",[103] which provided for United Nations-supervised unification elections. The plan, however, was rejected by Soviet and other communist delegations.[104]
  7. ^ See List of countries and dependencies by area.
  8. ^ The national symbol of Vietnam is officially recognised in the country legal documents, including in the Constitution which comprising the national flag, national emblem and national anthem. But although Vietnam is a country with many beautiful flowers, yet until now, there has been no document recognising the national flower of Vietnam, while other Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries and all of our neighbours have their own national flowers. Currently, about 70% of countries in the world have national flower in their national symbol. Lotus has been chosen by India as their national flower, but it does not affect the similar choice made by Vietnam because there are also many countries that choose the same flower as their national flower (e.g. rose is the national flower of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom).[185]

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Agent Orange

Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides. It is widely known for its use by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, traces of dioxin (mainly TCDD, the most toxic of its type) found in the mixture have caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed.

Up to four million people in Vietnam were exposed to the defoliant. The government of Vietnam says as many as 3 million people have suffered illnesses because of Agent Orange. The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems as a result of Agent Orange contamination. The United States government has challenged these figures as being unreliable. The chemical is capable of damaging genes, resulting in deformities among the offspring of exposed victims. The U.S. government has documented higher cases of leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and various kinds of cancer in exposed veterans. Agent Orange also caused enormous environmental damage in Vietnam. Over 3,100,000 hectares (31,000 km2 or 11,969 mi2) of forest were defoliated. Defoliants eroded tree cover and seedling forest stock, making reforestation difficult in numerous areas. Animal species diversity sharply reduced in contrast with unsprayed areas.The aftermath of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam resulted in massive legal consequences. The United Nations ratified United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72 and the Environmental Modification Convention. Lawsuits filed on behalf of both US and Vietnamese veterans sought compensation for damages.

Agent Orange was to a lesser extent used outside Vietnam. Land in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia was also sprayed with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War because forests on the border with Vietnam were used by the Viet Cong. Some countries, such as Canada, saw testing, while other countries, such as Brazil, used the herbicide to clear out sections of land for agriculture.

Fall of Saigon

The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen killed in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh.

The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians who had been associated with the southern regime. The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population.

First Indochina War

The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945. The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp. Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the Combined Chiefs of Staff decided that Indochina south of latitude 16° north was to be included in the Southeast Asia Command under British Admiral Mountbatten. Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin, and a small British task force landed at Saigon. The Chinese accepted the Vietnamese government under Ho Chi Minh, then in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do likewise in Saigon, and deferred to the French there from the outset, against the ostensible support of the Việt Minh authorities by American OSS representatives. On V-J Day, September 2, Ho Chi Minh had proclaimed in Hanoi the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). The DRV ruled as the only civil government in all of Vietnam for a period of about 20 days, after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại, who had governed under Japanese rule. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, and declared French authority restored in Cochinchina. Guerrilla warfare began around Saigon immediately, but the French gradually retook control of the South and North of Indochina. Hô Chi Minh agreed to negotiate the future status of Vietnam, but the talks, held in France, failed to produce a solution. After over one year of latent conflict, all-out war broke out in December 1946 between French and Việt Minh forces as Hô and his government went underground. The French tried to stabilize Indochina by reorganizing it as a Federation of Associated States. In 1949, they put former Emperor Bảo Đại back in power, as the ruler of a newly established State of Vietnam.

The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. In 1949 the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States, China and the Soviet Union. French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Laotian, Cambodian, and Vietnamese ethnic minorities), French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming even more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by leftists in France.The strategy of pushing the Việt Minh into attacking well-defended bases in remote parts of the country at the end of their logistical trails was validated at the Battle of Nà Sản. However, this base was relatively weak because of a lack of concrete and steel. French efforts were made more difficult due to the limited usefulness of armored tanks in a jungle environment, lack of strong air forces for air cover and carpet bombing, and use of foreign recruits from other French colonies (mainly from Algeria, Morocco and even Vietnam). Võ Nguyên Giáp, however, used efficient and novel tactics of direct fire artillery, convoy ambushes and massed anti-aircraft guns to impede land and air supply deliveries together with a strategy based on recruiting a sizable regular army facilitated by wide popular support, a guerrilla warfare doctrine and instruction developed in China, and the use of simple and reliable war material provided by the Soviet Union. This combination proved fatal for the bases' defenses, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.At the International Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, the new socialist French government and the Việt Minh made an agreement which effectively gave the Việt Minh control of North Vietnam above the 17th parallel. The south continued under Bảo Đại. The agreement was denounced by the State of Vietnam and by the United States. A year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Soon an insurgency, backed by the north, developed against Diệm's government. The conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War (1955-1975).

French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp(Pháp(French)-Ấn Độ(India)-Trung Quốc(China)) IPA: [ɗə̄wŋm jɨ̄əŋ tʰûək fǎp], frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Chinese: 法属印度支那/Fàshǔ Yìndù zhīnà), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise; Vietnamese: Liên bang Đông Dương) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin (north), Annam (centre), and Cochinchina (south) with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan in 1898. The capital was moved from Saigon (in Cochinchina) to Hanoi (Tonkin) in 1902 and again to Da Lat (Annam) in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi.

After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces.

In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949. On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end.

Hanoi

Hanoi (UK: , US: ; Vietnamese: Hà Nội [hàː nôjˀ] (listen)) is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population (7.7 million in 2015). The city mostly lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,720 km (1,070 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 105 km (65 mi) west of Haiphong.

From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels.

From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as most of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese empire. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War.

October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 6.5 km (4.0 mi) ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

On July 16, 1999, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) presented the title “City for Peace” to Hanoi.

Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh (; Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (listen), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ̄n] (listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Bác Hồ ("Uncle Ho") or simply Bác ("Uncle"), was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. He was also Prime Minister (1945–1955) and President (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 at the Ba Dinh Square in Hanoi as well as the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.

Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

Any description of Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam is necessarily fraught with ambiguity. He is known to have used at least 50 and perhaps as many as 200 pseudonyms. Both his place and date of birth are subjects of academic debate since neither is known with certainty. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.

Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; [tʰàjŋ̟ fǒ hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (listen) or [tʰàn fǒ hò cǐ mɨ̄n]), also known by its former name of Saigon (Vietnamese: Sài Gòn; [sàj ɣɔ̀n] or [ʂàj ɣɔ̀ŋ]), Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ), is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million (13 million in the metropolitan area) as of 2017. Located in southeast Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres (796 square miles).

Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 1954. Saigon would later become the capital of South Vietnam from 1955 until its fall in 1975. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh (although the name Sài Gòn is still widely used).Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classified as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies.

Ho Chi Minh City is the most visited city in Vietnam, with 6.3 million visitors in 2017. Many of the city's landmarks which are well known to international visitors include the Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace and the Municipal Theatre. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the busiest airport in Vietnam handling 36 million passengers in 2017.

My Lai Massacre

The Mỹ Lai Massacre (; Vietnamese: Thảm sát Mỹ Lai [tʰâːm ʂǎːt mǐˀ lāːj] (listen)) was the Vietnam War mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by U.S. troops in Sơn Tịnh District, South Vietnam, on 16 March 1968. Between 347 and 504 unarmed people were killed by the U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated as were children as young as 12. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr., a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest.

The massacre, which was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War", took place in two hamlets of Sơn Mỹ village in Quảng Ngãi Province. These hamlets were marked on the U.S. Army topographic maps as Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê.The U.S. Army slang name for the hamlets and sub-hamlets in that area was Pinkville, and the carnage was initially referred to as the Pinkville Massacre. Later, when the U.S. Army started its investigation, the media changed it to the Massacre at Songmy. Currently, the event is referred to as the My Lai Massacre in the United States and called the Sơn Mỹ Massacre in Vietnam.The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in November 1969. The incident increased to some extent domestic opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War when the scope of killing and cover-up attempts were exposed. Initially, three U.S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned, and even denounced as traitors by several U.S. Congressmen, including Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Only after 30 years were they recognized and decorated, one posthumously, by the U.S. Army for shielding non-combatants from harm in a war zone. Along with the No Gun Ri massacre in South Korea 18 years earlier, Mỹ Lai was one of the largest publicized massacres of civilians by U.S. forces in the 20th century.

Ngo Dinh Diem

Ngô Đình Diệm (; Vietnamese: [ŋō ɗìn jîəmˀ] (listen); 3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese politician. He was the final prime minister of the State of Vietnam (1954–55), and then served as President of South Vietnam from 1955 until he was deposed and killed during the 1963 military coup.

Diệm was born into a prominent Catholic family, the son of a high-ranking civil servant, Ngô Đình Khả. He was educated at French-speaking schools and considered following his brother Ngô Đình Thục into the priesthood, but eventually chose to pursue a civil-service career. He progressed rapidly in the court of Emperor Bảo Đại, becoming governor of Bình Thuận Province in 1929 and interior minister in 1933. However, he resigned the latter position after three months and publicly denounced the emperor as a tool of the French. Diệm came to support Vietnamese nationalism, promoting an anti-communist and anti-colonialist "third way" opposed to both Bảo Đại and communist leader Hồ Chí Minh. He established the Can Lao Party to support his political doctrine of Person Dignity Theory.

After several years in exile, Diệm returned home in July 1954 and was appointed prime minister by Bảo Đại, the head of the Western-backed State of Vietnam. The Geneva Accords were signed soon after he took office, formally partitioning Vietnam along the 17th parallel. Diệm soon consolidated power in South Vietnam, aided by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu. After a rigged referendum in 1955, he proclaimed the creation of the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as president. His government was supported by other anti-communist countries, most notably the United States. Diệm pursued a series of nation-building schemes, emphasising industrial and rural development. From 1957, he was faced with a communist insurgency backed by North Vietnam, eventually formally organized under the banner of the Việt Cộng. He was subject to a number of assassination and coup attempts, and in 1962 established the Strategic Hamlet Program as the cornerstone of his counterinsurgency effort.

Diệm's favoritism towards Catholics and persecution of South Vietnam's Buddhist majority led to the "Buddhist crisis" of 1963. The violence damaged relations with the United States and other previously sympathetic countries, and his regime lost favour with the leadership of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. On 1 November 1963, the country's leading generals launched a coup d'état with assistance from the CIA. He and his younger brother Nhu initially escaped, but were recaptured the following day and murdered on the orders of Dương Văn Minh, who succeeded him as president. Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on the Vietnam War. Some historians have portrayed him as a tool of the United States, while others considered him an avatar of Vietnamese tradition. Some recent studies have portrayed Diệm from a more Vietnamese-centred perspective as a competent leader focused on nation building and the modernisation of South Vietnam.

North Vietnam

North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1975.

Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared independence from French Indochina on 2 September 1945 and announced the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France reasserted its colonial dominance and a war ensued between France and the Viet Minh, led by President Ho Chi Minh. The Viet Minh ("League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a coalition of nationalist groups, mostly led by communists. In February 1951, the communists announced the creation of the Lao Động Party (Labour Party), gradually marginalizing non-communists in the Việt Minh.Between 1946 and 1954, the Việt Minh captured and controlled most of the rural areas of Vietnam. In 1954, after the French were defeated, the negotiation of the Geneva Accords ended the war between France and the Việt Minh and granted Vietnam independence. The Geneva Accords divided the country provisionally into northern and southern zones, and stipulated general elections in July 1956 to "bring about the unification of Viet-Nam". The northern zone was commonly called North Vietnam, and the southern zone was commonly called South Vietnam.

Supervision of the implementation of the Geneva Accords was the responsibility of an international commission consisting of India, Canada, and Poland. The United States did not sign the Geneva Accords, which stated that the United States "shall continue to seek to achieve unity through free elections supervised by the United Nations to insure that they are conducted fairly". In July 1955, the prime minister of the Republic of Vietnam, Ngô Đình Diệm, announced that South Vietnam would not participate in elections to unify the country. He said that South Vietnam had not signed the Geneva Accords and was not bound by it.After the failure to reunify Vietnam by elections, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam attempted to unify the country by force in the Vietnam War (1955–75). North Vietnam and the Việt Cộng insurgents supported by their communist allies, including the Soviet Union and China, fought against the military of South Vietnam, the United States and other anti-communist military forces, including South Korea, Australia, Thailand, and smaller players. North Vietnam also supported indigenous communist rebels in Cambodia and Laos against their respective U.S.-backed governments. The war ended when North Vietnamese forces and the Việt Cộng defeated South Vietnam and in 1976 united the two parts of the country into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The expanded Democratic Republic retained North Vietnam's political culture under Soviet influence and continued its existing memberships in international organisations such as Comecon.

Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War

Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years. This movement informed and helped shape the vigorous and polarizing debate, primarily in the United States, during the second half of the 1960s and early 1970s on how to end the war.Many in the peace movement within the U.S. were students, mothers, or anti-establishment hippies. Opposition grew with participation by the African-American civil rights, women's liberation, and Chicano movements, and sectors of organized labor. Additional involvement came from many other groups, including educators, clergy, academics, journalists, lawyers, physicians (such as Benjamin Spock), and military veterans. Their actions consisted mainly of peaceful, nonviolent events; few events were deliberately provocative and violent. In some cases, police used violent tactics against peaceful demonstrators. By 1967, according to Gallup Polls, an increasing majority of Americans considered U.S. military involvement in Vietnam to be a mistake, echoed decades later by the then head of American war planning, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.

People's Army of Vietnam

The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Vietnamese: Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force (including Strategic Rear Forces), Navy, Air Force, Border Defence Force, and Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Force or Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, and the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army. The military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng (Determination to win) added in yellow at the top left.

During the French Indochina War (1946–1954), the PAVN was often referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War (1959–1975), the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). This allowed writers, the U.S. military, and the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong. However, both groups ultimately worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history. It is widely recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia.

South China Sea

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres (1,400,000 sq mi). The sea carries tremendous strategic importance; one-third of the world's shipping passes through it, carrying over $3 trillion in trade each year, it contains lucrative fisheries, which are crucial for the food security of millions in Southeast Asia. Huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed.According to International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition (1953), it is located

south of China;

east of Vietnam;

west of the Philippines;

east of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, up to the Strait of Singapore in the western, and

north of the Bangka Belitung Islands and BorneoHowever, in its unapproved draft 4th edition (1986), IHO proposed the Natuna Sea, thus the South China Sea southern boundary was shifted northward, from north of the Bangka Belitung Islands to

north and northeast of Natuna Islands.The minute South China Sea Islands, collectively an archipelago, number in the hundreds. The sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are also reflected in the variety of names used for the islands and the sea.

South Vietnam

South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; French: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam" (a self-governing entity in the French Empire), which was a constitutional monarchy (1949–1955). This became the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast.

The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president, after having briefly served as premier under Emperor Bao Dai who was exiled. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations. It had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto (neither South nor North Vietnam were members of the UN during the Vietnam War, but the united Vietnam became a member state in 1977). South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam which was Cochinchina [Nam Kỳ], a subdivision of French Indochina, and the southern half of Central Vietnam or Annam [Trung Kỳ] which was a French protectorate. After the Second World War, the anti-Japanese Viet Minh guerrilla forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September 1945, issuing a Declaration of Independence modeled on the U.S. one from 1776.In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, and a series of short-lived military governments followed. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu then led the country after a U.S.-encouraged civilian presidential election from 1967 until 1975. The beginnings of the Vietnam War occurred in 1959 with an uprising by the newly organized National Liberation Front for South Vietnam (Viet Cong), armed and supported by the northern Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with other assistance rendered by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact communist satellites, along with neighboring People's Republic of China and North Korea. Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in 1965 with the landing of United States regular forces of Marines, followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) southern forces. A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore U.S. Navy airplanes, warships, and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through 1966 and 1967. Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February 1968, when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Later on the war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An even larger, armored invasion commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, and had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back.

Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords, concluded in January 1973, after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued almost immediately afterwards. The North Vietnamese regular army and Viet Cong launched a major second combined-arms invasion in 1975, termed the Spring Offensive. Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April 1975, marking the end of the Republic of Vietnam. On July 2, 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India (Part of India east of Siliguri Corridor), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and West Malaysia.

Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Taiwan is also included in this grouping by many anthropologists.The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2 (1.7 million mi2), which is 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 641 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after South Asia and East Asia. The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.

Tet Offensive

The Tet Offensive (Vietnamese: Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Vietnamese: Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place.The offensive was launched prematurely in the late night hours of 30 January in the I and II Corps Tactical Zones of South Vietnam. This early attack allowed South Vietnamese and US forces some time to prepare defensive measures. When the main North Vietnamese operation began the next morning, the offensive was countrywide and well coordinated; eventually more than 80,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops struck more than 100 towns and cities, including 36 of 44 provincial capitals, five of the six autonomous cities, 72 of 245 district towns, and the southern capital. The offensive was the largest military operation conducted by either side up to that point in the war.

Hanoi had launched the offensive in the belief that the offensive would trigger a popular uprising leading to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government. Although the initial attacks stunned both the U.S. and South Vietnamese armies, causing them to lose control of several cities temporarily, they quickly regrouped, beat back the attacks, and inflicted heavy casualties on North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces. The popular uprising anticipated by Hanoi never happened. During the Battle of Huế, intense fighting lasted for a month, resulting in the destruction of the city. During their occupation, the North Vietnamese executed thousands of people in the Massacre at Huế. Around the U.S. combat base at Khe Sanh, fighting continued for two more months. The offensive was a military defeat for North Vietnam though General Westmoreland reported that defeating the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong would require 200,000 more American soldiers and activation of the reserves, prompting even loyal supporters of the war to see that the current war strategy required re-evaluation. The offensive had a strong effect on the U.S. government and shocked the U.S. public, which had been led to believe by its political and military leaders that the North Vietnamese were being defeated and incapable of launching such an ambitious military operation; American public support for the war soon declined and the U.S. sought negotiations to end the war.

The term "Tet Offensive" usually refers to the January–February 1968 offensive, but it can also include the so-called "Mini-Tet" offensive that took place in May and the Phase III Offensive in August, or the 21 weeks of unusually intense combat which followed the initial attacks in January.

Viet Cong

The Việt Cộng (Vietnamese: [vîət kə̂wŋmˀ] (listen)), also known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war, communists and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958.The headquarters of the Viet Cong based at Memot came to be known as Central Office for South Vietnam or COSVN by its Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) and South Vietnamese counterparts, a near-mythical "bamboo Pentagon" from which the Việt Cộng's entire war effort was being directed. For nearly a decade the fabled COSVN headquarters, which directed the entire war effort of the Viet Cong was the target of the RVN/US war effort, and which would have collapsed the insurgency war effort. US and South Vietnamese Special Forces sent to capture them usually were killed very quickly or returned with heavy casualties to the point that teams refused to go. Daily B-52 bombings had failed to kill any of the leadership during Operation Menu despite flattening the entire area, as Soviet trawlers were able to forewarn COSVN, whom used the data on speed, altitude and direction to move perpendicular and to move underground.North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord (1954). Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Hồ Chí Minh trail in the early 1960s. The NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification". The PLAF's best-known action was the Tết Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U.S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but also overextended the Việt Cộng. Two further offensives were conducted in its wake, the mini-Tet and August Offensive. In 1969 the Việt Cộng would establish the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, a shadow-country in South Vietnam intended to represent the organisation on the world stage and was immediately recognised by the communist bloc and maintained diplomatic links with many nations in the Non-Aligned Movement. Later communist offensives were conducted predominantly by newly mechanised PAVN forces, as the ability of the Việt Cộng to recruit among the South Vietnamese became much more limited. The Việt Cộng remained an active military and political front. The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were officially unified under a communist government.

Political and military organization of the Việt Cộng was complex, with a series of well-constructed, overlapping networks, committees and organisations; see strategy, organization and structure. Material aid was primarily provided through the well-established, ingenious Hồ Chí Minh trail, which withstood the most sustained bombing campaign in history while expanding the war effort; see logistics and equipment. They had further developed a complex insurgency warfare method capable of countering overwhelmingly superior numbers and technology, retaining the strategic initiative during much of the war. According to the Pentagon Papers, 90% of large firefights were initiated by the PAVN/VC and 80% were well-planned VC operations throughout most of the war and as early as 1966 US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expressed doubt about the US ability to win the war (see NLF and PAVN battle tactics).

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.

American military advisors began arriving in what was then French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state. The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a

guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U.S. involvement escalated in 1960, and continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.By 1964, there were 23,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces. Every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. The U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; despite years of American tutelage and aid the South Vietnamese forces were unable to withstand the communist offensive and the task fell to US forces instead. The Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders; bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. forces.

Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress. The capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea. Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s.

Việt Minh

Việt Minh (Vietnamese: [vîət mīŋ̟] (listen); abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941. The Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội had previously formed in Nanjing, China, at some point between August 1935 and early 1936 when Vietnamese Nationalist or other Vietnamese nationalist parties formed an anti-imperialist united front. This organization soon lapsed into inactivity, only to be revived by the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) and Hồ Chí Minh in 1941. The Việt Minh established itself as the only organized anti-French and anti-Japanese resistance group. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire. The United States supported France. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China. After World War II, the Việt Minh opposed the re-occupation of Vietnam by France and later opposed South Vietnam and the United States in the Vietnam War.

The political leader and founder of Việt Minh was Hồ Chí Minh. The military leadership was under the command of Võ Nguyên Giáp. Other founders were Lê Duẩn and Phạm Văn Đồng.

The Việt Minh was considered by the Communist Party of Vietnam as a form of national independence front in Vietnam, it was also known as the Việt Minh's Independent Allied Front, Việt Minh Front.

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