Saint Victorinus of Pettau or of Poetovio (died 303 or 304) was an Early Christian ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who was martyred during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. A Bishop of Poetovio (modern Ptuj in Slovenia; German: Pettau) in Pannonia, Victorinus is also known as Victorinus Petavionensis, Poetovionensis or Victorinus of Ptuj.
Saint Victorinus of Pettau
Victorinus on a fresco in the parish church of Nova Cerkev (Slovenia)
|Bishop of Poetovio and Martyr|
|Born||Likely in Greece|
|Died||303 or 304 AD|
Modern Ptuj (Pettau or Poetovio)
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Attributes||Palm, pontifical vestments|
Born probably in Greece on the confines of the Eastern and Western Empires or in Poetovio with rather mixed population, due to its military character, Victorinus spoke Greek better than Latin, which explains why, in St. Jerome's opinion, his works written in the latter tongue were more remarkable for their matter than for their style. Bishop of the City of Pettau, he was the first theologian to use Latin for his exegesis.
His work is in the main exegetical. Victorinus composed commentaries on various books of Holy Scripture, such as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Habakkuk, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, St. Matthew, and the Apocalypse, besides treatises against the heresies of his time. All that has survived is his Commentary on Apocalypse and the short tract On the construction of the world (De fabrica mundi)..
Victorinus was a firm believer in the millennium. He was also much influenced by Origen. His works were ranked with the apocrypha in the decree, later attributed to Pope Gelasius I, which excluded and anathematized them with that of many other early fathers. That is to say they were not considered free of error. By contrast, St. Jerome gives him an honourable place in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers. Jerome occasionally cites the opinion of Victorinus (in Eccles. iv. 13; in Ezech. xxvi. and elsewhere), but considered him to have been affected by the opinions of the Chiliasts or Millenarians.
According to Jerome, Victorinus died a martyr in 304. He is commemorated in both the Eastern and Western Churches is 2 November. Until the 17th century he was sometimes confused with the Latin rhetorician, Victorinus Afer.
The commentary was composed not long after the Valerian Persecution, about 260. According to Claudio Moreschini, "The interpretation is primarily allegorical, with a marked interest in arithmology." "It seems that he did not give a running commentary on the entire text but contented himself with a paraphrase of selected passages."
Victorinus was apparently the first of the Church Fathers to ascertain the basic notion of repetition – that the Apocalypse is not one uninterrupted and developing line of prophecy, but rather that various subdivisions run parallel with each other. And he saw that the theme of the soon coming Second Advent was a continuous thread of thought throughout the Apocalypse.
He wrote of the seven churches as representing seven classes of Christians within the church. The seven seals are explained as constituting a prophetic fore view of the spread of the gospel throughout the world. In connection with the Second Advent and the end of the world he looked for wars, famines, pestilences and persecution of the church.
The crowned rider of the four horsemen seated upon the white horse, going forth "conquering, and to conquer," is interpreted as prophetic of Christ's church going forth on its victorious mission, the triumph of Christianity over paganism. The red horse is explained as "coming wars," predicted as salient events preceding the end. The black horse, Victorinus avers, signifies "famines" in the time of the Antichrist. The pale horse meant "coming destructions."
The angel with the seal in chapter 7 symbolizes Elias the prophet as the "precursor of the times of Antichrist." Then comes the kingdom of Antichrist and finally the angel reapers smite the kingdom of Antichrist delivering the saints.
The great red dragon with seven heads of chapter 12 he sees as Rome, from which springs Antichrist in the last times, amid the ten horns. The Antichrist springs from the battle in heaven, and the expulsion and his earthly domination foIlow the three and half years of Elijah's preaching."
The first and second angels of Revelation 14 are the predicted Elias and Jeremiah, witnessing before the Second Advent and end of the world, ushering in the eternal kingdom. The leopard beast of Revelation 14 signifies the kingdom of the time of Antichrist. Victorinus considers the 666 of verse 18 as the computation of letters, each of which comprise the equivalent number, of an assortment of possible names.
After the seven plagues of the last days in Revelation 15, Babylon, in Revelation 17, is identified as Rome seated upon her "seven hills," drunk with the blood of martyrs. The seven heads of the seven-hilled Rome are believed, in their immediate application, to represent seven emperors, the sixth being Domitian, with the eighth who is "of the seven," as Nero.  The ten horns of Daniel 7 are equated with those of the Apocalypse, with three of the kings killed by the Antichrist."
"Athleta Christi" (Latin: "Champion of Christ") was a class of Early Christian soldier martyrs, of whom the most familiar example is one such "military saint," Saint Sebastian.Confessor of the Faith
The title Confessor, the short form of Confessor of the Faith, is a title given by the Christian Church to a type of saint.Dalua of Tibradden
Saint Dalua of Tibradden (Irish: Do-Lúe, Latin: Daluanus), also called Dalua of Craoibheach, was an early Irish saint who is said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick. He founded a church that became known as Dun Tighe Bretan (Tibradden) which is located today in the townland of Cruagh, Co. Dublin.Great martyr
Great Martyr or Great-Martyr (Greek: μεγαλομάρτυς or μεγαλομάρτυρ, megalomartys or megalomartyr, from megas, "great" + "martyr") is a classification of saints who are venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople.
Generally speaking, a Great Martyr is a martyr who has undergone excruciating tortures—often performing miracles and converting unbelievers to Christianity in the process—and who has attained widespread veneration throughout the Church. These saints are often from the first centuries of the Church, before the Edict of Milan. This term is normally not applied to saints who could be better described as hieromartyrs (martyred clergy) or protomartyrs (the first martyr in a given region).Judas Barsabbas
Judas Barsabbas was a New Testament prophet and one of the 'leading men' in the early Christian community in Jerusalem at the time of the Council of Jerusalem in around 50 A.D.Michael of Synnada
Michael of Synnada (Michael the Confessor) (died 818) was a bishop of Synnada from 784. He represented Byzantium in diplomatic missions to Harun al-Rashid and Charlemagne. He was exiled by Emperor Leo V the Armenian because of his opposition to iconoclasm. Honored by the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, his feast day is May 23.Miha Remec
Miha Remec (born August 10, 1928 in Ptuj, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (now Slovenia)) [míha rémec, IPA mˈiha ɹeːmet͡s] is a Slovene author. He is a multiple winner of the SFERA Award.Millennial Day Theory
The Millennial day theory, or the Sabbath millennium theory, is a theory in Christian eschatology in which the Second Coming of Christ will occur 6,000 years after the creation of mankind, followed by 1,000 years of peace and harmony. It is a very popular belief accepted by certain premillennialists who usually promote young earth creationism.
The view takes the stance that each millennium is actually a day according to God (as found in Psalm 90:4 and 2 Peter 3:8), and that eventually at the end of the 6,000 years since the creation, Jesus will return. It teaches that the 7th millennium is actually called the Sabbath Millennium, in which Jesus will ultimately set up his perfect kingdom and allow his followers to rest. The Sabbath Millennium is believed to be synonymous with the Millennial Reign of Christ that is found in Revelation 20:1-6.Minuscule 195
Minuscule 195 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A131 (Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 11th century. It has complex contents and marginalia.Minuscule 210
Minuscule 210 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A133 (Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th or 12th century. It has marginalia.Minuscule 215
Minuscule 215 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A134 (Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 11th century. It has full marginalia.Minuscule 237
Minuscule 237 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A13 (Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th century.Minuscule 569
Minuscule 569 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A 151 (in the Soden's numbering), is a Greek minuscule illuminated manuscript Gospel book, on parchment. It is dated by a Colophon to the year 1061. It was labelled by Scrivener as 475. The manuscript has complex contents.Minuscule 599
Minuscule 599 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A599 (von Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on paper. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 15th century. The manuscript has complex contents. It was labelled by Scrivener as 467.
It has marginalia.Minuscule 814 (Gregory-Aland)
Minuscule 814 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament written on paper. Palaeographically it had been assigned to the 13th century.Pseudo-Tertullian
Pseudo-Tertullian is the scholarly name for the unknown author of Adversus Omnes Haereses, an appendix to the work De praescriptionem haereticorum of Tertullian. It lists 32 heresies, and there is consensus that this work is not by Tertullian himself.A traditional theory is that the work is a Latin translation of a Greek original, a lost work Syntagma written by Hippolytus, c. 220. Recent scholarship, agreeing with a theory of Richard Adelbert Lipsius, suggests that this work Syntagma was the common source for Philastrius and the Panarion of Epiphanius, also.The name "Pseudo-Tertullian" is also applied to the author of a poem written against Marcion. The Catholic Encyclopedia describes it as "doggerel hexameters", and mentions two theories: that the poem was written by Commodian; and that Adversus Omnes Haereses was written by Victorinus of Pettau.Saint Victorinus
Saint Victorinus may refer to:
Victorinus of Pettau, bishop and third century Christian writer
Victorinus of Camerino, bishop and saint
A bishop of Assisi and martyr
A martyr and saint who was a companion of Placidus, Christian martyr
A martyr and saint at Evreux (see Maximus of Evreux)St. Victor
Saint Victor may refer to:
Saint Victor of Damascus, martyr, 2nd century, see Saints Victor and Corona (died c. 170)
Saint Pope Victor I (died 199), martyr
Saint Victor of Marseilles (died c. 290)
Saint Victor Maurus (died ca. 303 in Milan), martyr
Saint Victorinus of Pettau (died 303 or 304)
Saints Vincent, Orontius, and Victor (died 305), martyrs
Victor of Vita born circa 430
Saint Victor of Turin (died 465)
Saint Victor of Xanten (died 4th century), martyrVictorinus (disambiguation)
Victorinus (died 270) was emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire in the late 3rd century.
Victorinus may also refer to:
Gaius Marius Victorinus (4th century), Roman grammarian, rhetorician and neo-Platonic philosopher
Victorinus (vicarius), a vicarius of Roman Britain probably serving between 395 and 406
Victorinus of Pettau (4th century), Christian scribe
Victorinus of Camerino, bishop and saint
Victorinus, Christian martyr and companion of Simplicius and Constantius
Saint Victorinus, martyr and saint who was a companion of Placidus
Saint Victorinus, martyr and saint who was a companion of Maximus of Évreux
Saint Victorinus, martyr and saint who was a killed with Cassius of Clermont
Administrative centre: Ptuj