Vice-admiral (Royal Navy)

Vice-admiral is a flag officer rank of the British Royal Navy and equates to the NATO rank code OF-8. It is immediately superior to the rear admiral rank and is subordinate to the full admiral rank.

Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy
Flag of a vice-admiral, Royal Navy.
British Royal Navy OF-8-collected
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Vice-admiral
Country United Kingdom
Service branch
NATO rankOF-8
Non-NATO rank8
Next higher rankAdmiral
Next lower rankRear Admiral
Equivalent ranksLieutenant-general, Air Marshal


The Royal Navy has had vice-admirals since at least the 16th century. When the fleet was deployed, the vice-admiral would be in the leading portion or van, acting as the deputy to the admiral. The rank of Vice-Admiral evolved from that of Lieutenant of the Admiralty (1546-1564) that being an officer who acted as secretary to the Lord Admiral of England and lapsed in 1876 but was revived in 1901 by King Edward VII and is now the most senior rank within the Navy.[1] Prior to 1864 the Royal Navy was divided into colored squadrons which determined his career path. The command flags flown by a Vice-Admiral changed a number of times during this period included.[2]

In the Royal Navy, the rank of vice-admiral should be distinguished from the office of Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom, which is an admiralty position usually held by a retired full admiral, and that of Vice-Admiral of the Coast, a now obsolete office dealing with naval administration in each of the maritime counties.

Rank insignia and personal flag

Vice-admirals are entitled to fly a personal flag. A vice-admiral flies a St George’s cross defaced with a red disc in the hoist.

The rank of vice-admiral itself is shown in its sleeve lace by a broad band with two narrower bands. Since 2001, it has been designated a three-star rank, when the number of stars on the shoulder board were increased to three.[3][4]

Sleeve lace

Shoulder board

Shoulder board prior to 2001

Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy

Command flag

See also


  1. ^ "History of Naval Ranks and Rates". National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  2. ^ Perrin, W. G. (William Gordon) (1922). "IV:Flags of Command". British flags, their early history, and their development at sea; with an account of the origin of the flag as a national device. Cambridge, England: Cambridge : The University Press. pp. 73–109.
  3. ^ Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine — Uniforms and Badges of Rank: Admiral
  4. ^ Vice-admiral is a three-star rank in NATO, Commonwealth and, since 2001, the Royal Navy (Refer UK DCI (Joint Service) 125/2001).


  • Perrin, W. G. (William Gordon) (1922). "IV:Flags of Command". British flags, their early history, and their development at sea; with an account of the origin of the flag as a national device. Cambridge, England: Cambridge : The University Press.
1944 Birthday Honours

The 1944 King's Birthday Honours, celebrating the official birthday of King George VI, were announced on 2 June 1944 for the United Kingdom and British Empire, New Zealand, and South Africa.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

Berkeley Square

Berkeley Square is a town square in Mayfair in the West End of London, in the City of Westminster. It was originally laid out in the mid 18th century by architect William Kent.

The gardens in the centre are open to the public, and their very large London Plane trees are among the oldest in central London, planted in 1789. One of the trees in the south east corner has been designated a Great Tree of London.

Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December of that year.

Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father.

Edward became king on his father's death. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and socially unacceptable as a prospective queen consort. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. When it became apparent he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history.

After his abdication, Edward was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, Edward was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he was a Nazi sympathiser, he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France. He and Wallis remained married until his death.

George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, and his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, and George was created Prince of Wales. He became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910.

George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War (1914–1918), the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations. He had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his later reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII.

List of Mayors of Chichester

The following have been mayors of Chichester, Sussex:

William Combe 1390–91 MP for Chichester, 1382, 1384 and 1401

William Neel 1393–95, 1401–02 MP for Chichester, 1388, 1399 and 1415.

William Horlebat 1398–99. MP for Chichester, 1388

Thomas Patching 1407–08 MP for Chichester, 1486–1499

William Hore 1422-23, 1427–29, 1432–33, 1436–37, 1439–40, 1444–45, 1446-48. MP for Chichester, 1420 and 1431

John Digons 1548–49 MP for Chichester, 1554

Richard Knight 1554–55 MP for Chichester, 1555

John Digons 1556–57 and 1567–68

Lawrence Ardren 1564 MP for Chichester, 1558

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond 1735–36

Lord George Lennox 1772–73

Charles Buckner 1783–84

Sir George Murray 1815 Vice-admiral, Royal Navy

R. C. Miller 1900

Leslie Evershed-Martin 1955–57 Founder of Chichester Festival Theatre

1969 S.J Watson

List of titles and honours of George VI

King George VI received numerous decorations and honorary appointments, both during and before his time as monarch of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth. Each is listed below; where two dates are shown, the first indicated the date of receiving the award or title, and the second indicates the date of its loss or renunciation.


Raikes may refer to:

Members of the family founded by Robert Raikes the Elder:

Robert Raikes the Elder (1690-1757), British printer and newspaper proprietor

Robert Raikes (1736-1811), English promoter of Sunday Schools and philanthropist, eldest son of the above

Robert Napier Raikes (1813-1909), British soldier in India, grandson of the above

Cyril Raikes (1875-1963), British soldier, son of the above

Job Mathew Raikes (1767–1833) Governor of the Bank of England from 1801 to 1802

Thomas Raikes ("the Elder") (1741-1813), British banker, Governor of the Bank of England, third son of Robert Raikes the Elder

Thomas Raikes (dandy) ("the Younger") (1777-1848), British merchant banker, dandy and diarist, eldest son of the above

Harriet Raikes, novelist, daughter of the above

Henry Raikes (1782-1854), British clergyman, younger son of Thomas Raikes "the Elder"

Henry Cecil Raikes (1838-1891), British Conservative politician, son of the above

Sir Victor Raikes (1901-1986), British Conservative politician, grandson of the above

Dick Raikes (1912 – 2005) Royal Naval CommanderOthers:

Arthur Raikes (1867-1915), British army officer

Ernest Raikes, English cricketer

George Raikes (1873-1966), English cricketer and footballer, brother of Ernest Raikes

George Raikes (1873-1966), British sportsman

Sir Iwan Raikes (1921 – 2011) Vice-Admiral, Royal Navy officer who became Naval Secretary, son of Admiral Sir Robert Raikes.

Jeff Raikes (b. 1958), former chief executive officer of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and co-founder of the Raikes Foundation

Lucinda Raikes (b. 1975), British actress

Raymond Raikes (1910-1998), English radio classics director and producer

Sir Robert Raikes (Royal Navy officer) (1885–1953) Royal Navy officer

Robert Raikes (1765-1837), English banker

Robert Raikes (1683-1753), British Member of Parliament for Northallerton

Ron Raikes (1948-2009), farmer and Nebraska state senator

Thomas Raikes (cricketer) (1902-1984), English cricketer

Thomas Douglas Raikes, (1929- 2016), son of Admiral Sir Robert

Tricia Raikes, co-founder of the Raikes Foundation

Sir Frederick Currie, 1st Baronet

Sir Frederick Currie, 1st Baronet (3 February 1799 – 11 September 1875) was a British diplomat, who had a distinguished career in the British East India Company and the Indian Civil Service. His posts included Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, Member of the Supreme Council of India, Resident at Lahore and Chairman of the East India Company.He acted as an agent for the Governor-General, Sir Henry Hardinge, during the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-6 and was rewarded with a baronetcy in 1847 for his assistance in negotiating the Treaties of Lahore and Bhyrowal.

The Britannia's Fist Trilogy

The Britannia's Fist Trilogy is an alternate history series by Peter G. Tsouras about an Anglo-French intervention into the American Civil War in 1863 on the Confederate side as well as a Russian intervention on the Union side and the global repercussions of such a conflict. The first and second volumes, Britannia's Fist: From Civil War to World War and A Rainbow of Blood: the Union in Peril, were released relatively close together in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The final volume, Bayonets, Balloons & Ironclads: Britain and France take sides with the South, was released in 2015 and does not feature the extensive casualty reports seen in the first two novels.

Three-star rank

An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal.

NATO rank code Student officer OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6
Royal Navy O Cdt Mid SLt Lt Lt Cdr Cdr Capt Cdre RAdm VAdm Adm Adm of the Fleet
Royal Marines O Cdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj Lt Col Col Brig Maj-Gen Lt-Gen Gen Capt-Gen
Army O Cdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj Lt Col Col Brig Maj-Gen Lt-Gen Gen Fd Mshl
Royal Air Force Off Cdt / SO APO / Plt Off Fg Off Flt Lt Sqn Ldr Wg Cdr Gp Capt Air Cdre AVM Air Mshl Air Chf Mshl Mshl of the RAF


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