From 1980 to 1990, he was professor of psychotherapy at the Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education. The main result of his scientific activity was the discovery of the "syndrome of the neurotic phantom of somatic disease" and a "concept of the mental constituent of a chronic somatic disease".
Skumin graduated the Medical University in 1973 with diploma with honours. In 1968, when he was still a medical student, he proposed the term ″Culture of Health″ (Russian: Культу́ра Здоро́вья), which has become widespread. The main task of a Culture of Health is to implement innovative health programs that support a holistic approach to physical, mental and spiritual well-being.
An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease, congenital heart defect, etc. When one or two of the four heart valves malfunctions, the medical choice may be to replace the natural valve with an artificial valve. There are three major types of mechanical valves with many modifications on these designs. This requires open heart surgery. The mechanical valves are made from metal and pyrolytic carbon, and can last a lifetime. All MHV function in the human body creating a unique sound effects and vibration. Patients with mechanical valves must take blood-thinning medications to prevent clotting. The choice of which valve type to use depends upon the patient's age, medical condition, preferences with medication, and lifestyle.Skumin syndrome (Russian: Синдро́м Ску́мина) was described by Skumin in 1978 as a cardioprosthetic psychopathological syndrome, associated with mechanical heart valve implant and manifested by irrational fear, anxiety, depression and sleep disorder. This syndrome is often accompanied by asthenia.Alain Carpentier – a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the head the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at the Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou in Paris – believed in 2011 that Skumin syndrome develops in a quarter of the patients with an artificial heart valve. It is possible that a similar problem arises in the conduct of operations to implement an artificial heart.
Victor Skumin, our domestic scientist, described "cardioprosthetic psychopathologic syndrome", which entered the textbooks as "Skumin syndrome". The human mind is constantly fixed on the motor is running. For example, in contrast to prosthetic of teeth, arms or legs, it is not possible to divert attention of human from the sounds of functioning implant in his body. Person is constantly waiting for a suddenly the motor will stop? In the human heart the pain gives signals. Here there is no pain and can not to be. In the future, probably, there will be heart prostheses, imitating his heartbeat. But they will not be hurt, and Skumin syndrome will continue to hang over the human psyche with a heart valve prosthesis.
For psychological rehabilitation, Skumin improved psychological function by calming the nervous system, enhancing relaxation, increasing body awareness and decreasing general anxiety.
Sitting meditation posture
Lying down meditation posture
In 1979, Skumin created a special modification of mind control method for psychological rehabilitation of cardiosurgical patients. This method is based on autogenic training. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz. He emphasized parallels to techniques in yoga and meditation. It is a method for influencing one's autonomic nervous system. The technique involves the daily practice of sessions that last around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening. During each session, the practitioner will repeat a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation. Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures.
The technique of the Skumin mind control method (Russian: Психотре́нинг по Ску́мин) involves the use of two standard postures: sitting meditation and lying down meditation. This method of psychotraining includes five psychological exercises: the first is "the relaxation", the second one is "the warming", the third one is "the zero gravity", the fourth one is "the target autosuggestion", and the fifth exercise is "the psychological activation". Each session contain explanation of the theory and practice of each new exercise as it is reached. The therapeutic effect is achieved by the neutralization of traumatic emotional experiences and the progressive reorganization of the psychic structures to include previously unacceptable mental contents, too. This method of psychotherapy has found application in medical practice, in particular in the treatment of phobias, headaches, etc.
A most significant life event in the first years of life is a disease, especially if it is of early onset, severe, life-threatening, with an uncertain prognosis, and with the necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Psychological implications are a significant part of the illness, not a marginal component; they can affect prognosis and outcome. Various laboratory tests, physical examinations, and surgeries on these individuals show no evidence supporting the idea that these exaggerating symptoms are present.
In particular, Skumin studied the patients, aged from 6 to 17, suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of them have revealed a negative psychological attitude to the dietotherapy they received. A system of special measures has been developed including three main elements: (1) psychotherapeutic mediation of dietotherapy before its administration and in the process of the therapy; (2) creation of the psychologic attitude to the diet adherence; (3) alteration of the patient's taste stereotype. Realization of such measures has been conducive to higher effectiveness of the dietotherapy.
Based on studies into the mental sphere of gastroenterological patients, he systematized borderline neurotic and personality disorders on the clinical and etiopathogenetic basis. He studied the psychosocial problems that may affect children or teenagers who have the chronic gastrointestinal disease. A system of measures aimed at early diagnosis, correction, therapy and prophylaxis of borderline conditions and psychosocial readaptation of patients is scientifically based. The main result of his scientific activity was the discovery of the "syndrome of the neurotic phantom of somatic disease" (a specific psychopathological complex of symptoms) and a "concept of the mental constituent of a chronic somatic disease".
From 1990 to 1994, Skumin held positions as Professor by the Chair of Psychology and Pedagogy, and Professor by the Chair of Physical Education and Health life at the Kharkiv State Academy of Culture. Skumin completed research of theoretical and practical issues of culture of health, which he developed throughout his scientific and pedagogical activity. These methods, he has introduced in the training course for the students of the Academy: The Foundations of a Culture of Health.
His scientific and pedagogical work Skumin combine with a social activity. In 1994, he was elected to the post of the President-founder of the World Organisation of Culture of Health (WOCH) — International social movement "To Health via Culture" (Russian: Междунаро́дное обще́ственное Движе́ние «К Здоро́вью че́рез Культу́ру). Coat of arms of the WOCH contain a symbol of Rerikhism.
The organization operates in accordance with the registered in Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation Charter. Key element of a Culture of Health is implement innovative health programs that support a holistic approach to physical, mental and spiritual well-being both inside and outside the workplace.
The ideology of the NA serves outstanding contemporary philosophers: Gregory Bateson, Ken Wilber, Paul Feyerabend. On a grand scale is the creation and support of international organizations, contained in the ideology of the NA. In Russia and in Ukraine, International movement "To Health via Culture", based on the teachings of Agni Yoga, operates and has a great publishing activity.
V. Skumìn developed the problems associated with a culture of health in the context of philosophy of Roerich.
Living Ethics (Agni Yoga) is a philosophical teaching which embraces all sides of being—from cosmological problems, down to daily human life. This teaching is based on the books written by Helena and Nicholas Roerich in the first half of the 20th century. The New Age movement is a spiritual movement that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. The movement is characterised by a holistic view of the cosmos, a belief in an emergent Age of Aquarius an emphasis on self-spirituality and the authority of the self, a focus on healing (particularly with alternative therapies).
Professor Verhorubova and professor Lobanova from Tomsk State Pedagogical University argued (2012) that in accordance with the concept of a culture of health, proposed by Skumin, the culture – spiritual, mental, and physical – determines the status of human health. And health – spiritual, mental, physical – is a prerequisite for achieving a higher level of culture.
The essence of the teachings of the culture of health, reveals professor of University of Luhansk N. Gribok. He wrote at 2009,
Russian Professor Skumin insists on the fact that the culture of health should be considered as an integral part of the spiritual culture and the moral culture, culture of labour and culture of recreation, culture of personality and culture of relationships. According to the scientist, the culture of health is not only the mechanical connection of the two concepts—the concept of ″culture″ and the concept of ″health″. This is their synthesis, which forms a new quality, a new content. Skumin examines the culture of health as the specific science, that develops the theoretical and practical tasks of harmonious development of the spiritual, mental, and physical human force, forming of optimum environment, which provides a higher level of creativity of life. Thus, Skumin argues that the culture of health is a separate science, that creates new content. The main challenge of culture of health is the development of spiritual, mental and physical capabilities of man.
The Culture of Health means recognizing health’s central importance in the lives. Expounding the philosophical aspects of his Doctrine of Culture of Health, Skumin referred to the works of Helena Blavatsky, Helena and Nicholas Roerich, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Alexander Chizhevsky. In some of his publications, he argues that the Culture of Health will play an important role in the creation of a human spiritual society into the Solar System.
He elaborated on the theosophical conceptions of spiritual evolution and proposed (1990) a classification of Homo spiritalis (Latin: spiritual man), the sixth root race, consisting of eight sub-races (subspecies) – HS0 Anabiosis spiritalis, HS1 Scientella spiritalis, HS2 Aurora spiritalis, HS3 Ascensus spiritalis, HS4 Vocatus spiritalis, HS5 Illuminatio spiritalis, НS6 Creatio spiritalis, and HS7 Servitus spiritalis.
He is the author of music and lyrics of several songs. Among them:
Anthem "The Heart". In Agni Yoga and Rerikhismthe heart is the main organ of the human body, his spiritual Sun. Helena Roerich special emphasis is placed on the fires in the heart center and the Chalice, or the Anahatachakra, which is behind the heart.
Anthem "Urusvati". Helena Roerich, known as the Tara Urusvati in Agni Yoga and Rerikhism. The hymn begins with the phrase: "the fire of the heart ignites Urusvati, she teaches the spirit take-off on the wings of the grace".
Anthem "Ur". In the Vedas, and Living Ethics Ur or Aditi ("limitless") is mother of the gods and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix the heavenly bodies were born. As celestial mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is associated with space and with mystic speech.
Anthem "Agni". Agni, the Vedic and Living Ethics God of Fire, one marks immortality and the symbol of life. Agni is one of the supreme gods in the Rigveda. In Agni Yoga it is the Creative Fire of the Universe, the root of the "Fire of Space"; and "psychic energy", the powers of the human mind and heart, particularly those manifesting in love, thought, and creativity.
Anthem "The Sun". In the Skumin's doctrine of the culture of health and in the Agni Yoga, the Sun has a wealth of potential for spiritual, mental and physical evolution of human society and all other kingdoms of nature in the Solar System.
Skumin wrote many books and articles on a variety medical and spiritual topics advocating a holistic approach to health. He is the author or co-author of a series illustrated books on the culture of health, yoga, and Rerikhism. He extols the value of spirituality.
Agni Yoga (Russian: А́гни Йо́га) or the Living Ethics (Russian: Жива́я Э́тика), or the Teaching of Life (Russian: Учение Жизни) is a one of the neo-theosophical religious doctrine transmitted by the Helena Roerich and Nicholas Roerich from 1920. The term Agni Yoga means “Mergence with Divine Fire” or “Path to Mergence with Divine Fire”. This term was introduced by the Roerichs. The followers of Agni Yoga believe that the teaching was given to the Roerich family and their associates by Master Morya, the guru of Roerichs and Helena Blavatsky, one of the founders of the modern theosophical movement and the Theosophical Society.
Agni Yoga is a path of practice in daily life. It is the yoga of fiery energy, of consciousness, of responsible, directed thought. It teaches that the evolution of the planetary consciousness is a pressing necessity and that, through individual striving, it is an attainable aspiration for mankind. According to Helena Roerich, Agni Yoga is the synthesis of all yogas. In all the ancient Hindu scriptures, the approaching Fiery Age was predicted. Agni-Fire, which to a varying degree is at the heart of all the yogas, will extremely sate the atmosphere of our planet, and all the branches of Yoga will be merged into a fiery synthesis. Agni Yoga is a fire baptism.
The most significant features of Agni Yoga are cosmism and universalism. They are expressed in the interpretation of any phenomena of human existence from the point of view of their cosmic significance and interrelation with the being of the Universe.
Agni Yoga played a significant role in bringing knowledge of Asian religions to Western world. Living Ethics has an international following and has thousands of adherents. The ideas of Teaching of Life have exerted an influence on another esoteric movements and philosophies, among them the New Age and Transhumanism.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.The term holism was coined by Jan Smuts. Alfred Adler considered holism as a concept that represents all of the wholes in the universe, and these wholes are the real factors in the universe. Further, that Holism also denoted a theory of the universe in the same vein as Materialism and Spiritualism.
Kansakār (Devanagari: कंसकार) or Kasāh (कसाः) is a Nepalese caste group belonging to the Newar community of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. In Sanskrit, Kansakar means bronze worker, and their traditional occupation has been metal working and trading. Today, they are merchants, industrialists and professionals.
They are part of the Urāy (उराय्) group which includes Tuladhar, Tamrakar, Sthapit, Bania, Sindurakar, Selalik and other castes. The Urāy are a community of high-caste Buddhist merchants, and their family names indicate artisan and mercantile specialists. Their religion is Newar Buddhism and mother tongue Nepal Bhasa.Kansakars have been traditionally based in Kel Tol in the historical section of Kathmandu where they play a major cultural role. The neighborhood is famed for the sacred courtyard of Jana Baha (Machhendra Bahal) where the central temple houses an image of Aryavalokitesvara (Sacred Avalokiteśvara), a Buddhist deity popularly known as Jana Baha Dyah or White Machhendranath (alternative name: White Karunamaya).
Kharkiv National Medical University (Ukrainian: Харківський національний медичний університет), formerly known as Kharkiv Medical Institute and Kharkiv State Medical University, is a medical university in Kharkiv, Ukraine. It was first known as Kharkiv state medical university.
Post addresse: Prospekt Lenina, 4, Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine.
At present, over 700 teachers work at the departments of the university. Staff capacity is 5 corresponding members NAMN Ukraine, 17 Honoured Scientist of Ukraine, 2 Honored high school Ukraine, 13 distinguished doctors of Ukraine, 8 winners of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Engineering, 28 academicians of the public academies of Ukraine, 28 employees - Member of International Medical Associations;. Since 1951, the University has been training medical personnel for countries of the Eastern Europe, China and Mongolia, and since 1961 it has been training students from other countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. At present, there are about 3400 foreign students in the Kharkiv National Medical University who study at the Preparatory Department, Medical, Nursing and Dental Faculties, undergo postgraduate and clinical post-graduate (residency) courses as well as professional probation at departments of the University in Dental, therapy, orthopedics, surgery, oncology, urology, psychiatry, ophthalmology, obstetrics and gynecology, as well as other medical specialties. The University has trained over 5000 specialists for 86 states of Europe, Asia, Latin America, Middle East countries. Among them there are 3 Doctors and 70 Candidates of Medical Science, about 200 clinical post-graduates (residents).
Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement.
While most authors listed below are primarily philosophers, also included here are some Russian fiction writers, such as Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, who are also known as philosophers.
Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of eurasianism. The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy.
In its further development, Russian philosophy was also marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; cosmos and religion were other notable subjects.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Vasily Rozanov, Lev Shestov, Leo Tolstoy, Sergei Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, Pitirim Sorokin, and Vladimir Vernadsky.
From the early 1920s to late 1980s, Russian philosophy was dominated by Marxism presented as dogma and not grounds for discussion. Stalin's purges, culminating in 1937, delivered a deadly blow to the development of philosophy.A handful of dissident philosophers survived through the Soviet period, among them Aleksei Losev. Stalin's death in 1953 gave way for new schools of thought to spring up, among them Moscow Logic Circle, and Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School.
This list includes notable clinical psychologists and contributors to clinical psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as clinical psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline.
Additional lists of psychiatrists can be found at the articles List of figures in psychiatry (though not all individuals at that list are psychiatrists and medical doctors), Fictional psychiatrists, and List of physicians.
Medical doctors who are psychiatrists and included in those lists and are also listed below. Some psychiatrists are also in the list of neurologists and the list of neuroscientists.
Novocheboksarsk (Russian: Новочебокса́рск; Chuvash: Çӗнӗ Шупашкар, Śĕnĕ Šupaškar) is a city in the Chuvash Republic, Russia, located on the southern bank of the Volga River, about 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) east of Cheboksary, the capital of the republic. Population: 124,097 (2010 Census); 125,857 (2002 Census); 114,760 (1989 Census).
Rerikhism or Roerichism (Russian: Рерихи́зм, Рерихиа́нство, Ре́риховское движе́ние) is a spiritual and cultural movement centered on the teachings transmitted by Helena and Nicholas Roerich. It draws ideas from Theosophy, Eastern and Western religions, and Vedic and Buddhist traditions, molding them into the Russian culture and Russian cosmism.
Spiritual evolution is the philosophical, theological, esoteric or spiritual idea that nature and human beings and/or human culture evolve: either extending from an established cosmological pattern (ascent), or in accordance with certain pre-established potentials. The phrase "spiritual evolution" can occur in the context of "higher evolution", a term used to differentiate psychological, mental, or spiritual evolution from the "lower" or biological evolution of physical form.The concept of spiritual evolution is also complemented by the idea of a creative impulse in human beings, known as epigenesis.Within this broad definition, theories of spiritual evolution are very diverse. They may be cosmological (describing existence at large), personal (describing development of an individual), or both. They can be holistic (holding that higher realities emerge from and are not reducible to the lower), idealist (holding that reality is primarily mental or spiritual) or nondual (holding that there is no ultimate distinction between mental and physical reality). One can regard all of them as teleological to a greater or lesser degree.
Philosophers, scientists, and educators who have proposed theories of spiritual evolution include Schelling (1775-1854), Hegel (1770-1831), Carl Jung (1875-1961), Max Théon (1848-1927), Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), Henri Bergson (1859-1941), Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950), Jean Gebser (1905-1973), Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955), Owen Barfield (1898-1997), Arthur M. Young (1905-1995), Edward Haskell (1906-1986), E. F. Schumacher (1911-1977), Erich Jantsch (1929-1980), Clare W. Graves (1914-1986), Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), Terence McKenna (1946-2000), and P. R. Sarkar (1921-1990). As of 2015 William Irwin Thompson (born 1938), Victor Skumin (born 1948), Ken Wilber (born 1949), and Brian Swimme (born 1950) work in this field.
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