Vertical jump

A vertical jump or vertical leap is the act of raising one's center of mass higher in the vertical plane solely with the use of one's own muscles; it is a measure of how high an individual or athlete can elevate off the ground (jump) from a standstill.[1]


The vertical jump is divided into two different types:[2]

  • Standing Vertical Jump: This refers to a vertical jump done from a standstill with no steps being involved at all.[1]
  • Running vertical jump: This refers to a vertical jump after an approach or run to help add energy to the jump in an effort to improve on the standing vertical jump.[2]

In general, the standing vertical jump is the one that is used as an official measurement for athletes.[1]

Where vertical jump measurements are used

Vertical jump measurements are used primarily in athletic circles to measure performance. The most common sports in which one's vertical jump is measured are track and field, netball, basketball, football, and volleyball, but many sports measure their players' vertical jumping ability during physical examinations. In addition, single and multiple vertical jumps are occasionally used to assess muscular strength and anaerobic power in athletes.[3]


The simplest method to measure an athlete's vertical jump is to get the athlete to reach up against a flat wall, with a flat surface under his/her feet (such as a gym floor or concrete) and record the highest point he/she can reach flat-footed (the height of this point from the ground is referred to as "standing reach"); fingertips powdered with chalk can facilitate the determination of points touched on the wall. The athlete then makes an effort to jump up with the goal of touching the highest point on the wall that he or she can reach; the athlete can perform these jumps as many times as needed. The height of the highest point the athlete touches is recorded. The difference between this height and the standing reach is the athlete's vertical jump.

The method described above is the most common and simplest way to measure one's vertical jump, but other more scientifically accurate methods have been devised. A pressure pad can be used to measure the time it takes for an athlete to complete a jump, and then using a kinematics equation (h = g × t2/8),[4] the computer can calculate his or her vertical jump based on the time in the air.

A second, more efficient and correct method is to use an infrared laser placed at ground level. When an athlete jumps and breaks the plane of the laser with his/her hand, the height at which this occurs is measured. Devices based on United States Patent 5031903, "A vertical jump testing device comprising a plurality of vertically arranged measuring elements each pivotally mounted..." are also common. These devices are used at the highest levels of collegiate and professional performance testing. They are composed of several (roughly 70) 14-inch prongs placed 0.5 inches apart vertically. An athlete will then leap vertically (no running start or step) and make contact with the retractable prongs to mark their leaping ability. This device is used each year at the NFL scouting combine.


An important component of maximizing height in a vertical jump is attributed to the use of counter-movements of the legs and arm swings prior to take off, as both of these actions have been shown to significantly increase the body’s center of mass rise. The counter-movement of the legs, a quick bend of the knees which lowers the center of mass prior to springing upwards, has been shown to improve jump height by 12% compared to jumping without the counter-movement. This is attributed to the stretch shortening cycle of the leg muscles enabling the muscles to create more contractile energy. Furthermore, jump height can be increased another 10% by executing arm swings during the take off phase of the jump compared to if no arm swings are utilized. This involves lowering the arms distally and posteriorly during the leg counter-movements, and powerfully thrusting the arms up and over the head as the leg extension phase begins. As the arms complete the swinging movement they pull up on the lower body causing the lower musculature to contract more rapidly, hence aiding in greater jump height.[5] Despite these increases due to technical adjustments, it appears as if optimizing both the force producing and elastic properties of the musculotendinous system in the lower limbs is largely determined by genetics and partially mutable through resistance exercise training.[6][7]

Vertical jump and power output

Vertical jumps are used to both train and test for power output in athletes. Plyometrics are particularly effective in training for power output, and include vertical jumps of different types in their protocol. In one recent study, training with plyometrics (which included continuous vertical jumps) was shown to improve jump height and boost vertical jump performance to similar degrees in combination with very different resistance training protocols, indicating that the plyometric jumping contributed to the increased jump height more than resistance training. Research into plyometric jumps found vertical jumps to be among the highest in terms of muscle recruitment (as measured by electromyography), power output, and ground reaction force produced.[8][9][10] Fatigue has been researched in athletes for its effect on vertical jump performance, and found to decrease it in basketball players, tennis players, cyclists, rugby players, and healthy adults of both genders.[11][12][13]

Standing vertical jump norms

This is the vertical jump test scores by gender.[14]

Rating Males (cm) Males (in) Females (cm) Females (in)
Excellent >70 >28 >60 >24
Very good 61–70 24-28 51–60 20-24
Above average 51-60 20-23 41-50 16-19
Average 41-50 16-19 31-40 12-15
Below average 31-40 12-15 21-30 8-11
Poor 21-30 8-11 11-20 4-7
Very poor <21 <8 <11 <4


  1. ^ a b c "NFL Combine: Workouts and drills". Retrieved 2014-04-07.
  2. ^ a b Young, W; Wilson G; Byrne C (December 1999). "Relationship between strength qualities and performance in standing and run-up vertical jumps". J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 39 (4).
  3. ^ Ostojić SM, Stojanović M, Ahmetović Z (2010). "Vertical jump as a tool in assessment of muscular power and anaerobic performance". Med. Pregl. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 63 (5–6): 371–5. PMID 21186549. Muscular strength and anaerobic power could be assessed by single and multiple vertical jump testing procedures.
  4. ^ "Vertical jump exercises-Vertical jump program coaching-increasing vertical jump". Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  5. ^ Harman, E., Rosenstein, M., Frykman, P., Rosenstein, R. (1990). The Effects Of Arms And Countermovement On Vertical Jumping. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(6), 825–833.
  6. ^ "Physical Potential | Mark Rippetoe". Starting Strength. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  7. ^ "Force Matters". Barbell Medicine. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  8. ^ Beneka, A. G., Malliou, P.K., Missailidou, V., Chatzinikolaou, A., Fatouros, I., et al. (2012). Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise. Journal of sport sciences, 21, 1-9.
  9. ^ Ebben, W. P., Simenz, C., Jensen, R.L. (2008). Evaluation of plyometric intensity using electromyography. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 22(3), 861-868.
  10. ^ Ebben, W. P., Fauth, M.L., Garceau, L.R., Petrushek, E.J. (2011). Kinetic quantification of plyometric exercise intensity. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 25(12), 3288-3298.
  11. ^ Montgomery, P. G., Pyne, D.B., Hopkins, W.G., Dorman, J.C., Cook, K., Minahan, C.L. (2008). The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. Journal of sports sciences, 26(11), 1135-1145.
  12. ^ Girard, O., Lattier, G., Micallef, J., and Millet, G. (2006) Changes in exercise characteristics, maximal voluntary contraction, and explosive strength during prolonged tennis playing. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 40:521-526
  13. ^ Knicker, A. J., Renshaw, I., Oldham, A.R.H., Cairns, S.P. (2011). Interactive processes link the multiple symptoms of fatigue in sport competition. Sports Medicine, 41(4), 307-328.
  14. ^ Marc Briggs. (2013). Training for Soccer Players. Marlborough: The Crowood Press Ltd.
AFL Draft Combine

The AFL Draft Combine, formerly known as the AFL Draft Camp, is a gathering of prospective talent, where selected potential draftees display their athletic prowess and relevant Australian rules football skills. Over four days participants are required to undergo a series of medical, psychomotor, athletic and fitness tests as well as interviews conducted by the 18 clubs in the Australian Football League. The first AFL Draft Camp was held in 1994 at Waverley Park; in 1999 it moved to Canberra, where it was hosted by the Australian Institute of Sport, and in 2011 it was moved to Docklands Stadium. Each year the Draft Combine is held in the week following the AFL Grand Final.

Andrew Moore (Australian footballer)

Andrew Moore (born 30 May 1991) is an Australian rules footballer who currently plays for the Box Hill Hawks in the Victorian Football League (VFL). He previously played for Port Adelaide Football Club and Richmond Football Club in the Australian Football League (AFL).

Moore was one of three Port Adelaide players drafted in the first round in the 2009 AFL Draft, at selection nine.

He is a versatile midfielder/forward who is very capable overhead. He wins a lot of his own footy consistently and makes good decisions. A Vic Metro representative in 2009, he topped the running vertical jump with 85 cm at Draft Camp and also impressively scored 2.97 seconds for the 20m sprint and 14.1 in the beep test. He averaged 20 disposals at 74 percent efficiency for the Eastern Ranges in the TAC Cup in 2009. He attended Yarra Valley Grammar School, completing year 12 in 2009.He is the younger brother of Richmond's Kelvin Moore.Moore debuted in the opening round of the 2010 AFL season with four marks and 14 disposals against North Melbourne at AAMI Stadium.

In October 2015, Moore was delisted by Port Adelaide. He was recruited by Richmond as a delisted free agent in November.

He was delisted by Richmond at the conclusion of the 2016 season after playing five games for the club.On 8 December 2016, Moore joined the Box Hill Hawks in the VFL. He was named as an on-baller on the VFL's Team of the Year while playing for the club in 2017.

Ben Paton

Ben Paton (born 19 October 1998) is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for St Kilda in the Australian Football League (AFL).

Paton is from Tallangatta. In 2015, he played 18 games in the Tallangatta & District Football League for Mitta United aged 16, winning their best and fairest. Paton played for the Murray Bushrangers in the TAC Cup in 2016, and was in their losing grand final team. He also played for North Albury. Although eligible for the 2016 AFL draft, Paton was not invited to the AFL Draft Combine that year. In 2017, he returned to the Bushrangers and moved from the midfield to defence. Paton played for Vic Country in the 2017 AFL Under 18 Championships and was selected in the All-Australian side. He played two games in the Victorian Football League (VFL) for Collingwood. Paton tested at the 2017 AFL Draft Combine, recording the second-best running vertical jump of 99 centimetres (39 in). He also recorded the third-best standing vertical jump of 80 centimetres (31 in) and the sixth-best 20 m (66 ft) sprint with a time of 2.95 seconds. Paton was recruited by St Kilda with pick 46 in the 2017 national draft.In 2018, Paton played for St Kilda's VFL affiliate Sandringham. He suffered a thumb injury in a practice match against the Northern Blues; he was expected to miss about six weeks. Paton was named as an emergency 10 times before he was selected in the senior side against Essendon in round 21. On debut, he kicked one goal from a set shot. Coach Alan Richardson praised Paton after the match for his speed and foot skills. He signed a one-year contract extension, keeping him at St Kilda until 2020, after playing the remaining two matches of the season.Paton's father Steve played 190 games for North Albury and captained the club for six seasons.

CFL Combine

The CFL Combine (formerly known as the Evaluation Camp or E-Camp) is a three-day program in which athletes from Canadian universities and Canadians in the NCAA are scouted by general managers, coaches and scouts of the Canadian Football League (CFL). The goal of the camp is for the nine CFL franchises to have a better idea of whom they would like to draft in the CFL draft which usually takes place roughly six weeks after the camp. The first combined Evaluation Camp took place in 2000 in Toronto and continued every year in Toronto until 2016 when it was announced that Regina, Saskatchewan would host the combine in 2017. It was also suggested that the league will begin rotating the Combine hosts every year. Winnipeg hosted in 2018 and the event returned to Toronto with the hiatus of the CFL Week event.

Since 2014, there have been regional combines in Western Canada, Montreal and Toronto in the week prior to the national combine. The regional combines provide a wider scope of athletes with the opportunity to be evaluated by CFL personnel. Players are then selected from these combines to participate in the National Combine to compete with athletes already invited there. The most recent combine, the 2019 National Combine took place from March 22 to March 24, 2019.

Darrell Hill (American football)

Darrell Frederick Hill (born June 19, 1979) is a former American football wide receiver in the National Football League for the Tennessee Titans and the Kansas City Chiefs. He played college football at Northern Illinois University. He wore number 80. Hill possesses a 4.2 time in the 40-yard dash and a 44-inch vertical jump.

David Gourdis

David Gourdis (born 14 March 1989) was an Australian rules football player for the Richmond Football Club. He was overlooked at the 2007 AFL Draft, despite ranking no.1 in the 20m sprint (2.3 sec), and ranked no.1 in the running vertical jump (101 cm), at the AFL Draft Camp in Canberra.

The same year in December 2007, the Richmond Football Club selected Gourdis with their number 1 pick in the 2007 Pre-Season Draft. He played his junior years at the Carine Junior Football Club

After being delisted by Richmond at the end of the 2008 season he was re-drafted by Richmond in the 2008 AFL Rookie Draft.

He made his AFL debut in Round 20 of the 2010 season against Carlton at the MCG on 14 August.

On 30 November 2011 he was delisted by the Richmond Football Club.

DeAndrew Rubin

DeAndrew Tarjo Rubin (born October 8, 1978) is a former American football wide receiver and defensive back. Rubin attended Dixie Hollins High School in Saint Petersburg, Florida and the University of South Florida and was a starting receiver after being redshirted in 1999. He places on USF's career leaderboard in receiving touchdowns.

After running a 4.42 in the 40-yard dash and showing off a 35½-inch vertical jump, Rubin was drafted by the Green Bay Packers in the seventh round of the 2003 NFL Draft.

Rubin never played in a regular season NFL game. Upon being released by the Packers in 2003, Rubin was signed and attended training camp with the Indianapolis Colts in 2004, but was waived before the regular season began. Rubin then went to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2005, and was signed to their practice squad. Rubin also played in NFL Europe in 2004.

In his rookie season with the Predators, Rubin caught 46 passes for 588 yards and ten touchdowns in 2006, while also making 17.5 tackles and one sack. In his first game with the Storm, Rubin caught 5 touchdown passes and had more than 150 receiving yards.

Isaac Yiadom

Isaac Yiadom (born February 20, 1996) is an American football cornerback for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League (NFL). A graduate of Doherty Memorial High School in Worcester, Massachusetts, he played college football at Boston College.

Jordan Leggett

Jordan Kristopher Leggett (born January 31, 1995) is an American football tight end for the New York Jets of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Clemson.

Leonel Marshall Jr.

Leonel Marshall Borges Jr. (born September 25, 1979) is a Cuban professional volleyball player. He is an outside hitter, and is well known for his outstanding vertical jump. He played for M. Roma Volley and Pallavolo Piacenza in Italy and currently plays for LPR Piacenza where he wears number 7. He was the youngest member of the Cuban men's indoor volleyball team at the 2000 Olympics, which placed seventh.

He is son of retired Cuban volleyball player Leonel Marshall Sr. who competed in the 1976 Summer Olympics and in the 1980 Summer Olympics. He escaped from Cuba, and now cannot play for his national team. Marshall Incredible jump 383cm.

Leonel Marshall Sr.

Leonel Marshall Steward Sr. (born July 31, 1954) is a Cuban former volleyball player who competed in the 1976 Summer Olympics and in the 1980 Summer Olympics.

In 1976 he was part of the Cuban team which won the bronze medal in the Olympic tournament. He played all six matches.

Four years later he finished seventh with the Cuban team in the 1980 Olympic tournament. He played all six matches again.

His son, also a professional volleyball player and also named Leonel Marshall Jr., is well known for his outstanding vertical jump.

Magaly Carvajal

Magalys Carvajal Rivera (born December 18, 1968) is a Cuban Volleyball Player, World champion and Olympic champion. She led Cuba to Olympic Gold Medals in the 1992 Barcelona and 1996 Atlanta Games. She also helped Cuba to win the World Gold Medal in 1994.

She has been called the greatest middle blocker to ever play the sport of women's volleyball, standing at 6' 3" tall. Known for shutting down the greatest hitters in the world. Her vertical jump (11 feet) is rivaled only by teammate Mireya Luis. Her stare is known to intimidate any player at the net, and has been called by many of her peers "the look of death". She was a dominant blocker and hitter in the world during her time as a starter for the Cuban National Team.

Magaly is still an active player in 2009 for Ciudad Las Palmas G.C. Cantur in Spain, where she is one of the best attackers and blockers being elected MVP and "best 7" several times.

In 2013/14 she plays for CV IBSA ACE Gran Canaria 2014 and is one of the Top Scorers in

the first Spanish league. Her Team finished 3rd and Magaly was 2nd best scorer of the league after MVP Daniela da Silva with 438 points to 440 and a 44,42% success in attack (10th - 15th da Silva has 42,30%). Magaly was 4th best blocker.

Mike Mamula

Michael Brian Mamula (born August 14, 1973) is a former professional American football player who was selected by the Philadelphia Eagles in the first round (seventh overall) of the 1995 NFL Draft. He played college football at Boston College.

NBA Draft Combine

The NBA Draft Combine is a multi-day showcase that takes place every May before the annual June NBA draft. At the combine, college basketball players are measured and take medical tests, are interviewed, perform various athletic tests and shooting drills, and play in five-on-five drills for an audience of National Basketball Association (NBA) coaches, general managers, and scouts. Athletes attend by invitation only. An athlete's performance during the combine can affect perception, draft status, salary, and ultimately the player's career.

The athletic tests include a standing vertical jump, maximum vertical jump, bench press, three-quarter-court sprint time, lane agility time, and modified event time. Physical measurements include height with shoes, height without shoes, wingspan, weight, standing reach, body fat, hand length, and hand width. The shooting tests include spot-up three-point field goals from various distances (high school, college, and NBA) depending upon position, shooting off the dribble, and timed jump shots on the move. Although the NBA Draft Combine is the largest pre-draft gathering for testing and drills, international players can attend a separate Eurocamp at a later date. Parts of the combine are televised on ESPNU and ESPN2.In 2013, Rudy Gobert set the Combine records for wingspan 7 feet 8.5 inches (2.35 m) and standing reach 9 feet 7 inches (2.92 m). Those records would later be broken in 2018 by Mohamed Bamba. D. J. Stephens set the vertical leap record in 2013 at 46 inches (1.17 m). Combine results may or may not affect draft position, depending on certain results from it. Supposedly, medical test results caused Jared Sullinger to fall to No. 21 in 2012, while Kevin Durant was drafted No. 2 despite not being able to do a single repetition on the 185-pound (84 kg) bench press. Durant is not alone; Jamal Crawford, Monta Ellis, T. J. Ford, and Luke Ridnour are among the zero-rep producers. The record is 27 reps by Jason Keep in 2003. Most recently, in 2016, Tyler Ulis set the Combine record for being the lightest player to record his weight at the event, being set at 149 pounds. The heaviest players recorded at the Combine were Dexter Pittman back in 2010 and Isaac Haas in 2018, both of whom were set at 303 pounds.The invitation list is determined by a vote of the member teams of the NBA. In 2013, 63 players were invited. 60 players were invited in 2014. The vast majority of players receiving invitations attend. In 2014, the top three candidates (Jabari Parker, Andrew Wiggins and Joel Embiid) declined invitations and a few others (such as Mitch McGary and Adreian Payne) declined after receiving them or at least declined full participation, but 59 participants were expected. Each team is allowed a maximum of 18 official interviews during the combine.Beginning in 2010, a D-League elite mini camp lasting two days preceded the Combine. Beginning in 2016, players could enter the draft and participate in the combine multiple times.

Orlando Brown Jr.

Orlando Claude Brown Jr. (born May 2, 1996) is an American football offensive tackle for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Oklahoma, and was drafted by the Ravens in the third round of the 2018 NFL Draft. Brown is the son of the late offensive tackle Orlando Brown, who also played for the Ravens.

Robert Horstink

Robert Horstink (born December 26, 1981 in Twello, Gelderland) is a volleyball player from the Netherlands, who represented his native country at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. There he ended up in ninth place with the Dutch Men's National Team.

He mainly plays as an outside hitter and is known for his vertical jump, his cocky attitude, and his powerful backrow attacks.

Robert Martin (basketball)

Robert Martin (born January 6, 1973), better known by his nickname "50", is a streetball player whose fame rose during his years on the AND1 Mixtape Tour. He is 6'8" tall and weighs 210 lbs. He was given the name "50" because people said he has a 50-inch vertical jump.

Martin, born and raised in Atlanta, Georgia, graduated from Tri-Cities High School in 1991. He attended Middle Georgia College from 1991 to 1993 before transferring to High Point College (now High Point University).

In 1995, he joined the Atlanta Trojans of the USBL. From 1995 to 1998 he played in Europe, then in 1998 he played for the Rochester Skeeters of the IBA. In 2001, Martin was offered on a spot on the AND1 Tour. Martin is the cousin of NBA player Kenyon Martin.

SPARQ Training

Nike SPARQ is the name used under a marketing relationship between Nike and SPARQ, under which Nike sells a line of cross training footwear, apparel and equipment in the USA.SPARQ was started in 2004 to create a standardized test for athleticism called the SPARQ Rating and to sell training equipment and methods to help improve athleticism focused on the high school athlete (a "SAT" for athletes). 'SPARQ' is an acronym it stands for: Speed, Power, Agility, Reaction and Quickness.SPARQ's headquarters was in Portland, Oregon, with a distribution center in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, until its sale to Nike in 2009 (Nike kept the distribution center open in Oconomowoc until March 2010). After the purchase, both the headquarters and distribution center were incorporated into Nike's operations.

SPARQ's business is focused on the rating system and selling advanced functional fitness training equipment. The company does not own any training facilities or have any one specific training method. They provide training videos and tips from a number of top speed, strength and conditioning coaches on their website. SPARQ developed a training network made up of over 750 SPARQ Certified Trainers located throughout the country who are both independent coaches and trainers at chain performance centers. Some of the more well-known independent facilities include TopSpeed Strength & Conditioning in Kansas City, the Michael Johnson Performance Center in Dallas and Athletic Evolution in Massachusetts. National training companies include CATZ (the Competitive Athlete Training Zone) and Velocity Sports Performance. SPARQ has formed a broad, non-exclusive partnership with Velocity Sports Performance to provide certified SPARQ Testing at all of their centers.

Wei Jian Hong

Hong Wei Jian (Chinese: 洪伟健; pinyin: Hóng Wěijiàn; born August 20, 1985) is a Singapore basketball player who plays for the Singapore Slingers. Known for his 39-inch (99 cm) vertical jump, he goes by the nickname of "Flyboy" on the court. He is arguably the best player amongst the locals.

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