Victoria Megan Arbour is a Canadian evolutionary biologist and palaeontologist working as a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada postdoctoral fellow at the University of Toronto and Royal Ontario Museum.
An "expert on the armoured dinosaurs known as ankylosaurs", Arbour analyzes fossils and creates 3-D computer models. She named the possible pterosaur Gwawinapterus from Hornby Island, and a partial ornithischian dinosaur from Sustut Basin, and has participated in the naming of the ankylosaurs Zuul, Zaraapelta, Crichtonpelta, and Ziapelta.
Victoria M. Arbour
|Thesis||Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the ankylosaurid dinosaurs (2014)|
|Doctoral advisor||Philip J. Currie|
Born in 1983, Arbour is from Halifax, Nova Scotia. Her mother, a math teacher, and father, a soil scientist, supported her science interests. Arbour completed a B.Sc. Honours Thesis supervised by Milton Graves, An ornithischian dinosaur from the Sustut Basin, British Columbia, Canada, and graduated from Dalhousie University in 2006. She completed her master's thesis, Evolution, biomechanics, and function of the tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) in 2009, and her Ph.D. thesis, Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the ankylosaurid dinosaurs, in 2014, both advised by paleontologist Philip Currie at the University of Alberta.
Arbour is a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada postdoctoral fellow at the Royal Ontario Museum and University of Toronto. As the top-ranked female candidate for the fellowship, she also received a supplement available to applicants who demonstrate "exemplary involvement in science promotion, mentorship, and leadership".
Arbour primarily studies dinosaurs in the group Ankylosauria, including biomechanical analyses of tail clubs. Arbour has studied microfossils from Nova Scotia. She has also named the possible pterosaur Gwawinapterus from Hornby Island, and a partial ornithischian dinosaur from Sustut Basin, both locations in British Columbia. She has participated in the naming of the ankylosaurs Zuul, Zaraapelta, Crichtonpelta, Ziapelta, as well as resurrecting Dyoplosaurus, and publishing a new phylogenetic analysis on the interrelationships of Ankylosauridae.
According to Brian Alary of the University of Alberta, "She's contributed to history-making research by analyzing fossils and creating 3-D computer models, developed course materials and taught 35,000 students at a time through the Dino 101 MOOC." Philip Currie credits Arbour for involving the paleontology discipline with the University of Alberta's "Women in Scholarship, Engineering, Science & Technology", making study of dinosaurs more appealing to women.
Ankylosaurus is a genus of armored dinosaur. Its fossils have been found in geological formations dating to the very end of the Cretaceous Period, about 68–66 million years ago, in western North America, making it among the last of the non-avian dinosaurs. It was named by Barnum Brown in 1908; the only species in the genus is A. magniventris. The genus name means "fused lizard", and the specific name means "great belly". A handful of specimens have been excavated to date, but a complete skeleton has not been discovered. Though other members of Ankylosauria are represented by more extensive fossil material, Ankylosaurus is often considered the archetypal member of its group, despite having some unusual features.
Possibly the largest-known ankylosaurid, Ankylosaurus is estimated to have been between 6 and 8 metres (20 and 26 ft) long and to have weighed between 4.8 and 8 tonnes (4.7 and 7.9 long tons). It was quadrupedal, with a broad, robust body. It had a wide, low skull, with two horns pointing backward from the back of the head, and two horns below these that pointed backward and down. Unlike other ankylosaurs, its nostrils faced sideways rather than towards the front. The front part of the jaws was covered in a beak, with rows of small, leaf-shaped teeth farther behind it. It was covered in armor plates, or osteoderms, with bony half-rings covering the neck, and had a large club on the end of its tail. Bones in the skull and other parts of the body were fused, increasing their strength, and this feature is the source of the genus name.
Ankylosaurus is a member of the family Ankylosauridae, and its closest relatives appear to be Anodontosaurus and Euoplocephalus. Ankylosaurus is thought to have been a slow-moving animal, able to make quick movements when necessary. Its broad muzzle indicates it was a non-selective browser. Sinuses and nasal chambers in the snout may have been for heat and water balance or may have played a role in vocalization. The tail club is thought to have been used in defense against predators or in intraspecific combat. Ankylosaurus has been found in the Hell Creek, Lance, Scollard, Frenchman, and Ferris formations, but appears to have been rare in its environment. Although it lived alongside a nodosaurid ankylosaur, their ranges and ecological niches do not appear to have overlapped, and Ankylosaurus may have inhabited upland areas. Ankylosaurus also lived alongside dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Edmontosaurus.Anodontosaurus
Anodontosaurus is an extinct genus of ankylosaurid dinosaurs within the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. It is known from the entire span of the Late Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation (mid Late Campanian to "middle" Maastrichtian stage, about 72.8-67 Ma ago) of southern Alberta, Canada. It contains two species, A. lambei and A. inceptus.Arbour (surname)
Arbour is a surname. Notable people with the name include:
Al Arbour (1932–2015), Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and executive
Amos Arbour (1895–1943), Canadian ice hockey player
Beatrice Arbour (born 1920), All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player
Jack Arbour (1899–1973), Canadian ice hockey defenceman
John Arbour (born 1945), Canadian ice hockey player
Louise Arbour (born 1947), Canadian lawyer, prosecutor and jurist
Nicole Arbour, Canadian cheerleader and singer
Tony Arbour (born 1945), British Conservative Party politician
Ty Arbour (1896–1979), Canadian ice hockey player
Victoria Arbour, Canadian evolutionary biologist and palaeontologistClub (anatomy)
In zoology, a club is a bony mass at the end of the tail of some dinosaurs and of some mammals, most notably the ankylosaurids and the glyptodonts, as well as meiolaniid turtles. It is thought that this was a form of defensive armour or weapon that was used to defend against predators, much in the same way as a thagomizer, possessed by stegosaurids, though at least in glyptodonts it is hypothesized it was used in fighting for mating rights. Among dinosaurs, the club was present mainly in ankylosaurids, although the sauropod Shunosaurus also possessed a tail club. The tail club is most often depicted on Ankylosaurus, especially in encounters with larger predators such as Tyrannosaurus. Victoria Arbour has established that ankylosaurid tails could generate enough force to break bone during impacts.Crichtonpelta
Crichtonpelta is a genus of extinct herbivorous ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Cretaceous of China.In 2007, Lü Junchang, Ji Qiang, Gao Yubo and Li Zhixin named and described a second species of Crichtonsaurus: Crichtonsaurus benxiensis. The specific name refers to the Benxi Geological Museum.The holotype, BXGMV0012, is a skull found near Beipiao in a layer of the Sunjiawan Formation probably dating from the Albian. Specimen BXGMV0012-1, a skeleton lacking the skull, discovered in the same quarry as the holotype, was referred to the species. Furthermore, a skeleton with skull, displayed by the Sihetun Fossil Museum as a Crichtonsaurus bohlini specimen, was in 2014 referred to Crichtonpelta. In 2017, a fourth specimen was described, from the same quarry as the holotype, G20090034, consisting of a skull lacking the front snout.In 2014, Victoria Arbour concluded that Crichtonsaurus were a nomen dubium. Therefore, she named a separate genus for its second species: Crichtonpelta. The generic name combines a reference to Michael Crichton, the author of Jurassic Park, with a Greek πέλτη, peltè, "small shield". At the time this was an invalid nomen ex dissertatione. However, in 2015, Crichtonpelta was validly named by Arbour and Philip John Currie. The type species is Crichtonsaurus benxiensis; the combinatio nova is Crichtonpelta benxiensis. There was a possibility that, though Crichtonsaurus bohlini was a nomen dubium, its fossil material in fact belonged to Crichtonpelta. Arbour however, noted clear differences in the scapula and humerus between BXGMV0012-1 and LPM 101, a specimen previously referred to Crichtonsaurus bohlini: the scapula of the former has a tab-like acromion and its humerus a much longer deltopectoral crest.Arbour established several distinguishing traits. One of these was an autapomorphy, unique derived trait: the apex of the (quadrato)jugal, or cheek, horn, is pointing upwards. Also a unique combination of in themselves not unique traits is present. The upper snout armour forms an amorphous mass, not clearly separated into distinctive tiles. The jugal bone is deeper than that of Pinacosaurus. The skull roof is not notched at the lacrimal bone as in Pinacosaurus grangeri. The squamosal horns are shorter than those of Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus. However, these horns are longer and more pointed than those of Gobisaurus or Shamosaurus. The point of the cheek horn is located on the rear edge. The transverse crest on the top of the rear skull has two points.The holotype of Crichtonpelta is somewhat larger than Crichtonsaurus, itself about three to four metres long. It is uncertain whether Crichtonpelta already possessed a tail club.Crichtonpelta was, within the Ankylosauridae, placed in the Ankylosaurinae, in a basal position. If correct, this makes it the oldest known ankylosaurine.Crichtonsaurus
Crichtonsaurus is a dubious genus of herbivorous ankylosaurid ankylosaur dinosaur. It was named for Michael Crichton, the author of the famed dinosaur novel Jurassic Park. It was an ankylosaurine, and it lived during the late Cretaceous Period of China.Euoplocephalus
Euoplocephalus ( yoo-OP-loh-SEF-ə-ləs) is a genus of very large, herbivorous ankylosaurian dinosaurs, living during the Late Cretaceous of Canada. It has only one named species, Euoplocephalus tutus.
The first fossil of Euoplocephalus was found in 1897 in Alberta. In 1902, it was named Stereocephalus, but that name had already been given to an insect, so it was changed in 1910. Later, many more ankylosaurid remains were found from the Campanian of North America and often made separate genera. In 1971, Walter Coombs concluded that they all belonged to Euoplocephalus which then would be one of the best-known dinosaurs. Recently however, experts have come to the opposite conclusion, limiting the authentic finds of Euoplocephalus to about a dozen specimens. These include a number of almost complete skeletons, so much is nevertheless known about the build of the animal.
Euoplocephalus was about five and a half meters long and weighed about two and a half tonnes. Its body was low-slung and very flat and wide, standing on four sturdy legs. Its head had a short drooping snout with a horny beak to bite off plants that were digested in the large gut. Like other ankylosaurids, Euoplocephalus was largely covered by bony armor plates, among them rows of large high-ridged oval scutes. The neck was protected by two bone rings. It could also actively defend itself against predators like Gorgosaurus using a heavy club-like tail end.Ghostbusters
Ghostbusters is a 1984 American supernatural comedy film produced and directed by Ivan Reitman and written by Dan Aykroyd and Harold Ramis. It stars Bill Murray, Aykroyd and Ramis as Peter Venkman, Ray Stantz and Egon Spengler, eccentric parapsychologists who start a ghost-catching business in New York City. Sigourney Weaver and Rick Moranis co-star as their client Dana Barrett and her neighbor Louis Tully.
Aykroyd conceived Ghostbusters as a project for himself and fellow Saturday Night Live alumnus John Belushi, with the protagonists traveling through time and space. Aykroyd and Ramis rewrote the script following Belushi's death and after Reitman deemed Aykroyd's initial vision financially impractical. Filming took place from October 1983 to January 1984.
Ghostbusters was released in the United States on June 8, 1984. It received positive reviews and grossed $242 million in the United States and more than $295 million worldwide, making it the highest-grossing comedy film of its time. At the 57th Academy Awards, it was nominated for Best Visual Effects and Best Original Song (for the theme song). The American Film Institute ranked Ghostbusters 28th on its 100 Years...100 Laughs list of film comedies. In 2015, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".Ghostbusters launched a media franchise, which includes a 1989 sequel, two animated television series (The Real Ghostbusters and Extreme Ghostbusters), video games, and a 2016 reboot.Kunbarrasaurus
Kunbarrasaurus is a genus of small herbivorous ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Australia.Liaoningosaurus
Liaoningosaurus is an unusual genus of ankylosaurian dinosaurs from the early Cretaceous period of China and is the earliest known ankylosaurid genus in the fossil record. It contains a single species, Liaoningosaurus paradoxus, and is represented by two fossil specimens collected from the Yixian Formation (Aptian age) of Liaoning Province. L. paradoxus was unusual among advanced ornithischian dinosaurs in that it is speculated to have hunted or scavenged, with preserved gut contents showing that it may have eaten fish. Additionally, some features of its skeleton may suggest that it was partially aquatic.The type species L. paradoxus was named by Xu Xing, Wang Xiaolin and You Hailu in 2001. The generic name refers to Liaoning. The specific name refers to the confusing mix of nodosaurid and ankylosaurid features shown by the specimen.Minotaurasaurus
Minotaurasaurus is a genus of ankylosaurine ankylosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous. It was named in 2009 by Clifford A. Miles and Clark J. Miles and the type species is Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani. The generic name is explained by the describers as meaning "man-bull lizard"; the specific epithet honours Vilayanur S. Ramachandran who purchased the fossil for $10,000 from the trader Hollis Butts, based in Japan, and made it available to science. It is known only from a complete skull of unknown provenance, but probably recovered from the Gobi Desert. While it had a distinctive armored bull-like head and a more primitive braincase, it shares the typical features of an ankylosaurid.
A controversy has surfaced around the provenance of this skull. Some paleontologists claim that this fossil was removed from the Gobi desert without the permission of the Chinese government and sold without proper documentation. V.S. Ramachandran, who purchased the fossil in Tucson, Arizona (United States), says that he would be happy to repatriate the fossil to the appropriate nation, if someone shows him "evidence it was exported without permit". For a short time, the specimen was on loan to the Victor Valley Museum in Apple Valley, California, but in 2007, Ramachandran reacquired it.A 2014 study by Victoria Arbour, Philip Currie, and Demchig Badamgarav concluded that Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani is probably a junior synonym of Tarchia kielanae; a redescription of the cranial anatomy of Tarchia in 2016, however, concluded that Minotaurasaurus was a distinct taxon.Saurian (video game)
Saurian is a survival simulation video game, developed and published by Urvogel Games, focusing upon accurately simulating the natural ecosystem of the Hell Creek Formation in an interactive format. where players take control of a dinosaur. The game uses the Unity engine as its base, and was launched in Early Access release on July 31, 2017. The game is slated for release on Microsoft Windows and MacOS through Steam, with a Linux version to be developed after completion.Scolosaurus
Scolosaurus is an extinct genus of ankylosaurid dinosaurs within the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. It is known from either the lower levels of the Dinosaur Park Formation or upper levels of the Oldman Formation (the location of the type specimen's quarry is uncertain) in the Late Cretaceous (latest middle Campanian stage, about 76.5 Ma ago) of Alberta, Canada. It contains two species, S. cutleri and S. thronus.Zuul
Zuul is a genus of herbivorous ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Campanian Judith River Formation of Montana. The type species is Zuul crurivastator. It is known from a complete skull and tail, which represents the first ankylosaurin known from a complete skull and tail club, as well as the most complete ankylosaurid specimen thus far recovered from North America. The specimen also preserved in situ osteoderms, keratin, and skin remains.