Vice President of the People's Republic of China

The Vice President of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国副主席; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國副主席; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Fùzhǔxí; literally: 'Chinese People's Republic Vice-Chairman'; abbreviated 国家副主席; Guójiā Fùzhǔxí; 'State Vice Chairman'), formerly translated as Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1954 to 1975, is a senior position in the government of the People's Republic of China.

Vice President of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国副主席
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2)
Flag of the People's Republic of China
Wang Qishan in 2016
Incumbent
Wang Qishan

since 17 March 2018
StyleMr Vice President (副主席)
ResidenceZhongnanhai (informal)
SeatWest Building, Zhongnanhai, Beijing[1]
NominatorPresidium of the National People's Congress
AppointerNational People's Congress
Term lengthFive years
Renewable
Inaugural holderZhu De
as Vice-Chairman under
the 1954 Constitution

Ulanhu
as Vice-President under
the 1982 Constitution
Formation27 September 1954
18 June 1983
AbolishedJanuary 1975 – December 1982
Unofficial names国家副主席 (Vice-President of the State)
WebsitePresidency

Selection and Powers

The office was created by the 1982 constitution. Formally, the Vice President is elected by the National People's Congress in accordance with Article 62 of the Constitution. In practice, this election falls into the category of single-candidate' elections. The candidate is recommended by the Presidium of the National People's Congress, which also theoretically has the power to recall the Vice President.

By law, the Vice President must be a Chinese citizen of 45 years of age or older. Prior to March 2018, he or she cannot serve for over two terms, a term being the equivalent of one session of the NPC, which is five years.

The Vice President's duties include assisting the President, and replacing him should he resign or die in office. In reality the position of the Vice President is mostly ceremonial; Vice Presidents Zeng Qinghong, Hu Jintao, and Xi Jinping have been members of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee and the Central Secretariat, the country's main decision making bodies; these three served concurrently as the first-ranked Secretary of the Secretariat, in charge of party affairs.

The Vice President may play a major role in foreign affairs. For instance, the Vice President generally sits on the Foreign Affairs Leading Group, a policy coordination body of the Communist Party. The Vice President has also typically sits on the Central Coordination Group for Hong Kong and Macau Affairs. Therefore, while the Vice President may not actually have substantive powers as defined in the Constitution, the office nonetheless carries significance and prestige. The holders of the office have all been individuals with a degree of political clout.

Vice President Li Yuanchao was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China until 2017, but not the Standing Committee. His successor, Wang Qishan, was a retired member of the Standing Committee at the time of his ascension.

List of vice presidents

Generations of leadership

  First Administration   Second Administration   Third Administration   Hu–Wen Administration   Xi–Li Administration

Central People's Government (1949–1954)

Vice Chairmen of the Central People's Government
(co-serving, 1 October 1949 – 27 September 1954)
  1. Zhu De
  2. Liu Shaoqi
  3. Song Qingling
  4. Li Jishen
  5. Zhang Lan
  6. Gao Gang (until his suicide on 17 August 1954)

The 1st Constitution (1954–1975)

Vice Chairmen of the People's Republic China
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of office NPC Chairman
1 Zhu De Zhu De
朱德
(1886–1976)
Sichuan At-large
27 September 1954 27 April 1959 I Mao Zedong
The first Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China.
2 Soong Ching-ling 1937DONGBIWU.JPG Song Qingling
宋庆龄
(1893–1981)
Shanghai At-large
Dong Biwu
董必武
(1886–1975)
Hubei At-large
27 April 1959 17 January 1975 II · III Liu Shaoqi
Term of office NPC President
3 Served jointly as Vice Chairmen.
Vacancy by ascension and post abolished

The 4th Constitution (1982–present)

Vice President of the People's Republic China
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of office NPC President
3 Ulanhu1955 Ulanhu
乌兰夫
(1907–1988)
Inner Mongolia At-large
18 June 1983 8 April 1988 VI Li Xiannian
An ethnic Mongol and former Chairman of Inner Mongolia, Ulanhu served as the first Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China.
4 Wangzhen1955 Wang Zhen
王震
(1909–1993)
Xinjiang At-large
April 1988 12 March 1993 VII Yang Shangkun
Wang Zhen, a Communist military leader, was perhaps best known for leading the People's Liberation Army into Xinjiang at the foundation of the People's Republic. In 1988 Wang assumed the title of Vice-President in an honorary capacity, after his failed effort to put the conservative Deng Liqun in the position of General Secretary. Wang was the second Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China. He died in office.
5 Rong Yiren graduation Rong Yiren
荣毅仁
(1915–2005)
Shanghai At-large
12 March 1993 15 March 1998 VIII Jiang Zemin
A member of the China Democratic National Construction Association, a recognized non-Communist political party in China, Rong served as the third Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China.
6 Hu Jintao Cannes2011 Hu Jintao
胡锦涛
(1942– )
Guizhou At-large
15 March 1998 15 March 2003 IX Jiang Zemin
Hu, the former party chief of Guizhou province and the Tibet Autonomous Region, served as the fourth Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In his capacity as Vice-President, Hu was probably best known for handling the aftermath of the United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. Hu was the first member of the Politburo Standing Committee to assume the post since the adoption of the 1982 constitution. In 2003, Hu became the first Vice President to become President.
7 Zeng Qinghong
曾庆红
(1939– )
Jiangxi At-large
15 March 2003 15 March 2008 X Hu Jintao
Zeng Qinghong, who had come to prominence as a political aide to Jiang Zemin, served as the fifth Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Also a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, Zeng received an unusually high number of votes against him during his election for the vice-presidency.
8 Xi Jinping March 2017 Xi Jinping
习近平
(1953– )
Shanghai At-large
15 March 2008 14 March 2013 XI Hu Jintao
Xi, the former party chief of Zhejiang, then Shanghai, became the sixth Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China and the second Vice President to become President. Also a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
9 L Yuanchao Li Yuanchao
李源潮
(1950– )
Jiangsu At-large
14 March 2013 17 March 2018 XII Xi Jinping
Li, the former party chief of Jiangsu, became the seventh Vice President under the 4th Constitution of the People's Republic of China. A member of the Politburo. In his capacity as Vice-President, Li represented China at numerous international events of symbolic significance, such as the State Memorial Service of Nelson Mandela, and the state funeral of Lee Kuan Yew.
10 Wang Qishan in 2016 Wang Qishan
王岐山
(1948– )
Hunan At-large
17 March 2018 Incumbent XIII Xi Jinping
Wang, a retired member of the Politburo Standing Committee and the former Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection – China's top anti-corruption enforcer, was selected for the Vice President post ostensibly for his experience in foreign affairs. Wang's assuming the post again made the vice-presidency a highly relevant office.

References

  1. ^ Tian, Baojun. 建国后朱德元帅的住房:还不如苏联集体农庄主席. ifeng.com. Phoenix New Media Limited. Retrieved 2018-02-17.

External links

See also

1954 in China

Events in the year 1954 in China.

1956 in China

Events in the year 1956 in China. The country had an estimated population of 620 million people.

1962 in China

Events from the year 1962 in China.

1967 in China

Events from the year 1967 in China.

1969 in China

Events from the year 1969 in China.

1970 in China

Events in the year 1970 in the People's Republic of China.

1972 in China

Events from the year 1972 in China.

2005 in China

Events in the year 2005 in China.

2nd National People's Congress

The 2nd National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 第二届全国人民代表大会; traditional Chinese: 第二屆全國人民代表大會; pinyin: Dì Èr Jiè Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) was in session from 1959 to 1964. It held four sessions in this period.

The first session was held in April 1959. The Congress elected the state leaders:

President of the People's Republic of China: Liu Shaoqi

Vice President of the People's Republic of China: Soong Ching-ling and Dong Biwu

Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress: Zhu De

Premier of the State Council: Zhou Enlai

President of the Supreme People's Court: Xie Juezai

Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate: Zhang Dingcheng

3rd National People's Congress

The 3rd National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 第三届全国人民代表大会; traditional Chinese: 第三屆全國人民代表大會; pinyin: Dìsān Jiè Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) was in session from 1964 to 1975. It held only one session in the ten years.

The session was held from December 21, 1964, till January 4, 1965. The Congress elected the state leaders:

President of the People's Republic of China: Liu Shaoqi

Vice President of the People's Republic of China: Soong Ching-ling and Dong Biwu

Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress: Zhu De

Premier of the State Council: Zhou Enlai

President of the Supreme People's Court: Yang Xiufeng

Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate: Zhang Dingcheng

Li Yuanchao

Li Yuanchao (born 20 November 1950) is a Chinese politician. He was the Vice President of the People's Republic of China from 2013 to 2018 and the Honorary President of the Red Cross Society of China. He was a member of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China and head of its Organization Department between 2007 and 2012. From 2002 to 2007, Li served as the Communist Party of China Secretary of Jiangsu, the top leader of an area of significant economic development. Between 2007 and 2017, he held a seat for two terms on the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Once considered a rising political star, Li gradually faded from the political scene.

Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang

The Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (abbreviated RCCK) is one of eight registered minor political parties (in addition to the Communist Party of China) in the People's Republic of China.

It was founded in 1948 by left-wing members who broke with the main Kuomintang (KMT) during the Chinese Civil War, especially those who were against Chiang Kai-shek's policies. The party claims to be the true heir of Sun Yat-sen's legacy. By the end of 2017, it had 131,410 members.Its honorary chairperson Song Qingling served as Vice President of the People's Republic of China and Honorary President of the People's Republic of China. The chairperson Li Jishen served as vice chairman of the Central People's Government.

Among the officially sanctioned political parties of the People's Republic of China, the Revolutionary Committee is seen as second in status to the Communist Party of China. Thus, the Revolutionary Committee is allotted the second highest number of seats in the People's Political Consultative Conference (30%). It also owns numerous assets, some formerly owned by the Kuomintang, throughout mainland China. The Revolutionary Committee operates a range of party-owned institutions, such as party schools.

Rong Desheng

Rong Desheng (榮德生; 4 August 1875 – 29 July 1952), born Rong Zongquan (榮宗銓), was a prominent Chinese industrialist from Wuxi. He and his older brother Rong Zongjing established the Rong Family Corporation in Shanghai, which became the largest domestic company in the industries of cotton textile and flour during Republic of China (1912–49). After Rong Zongjing's 1938 death during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Rong Desheng took over the business empire and adamantly refused to sell his company to the Japanese despite immense financial pressure and death threats.

After the Second Sino-Japanese War, Rong Desheng was kidnapped twice by gangsters backed by corrupt Kuomintang government officials who tried to extort money from him. When the Kuomintang was defeated in the 1949 Chinese Communist Revolution, Rong Desheng decided to remain in mainland China and cooperate with the Communist Party of China. He was one of few capitalists well-treated by the communists. His son Rong Yiren would become a Vice President of the People's Republic of China in the 1990s. Another son, Rong Yixin or Paul Yung was a Senior Vice President of China National Aviation Corporation when he died in plane crash on Basalt Island in Hong Kong in 1948.

Rong Yiren

Rong Yiren (Chinese: 荣毅仁; Wade–Giles: Jung I-jen; May 1, 1916 – October 26, 2005) was the Vice President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 1998 and was heavily involved with the opening of the Chinese economy to western investment. Rong is known both in China and in the Western world as "the Red Capitalist" because his family were some of the few pre-1949 industrialists to have been treated well by the Communist Party of China in return for their co-operation with the government of the People's Republic of China.

Ulanhu

Ulanhu or Ulanfu (23 December 1907 – 8 December 1988), also known by his Chinese name Yun Ze, was the founding Chairman of China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, serving from 1947 to 1966. Ulanhu had the nickname of "Mongolian King" during his political career. He served as Vice-Premier between 1956 and 1966. He was purged during the Cultural Revolution but later reinstated. Between 1983 and 1988 he held the office of Vice President of the People's Republic of China.

Ulanhu holds the distinction of being the highest-ranking minority official in PRC history, and became an icon of loyalty both to the Mongolian people and to the PRC. Except for the period of the Cultural Revolution, his family dominated the politics of Inner Mongolia. His son Buhe served as Chairman of Inner Mongolia for a decade, and his granddaughter Bu Xiaolin was appointed to the same position in 2016.

Wang Qishan

Wang Qishan (; Chinese: 王岐山; born 19 July 1948) is a Chinese politician, and the current Vice President of the People's Republic of China. Wang is one of the leading figures behind China's foreign affairs, along with Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang. Between 2012 and 2017, Wang had served as the Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the Communist Party's anti-corruption body, and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's highest decision making body. He was instrumental in carrying out General Secretary Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign since 2013.Wang gained prominence in China's financial sector in the late 1980s. In 1994, Wang became the Governor of the China Construction Bank. Wang then successively served in three regional roles: Vice-Governor of Guangdong, Party Secretary of Hainan, and Mayor of Beijing. Wang then served as Vice-Premier in charge of finance and commercial affairs under premier Wen Jiabao from March 2008 to March 2013, during which he also gained a seat on the party's Politburo.

Yiren

Yiren may refer to:

King Zhuangxiang of Qin, personal name Yiren

Rong Yiren (1916-2005), entrepreneur and former Vice-President of the People's Republic of China

Yiren (羿人), a subdivision of the Gelao people of China

Zeng Qinghong

Zeng Qinghong (born 30 July 1939) is a retired Chinese politician. He was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's highest leadership council, and top-ranked member of the Secretariat of the Central Committee between 2002 and 2007. He also served as the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China from 2003 to 2008.

During the 1990s, Zeng was a close ally of then-Party general secretary Jiang Zemin, and was instrumental in consolidating Jiang's power. For years, Zeng was the primary force behind the party's organization and personnel.

Zeng Shan

Zeng Shan (Chinese: 曾山; Wade–Giles: Tseng Shan; 1899–1972) was a Chinese Communist military commander and security minister. His wife, Deng Liujin, was one of the few women who participated in the Long March, and later ran a school for the children of high cadres. He was the father of Zeng Qinghong, Vice President of the People’s Republic of China from 2003 to 2008.

Zeng backed Mao Zedong in the Jiangxi Soviet confrontation with Li Lisan, and was at one point Chairman of the Chinese Soviet Republic government. He was a key player in the violent 1931 purge of the so-called Anti-Bolshivik Corps.Zeng did not participate in the Long March, but rather stayed behind to command a small guerrilla unit on the Guangdong-Guangxi border. At the end of the Civil War, he was serving in the Third Field Army’s 10th Army under Ye Fei, and became a member of the 8th and 9th Central Committees. He served a Minister of Internal Affairs (i.e., security) from 1960 to October 1969.

Vice-Presidents of the People's Republic of China
Common Program (1949–54)
1954 Constitution (1954–75)
1982 Constitution (1982–present)
United Front
State organs
Politics of
province-level
divisions

(current leaders)

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.