Vertebrate

Vertebrates /ˈvɜːrtɪbrɪts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata /-eɪ/ (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,276 species described.[4] Vertebrates include the jawless fishes and jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish) and the bony fishes. The bony fishes in turn, cladistically speaking, also include the tetrapods, which include amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns.

The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not have proper vertebrae due to their loss in evolution,[5] though their closest living relatives, the lampreys, do.[6] Hagfish do, however, possess a cranium. For this reason, the vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata" when discussing morphology.

Molecular analysis since 1992 has suggested that hagfish are most closely related to lampreys,[7] and so also are vertebrates in a monophyletic sense. Others consider them a sister group of vertebrates in the common taxon of craniata.[8]

Vertebrate
Temporal range:
CambrianPresent,[1] 520–0 Ma[2]
Vertebrates
Individual organisms from each major vertebrate group. Clockwise, starting from top left:

Fire salamander (Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Olfactores
Subphylum: Vertebrata
J-B. Lamarck, 1801[3]
Simplified grouping (see text)
Synonyms

Ossea Batsch, 1788[3]

Etymology

The word vertebrate derives from the Latin word vertebratus (Pliny), meaning joint of the spine.[9]

Vertebrate is derived from the word vertebra, which refers to any of the bones or segments of the spinal column.[10]

Anatomy and morphology

All vertebrates are built along the basic chordate body plan: a stiff rod running through the length of the animal (vertebral column and/or notochord),[11] with a hollow tube of nervous tissue (the spinal cord) above it and the gastrointestinal tract below.

In all vertebrates, the mouth is found at, or right below, the anterior end of the animal, while the anus opens to the exterior before the end of the body. The remaining part of the body continuing after the anus forms a tail with vertebrae and spinal cord, but no gut.[12]

Vertebral column

The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column, in which the notochord (a stiff rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of stiffer elements (vertebrae) separated by mobile joints (intervertebral discs, derived embryonically and evolutionarily from the notochord).

However, a few vertebrates have secondarily lost this anatomy, retaining the notochord into adulthood, such as the sturgeon[13] and coelacanth. Jawed vertebrates are typified by paired appendages (fins or legs, which may be secondarily lost), but this trait is not required in order for an animal to be a vertebrate.

Naturkundemuseum Berlin - Dinosaurierhalle
Fossilized skeleton of Diplodocus carnegii, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates.

Gills

Gills (esox)
Gill arches bearing gills in a pike

All basal vertebrates breathe with gills. The gills are carried right behind the head, bordering the posterior margins of a series of openings from the pharynx to the exterior. Each gill is supported by a cartilagenous or bony gill arch.[14] The bony fish have three pairs of arches, cartilaginous fish have five to seven pairs, while the primitive jawless fish have seven. The vertebrate ancestor no doubt had more arches than this, as some of their chordate relatives have more than 50 pairs of gills.[12]

In amphibians and some primitive bony fishes, the larvae bear external gills, branching off from the gill arches.[15] These are reduced in adulthood, their function taken over by the gills proper in fishes and by lungs in most amphibians. Some amphibians retain the external larval gills in adulthood, the complex internal gill system as seen in fish apparently being irrevocably lost very early in the evolution of tetrapods.[16]

While the more derived vertebrates lack gills, the gill arches form during fetal development, and form the basis of essential structures such as jaws, the thyroid gland, the larynx, the columella (corresponding to the stapes in mammals) and, in mammals, the malleus and incus.[12]

Central nervous system

The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the length of the animal. Of particular importance and unique to vertebrates is the presence of neural crest cells. These are progenitors of stem cells, and critical to coordinating the functions of cellular components.[17] Neural crest cells migrate through the body from the nerve cord during development, and initiate the formation of neural ganglia and structures such as the jaws and skull.[18][19][20]

The vertebrates are the only chordate group to exhibit cephalisation, the concentration of brain functions in the head. A slight swelling of the anterior end of the nerve cord is found in the lancelet, a chordate, though it lacks the eyes and other complex sense organs comparable to those of vertebrates. Other chordates do not show any trends towards cephalisation.[12]

A peripheral nervous system branches out from the nerve cord to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube is expanded by a thickening of the walls and expansion of the central canal of spinal cord into three primary brain vesicles: The prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain) and rhombencephalon (hindbrain), further differentiated in the various vertebrate groups.[21] Two laterally placed eyes form around outgrowths from the midbrain, except in hagfish, though this may be a secondary loss.[22][23] The forebrain is well developed and subdivided in most tetrapods, while the midbrain dominates in many fish and some salamanders. Vesicles of the forebrain are usually paired, giving rise to hemispheres like the cerebral hemispheres in mammals.[21]

The resulting anatomy of the central nervous system, with a single hollow nerve cord topped by a series of (often paired) vesicles, is unique to vertebrates. All invertebrates with well-developed brains, such as insects, spiders and squids, have a ventral rather than dorsal system of ganglions, with a split brain stem running on each side of the mouth or gut.[12]

Evolutionary history

First vertebrates

Haikouichthys cropped
The early vertebrate Haikouichthys

Vertebrates originated about 525 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion, which saw the rise in organism diversity. The earliest known vertebrate is believed to be the Myllokunmingia.[1] Another early vertebrate is Haikouichthys ercaicunensis. Unlike the other fauna that dominated the Cambrian, these groups had the basic vertebrate body plan: a notochord, rudimentary vertebrae, and a well-defined head and tail.[24] All of these early vertebrates lacked jaws in the common sense and relied on filter feeding close to the seabed.[25] A vertebrate group of uncertain phylogeny, small-eel-like conodonts, are known from microfossils of their paired tooth segments from the late Cambrian to the end of the Triassic.[26]

From fish to amphibians

Acanthostega BW
Acanthostega, a fish-like early labyrinthodont.

The first jawed vertebrates appeared in the latest Ordovician and became common in the Devonian, often known as the "Age of Fishes".[27] The two groups of bony fishes, the actinopterygii and sarcopterygii, evolved and became common.[28] The Devonian also saw the demise of virtually all jawless fishes, save for lampreys and hagfish, as well as the Placodermi, a group of armoured fish that dominated the entirety of that period since the late Silurian. The Devonian also saw the rise of the first labyrinthodonts, which was a transitional form between fishes and amphibians.

Mesozoic vertebrates

Amniotes branched from labyrinthodonts in the subsequent Carboniferous period. The Parareptilia and synapsid amniotes were common during the late Paleozoic, while diapsids became dominant during the Mesozoic. In the sea, the bony fishes became dominant; the birds, a derived form of dinosaurs, evolved in the Jurassic.[29] The demise of the non-avian dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous allowed for the expansion of mammals, which had evolved from the therapsids, a group of synapsid amniotes, during the late Triassic Period.

After the Mesozoic

The Cenozoic world has seen great diversification of bony fishes, frogs, birds and mammals.

Over half of all living vertebrate species (about 32,000 species) are fish (non-tetrapod craniates), a diverse set of lineages that inhabit all the world's aquatic ecosystems, from snow minnows (Cypriniformes) in Himalayan lakes at elevations over 4,600 metres (15,100 feet) to flatfishes (order Pleuronectiformes) in the Challenger Deep, the deepest ocean trench at about 11,000 metres (36,000 feet). Fishes of myriad varieties are the main predators in most of the world's water bodies, both freshwater and marine. The rest of the vertebrate species are tetrapods, a single lineage that includes amphibians (with roughly 7,000 species); mammals (with approximately 5,500 species); and reptiles and birds (with about 20,000 species divided evenly between the two classes). Tetrapods comprise the dominant megafauna of most terrestrial environments and also include many partially or fully aquatic groups (e.g., sea snakes, penguins, cetaceans).

Classification

There are several ways of classifying animals. Evolutionary systematics relies on anatomy, physiology and evolutionary history, which is determined through similarities in anatomy and, if possible, the genetics of organisms. Phylogenetic classification is based solely on phylogeny.[30] Evolutionary systematics gives an overview; phylogenetic systematics gives detail. The two systems are thus complementary rather than opposed.[31]

Traditional classification

Spindle diagram
Traditional spindle diagram of the evolution of the vertebrates at class level

Conventional classification has living vertebrates grouped into seven classes based on traditional interpretations of gross anatomical and physiological traits. This classification is the one most commonly encountered in school textbooks, overviews, non-specialist, and popular works. The extant vertebrates are:[12]

In addition to these, there are two classes of extinct armoured fishes, the Placodermi and the Acanthodii.

Other ways of classifying the vertebrates have been devised, particularly with emphasis on the phylogeny of early amphibians and reptiles. An example based on Janvier (1981, 1997), Shu et al. (2003), and Benton (2004)[32] is given here:

While this traditional classification is orderly, most of the groups are paraphyletic, i.e. do not contain all descendants of the class's common ancestor.[32] For instance, descendants of the first reptiles include modern reptiles, as well as mammals and birds. Most of the classes listed are not "complete" (and are therefore paraphyletic) taxa, meaning they do not include all the descendants of the first representative of the group. For example, the agnathans have given rise to the jawed vertebrates; the bony fishes have given rise to the land vertebrates; the traditional "amphibians" have given rise to the reptiles (traditionally including the synapsids, or mammal-like "reptiles"), which in turn have given rise to the mammals and birds. Most scientists working with vertebrates use a classification based purely on phylogeny, organized by their known evolutionary history and sometimes disregarding the conventional interpretations of their anatomy and physiology.

Phylogenetic relationships

In phylogenetic taxonomy, the relationships between animals are not typically divided into ranks, but illustrated as a nested "family tree" known as a phylogenetic tree. The one below is based on studies compiled by Philippe Janvier and others for the Tree of Life Web Project and Delsuc et al.[33][34]

Vertebrata/
Agnatha/

Hyperoartia (lampreys)Nejonöga, Iduns kokbok

Myxini

Cyclostomes

?†Euconodonta

unnamed

PteraspidomorphiAstraspis desiderata.png

?†ThelodontiSphenonectris turnernae white background.jpg

unnamed

?†AnaspidaPharyngolepis2.png

unnamed

Galeaspida

unnamed

?†Pituriaspida

Osteostraci

Gnathostomata

Placodermi (armoured fishes)Dunkleosteus intermedius

unnamed

Acanthodians, incl. Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)Acanthodes BWCarcharodon carcharias drawing

Euteleostomi

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)Cyprinus carpio3

Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)

?†OnychodontiformesOnychodusDB15 flipped

Actinistia (coelacanths)Coelacanth flipped

unnamed

PorolepiformesReconstruction of Porolepis sp flipped

Dipnoi (lungfishes)Barramunda coloured

unnamed

RhizodontimorphaGooloogongia loomesi reconstruction

TristichopteridaeEusthenodon DB15 flipped

TetrapodaDeutschlands Amphibien und Reptilien (Salamandra salamdra)

Craniata

Number of extant species

The number of described vertebrate species are split evenly between tetrapods and fish. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each vertebrate class as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3.[35]

Vertebrate groups Image Class Estimated number of
described species[35]
Group
totals[35]
Anamniote

lack
amniotic
membrane

so need to
reproduce
in water
Jawless Fish Eptatretus polytrema Myxini
(hagfish)
32,900
Eudontomyzon danfordi Tiszai ingola Hyperoartia
(lamprey)
Jawed Shark fish chondrichthyes cartilaginous
fish
Carassius wild golden fish 2013 G1 ray-finned
fish
Coelacanth-bgiu lobe-finned
fish
Tetrapods Lithobates pipiens amphibians 7,302 33,278
Amniote

have
amniotic
membrane

adapted to
reproducing
on land
Florida Box Turtle Digon3 reptiles 10,711
Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) 2 birds 10,425
Squirrel (PSF) mammals 5,513
Total described species 66,178

The IUCN estimates that 1,305,075 extant invertebrate species have been described,[35] which means that less than 5% of the described animal species in the world are vertebrates.

Vertebrate species databases

The following databases maintain (more or less) up-to-date lists of vertebrate species:

Reproductive systems

Nearly all vertebrates undergo sexual reproduction. They produce haploid gametes by meiosis. The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova. These fuse by the process of fertilisation to form diploid zygotes, which develop into new individuals.

Inbreeding

During sexual reproduction, mating with a close relative (inbreeding) often leads to inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is considered to be largely due to expression of deleterious recessive mutations.[36] The effects of inbreeding have been studied in many vertebrate species.

In several species of fish, inbreeding was found to decrease reproductive success.[37][38][39]

Inbreeding was observed to increase juvenile mortality in 11 small animal species.[40]

A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g. between half- and full siblings).[41] This practice generally has a negative effect on measures of reproductive success, including decreased litter size and puppy survival.[42][43][44]

Incestuous matings in birds result in severe fitness costs due to inbreeding depression (e.g. reduction in hatchability of eggs and reduced progeny survival).[45][46][47]

Inbreeding avoidance

As a result of the negative fitness consequences of inbreeding, vertebrate species have evolved mechanisms to avoid inbreeding. Numerous inbreeding avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating have been described.

Toads and many other amphibians display breeding site fidelity. Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will likely encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings rarely mate.[48] These toads likely recognize and actively avoid close kins as mates. Advertisement vocalizations by males appear to serve as cues by which females recognize their kin.[48]

Inbreeding avoidance mechanisms can also operate subsequent to copulation. In guppies, a post-copulatory mechanism of inbreeding avoidance occurs based on competition between sperm of rival males for achieving fertilization.[49] In competitions between sperm from an unrelated male and from a full sibling male, a significant bias in paternity towards the unrelated male was observed.[49]

When female sand lizards mate with two or more males, sperm competition within the female's reproductive tract may occur. Active selection of sperm by females appears to occur in a manner that enhances female fitness.[50] On the basis of this selective process, the sperm of males that are more distantly related to the female are preferentially used for fertilization, rather than the sperm of close relatives.[50] This preference may enhance the fitness of progeny by reducing inbreeding depression.

Outcrossing

Mating with unrelated or distantly related members of the same species is generally thought to provide the advantage of masking deleterious recessive mutations in progeny[51] (and see Heterosis). Vertebrates have evolved numerous diverse mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding and promoting outcrossing[52] (and see Inbreeding avoidance).

Outcrossing as a way of avoiding inbreeding depression, has been especially well studied in birds. For instance, inbreeding depression occurs in the great tit when the offspring are produced as a result of a mating between close relatives. In natural populations of the great tit (Parus major), inbreeding is avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.[53]

The purple-crowned fairywren females paired with related males may undertake extra-pair matings that can reduce the negative effects of inbreeding, despite ecological and demographic constraints. [47]

Southern pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways. The first is through dispersal, and the second is by avoiding familiar group members as mates.[54] Although both males and females disperse locally, they move outside the range where genetically related individuals are likely to be encountered. Within their group, individuals only acquire breeding positions when the opposite-sex breeder is unrelated.

Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin.[55] Female offspring rarely stay at home, dispersing over distances that allow them to breed independently, or to join unrelated groups.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

Reproduction in squamate reptiles is ordinarily sexual, with males having a ZZ pair of sex determining chromosomes, and females a ZW pair. However, various species, including the Colombian Rainbow boa (Epicrates maurus), Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead snake) and Agkistrodon piscivorus (cotton mouth snake) can also reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis -that is, they are capable of switching from a sexual mode of reproduction to an asexual mode- resulting in production of WW female progeny.[56][57] The WW females are likely produced by terminal automixis.

Mole salamanders are an ancient (2.4-3.8 million year-old) unisexual vertebrate lineage.[58] In the polyploid unisexual mole salamander females, a premeiotic endomitotic event doubles the number of chromosomes. As a result, the mature eggs produced subsequent to the two meiotic divisions have the same ploidy as the somatic cells of the female salamander. Synapsis and recombination during meiotic prophase I in these unisexual females is thought to ordinarily occur between identical sister chromosomes and occasionally between homologous chromosomes. Thus little, if any, genetic variation is produced. Recombination between homeologous chromosomes occurs only rarely, if at all.[59] Since production of genetic variation is weak, at best, it is unlikely to provide a benefit sufficient to account for the long-term maintenance of meiosis in these organisms. However, meiosis may have been maintained during evolution by the efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages that meiosis provides, an advantage that could be realized at each generation.[60]

Self-fertilization

The mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) produces both eggs and sperm by meiosis and routinely reproduces by self-fertilisation. The capacity for selfing in these fishes has apparently persisted for at least several hundred thousand years.[61] Each individual hermaphrodite normally fertilizes itself when an egg and sperm that it has produced by an internal organ unite inside the fish's body.[62] In nature, this mode of reproduction can yield highly homozygous lines composed of individuals so genetically uniform as to be, in effect, identical to one another.[63][64] Although inbreeding, especially in the extreme form of self-fertilization, is ordinarily regarded as detrimental because it leads to expression of deleterious recessive alleles, self-fertilization does provide the benefit of fertilization assurance (reproductive assurance) at each generation.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Shu; et al. (4 November 1999). "Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China". Nature. 402 (6757): 42–46. Bibcode:1999Natur.402...42S. doi:10.1038/46965.
  2. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.; Cotton, James A.; Gehling, James G.; Pisani, Davide (27 April 2008). "The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1435–1443. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233. PMC 2614224. PMID 18192191.
  3. ^ a b Nielsen, C. (July 2012). "The authorship of higher chordate taxa". Zoologica Scripta. 41 (4): 435–436. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00536.x.
  4. ^ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Table 1: Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996–2018), http://cmsdocs.s3.amazonaws.com/summarystats/2018-1_Summary_Stats_Page_Documents/2018_1_RL_Stats_Table_1.pdf
  5. ^ Ota, Kinya G.; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru (25 January 2017). "Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish". Nature Communications. 2: 373. Bibcode:2011NatCo...2E.373O. doi:10.1038/ncomms1355. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 3157150. PMID 21712821.
  6. ^ Kuraku; et al. (December 1999). "Monophyly of Lampreys and Hagfishes Supported by Nuclear DNA–Coded Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (6): 729–35. Bibcode:1999JMolE..49..729K. doi:10.1007/PL00006595. PMID 10594174.
  7. ^ Stock, D.; Whitt, G.S. (7 August 1992). "Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences that lampreys and hagfish form a natural group". Science. 257 (5071): 787–9. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..787S. doi:10.1126/science.1496398. PMID 1496398.
  8. ^ Nicholls, H. (10 September 2009). "Mouth to Mouth". Nature. 461 (7261): 164–166. doi:10.1038/461164a. PMID 19741680.
  9. ^ "vertebrate". Online Etymology Dictionary. Dictionary.com.
  10. ^ "vertebra". Online Etymology Dictionary. Dictionary.com.
  11. ^ Waggoner, Ben. "Vertebrates: More on Morphology". UCMP. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Romer, A.S. (1949): The Vertebrate Body. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. (2nd ed. 1955; 3rd ed. 1962; 4th ed. 1970)
  13. ^ Liem, K.F.; Walker, W.F. (2001). Functional anatomy of the vertebrates: an evolutionary perspective. Harcourt College Publishers. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-03-022369-3.
  14. ^ Scott, T. (1996). Concise encyclopedia biology. Walter de Gruyter. p. 542. ISBN 978-3-11-010661-9.
  15. ^ Szarski, Henryk (1957). "The Origin of the Larva and Metamorphosis in Amphibia". The American Naturalist. 91 (860): 283–301. doi:10.1086/281990. JSTOR 2458911.
  16. ^ Clack, J. A. (2002): Gaining ground: the origin and evolution of tetrapods. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. 369 pp
  17. ^ Teng, L.; Labosky, P. A. (2006). "Neural crest stem cells" In: Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet, Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation, pp. 206-212, Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387469546.
  18. ^ Gans, C.; Northcutt, R. G. (1983). "Neural crest and the origin of vertebrates: a new head". Science. 220 (4594): 268–273. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..268G. doi:10.1126/science.220.4594.268. PMID 17732898.
  19. ^ Bronner, M. E.; LeDouarin, N. M. (1 June 2012). "Evolution and development of the neural crest: An overview". Developmental Biology. 366 (1): 2–9. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.12.042. PMC 3351559. PMID 22230617.
  20. ^ Dupin, E.; Creuzet, S.; Le Douarin, N.M. (2007) "The Contribution of the Neural Crest to the Vertebrate Body". In: Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet, Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation, pp. 96–119, Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387469546. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-46954-6_6. Full text
  21. ^ a b Hildebrand, M.; Gonslow, G. (2001): Analysis of Vertebrate Structure. 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York
  22. ^ "Keeping an eye on evolution". PhysOrg.com. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
  23. ^ Hyperotreti - Hagfishes
  24. ^ Waggoner, B. "Vertebrates: Fossil Record". UCMP. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  25. ^ Tim Haines, T.; Chambers, P. (2005). The Complete Guide to Prehistoric Life. Firefly Books.
  26. ^ Donoghue, P. C. J.; Forey, P. L.; Aldridge, R. J. (May 2000). "Conodont affinity and chordate phylogeny". Biological Reviews. 75 (2): 191–251. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1999.tb00045.x. PMID 10881388.
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 17. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1954. p. 107.
  28. ^ Berg, L.R.; Solomon, E.P.; Martin, D.W. (2004). Biology. Cengage Learning. p. 599. ISBN 978-0-534-49276-2.
  29. ^ Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (2005). Ecology and behaviour of Mesozoic reptiles. 9783540224211: Springer. p. 6.
  30. ^ Andersen, N.M.; Weir, T.A. (2004). Australian water bugs: their biology and identification (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha). Apollo Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-87-88757-78-1.
  31. ^ Hildebran, M.; Gonslow, G. (2001): Analysis of Vertebrate Structure. 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, page 33: Comment: The problem of naming sister groups
  32. ^ a b Benton, M.J. (1 November 2004). Vertebrate Palaeontology (Third ed.). Blackwell Publishing. pp. 33, 455 pp. ISBN 978-0632056378.
  33. ^ Janvier, P. 1997. Vertebrata. Animals with backbones. Version 1 January 1997 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Vertebrata/14829/1997.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  34. ^ Delsuc F, Philippe H, Tsagkogeorga G, Simion P, Tilak MK, Turon X, López-Legentil S, Piette J, Lemaire P, Douzery EJ (April 2018). "A phylogenomic framework and timescale for comparative studies of tunicates". BMC Biology. 16 (1): 39. doi:10.1186/s12915-018-0499-2. PMC 5899321. PMID 29653534.
  35. ^ a b c d The World Conservation Union. 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3. Summary Statistics for Globally Threatened Species. Table 1: Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996–2014).
  36. ^ Charlesworth, D.; Willis, J.H. (November 2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783–796. doi:10.1038/nrg2664. PMID 19834483.
  37. ^ Gallardo, J.A.; Neira, R. (July 2005). "Environmental dependence of inbreeding depression in cultured Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): aggressiveness, dominance and intraspecific competition". Heredity (Edinb). 95 (6): 449–56. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800741. PMID 16189545.
  38. ^ Ala-Honkola, O.; Uddström, A.; Pauli, B.D.; Lindström, K. (2009). "Strong inbreeding depression in male mating behaviour in a poeciliid fish". J. Evol. Biol. 22 (7): 1396–1406. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01765.x. PMID 19486236.
  39. ^ Bickley, L.K.; Brown, A.R.; Hosken, D.J.; Hamilton, P.B.; Le Page, G.; Paull, G.C.; Owen, S.F.; Tyler, C.R. (February 2013). "Interactive effects of inbreeding and endocrine disruption on reproduction in a model laboratory fish". Evol Appl. 6 (2): 279–289. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00288.x. PMC 3689353. PMID 23798977.
  40. ^ Ralls, K.; Ballou, J. (1982). "Effect of inbreeding on juvenile mortality in some small mammal species". Lab. Anim. 16 (2): 159–66. doi:10.1258/002367782781110151. PMID 7043080.
  41. ^ Leroy, G. (August 2011). "Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses". Vet. J. 189 (2): 177–182. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.016. PMID 21737321.
  42. ^ van der Beek, S.; Nielen, A.L.; Schukken, Y.H.; Brascamp, E.W. (1999). "Evaluation of genetic, common-litter, and within-litter effects on preweaning mortality in a birth cohort of puppies". Am. J. Vet. Res. 60 (9): 1106–10. PMID 10490080.
  43. ^ Gresky, C.; Hamann, H.; Distl, O. (2005). "[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of stillborn puppies in dachshunds]". Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (in German). 118 (3–4): 134–9. PMID 15803761.
  44. ^ Leroy, G.; Phocas, F.; Hedan, B.; Verrier, E.; Rognon, X. (2015). "Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds" (PDF). Vet. J. 203 (1): 74–8. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.008. PMID 25475165.
  45. ^ Keller, L.F.; Grant, P.R.; Grant, B.R.; Petren, K. (2002). "Environmental conditions affect the magnitude of inbreeding depression in survival of Darwin's finches". Evolution. 56 (6): 1229–39. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01434.x. PMID 12144022.
  46. ^ Hemmings, N.L.; Slate, J.; Birkhead, T.R. (2012). "Inbreeding causes early death in a passerine bird". Nat Commun. 3: 863. Bibcode:2012NatCo...3E.863H. doi:10.1038/ncomms1870. PMID 22643890.
  47. ^ a b Kingma, S.A.; Hall, M.L.; Peters, A. (2013). "Breeding synchronization facilitates extrapair mating for inbreeding avoidance". Behavioral Ecology. 24 (6): 1390–1397. doi:10.1093/beheco/art078.
  48. ^ a b Waldman, B.; Rice, J.E.; Honeycutt, R.L. (1992). "Kin recognition and incest avoidance in toads". Am. Zool. 32: 18–30. doi:10.1093/icb/32.1.18.
  49. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, J.L.; Evans, J.P. (2014). "Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies". J. Evol. Biol. 27 (12): 2585–94. doi:10.1111/jeb.12545. PMID 25387854.
  50. ^ a b Olsson, M.; Shine, R.; Madsen, T.; Gullberg, A. Tegelström H (1997). "Sperm choice by females". Trends Ecol. Evol. 12 (11): 445–6. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(97)85751-5. PMID 21238151.
  51. ^ Bernstein, H.; Byerly, H.C.; Hopf, F.A.; Michod, R.E. (1985). "Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex". Science. 229 (4719): 1277–81. Bibcode:1985Sci...229.1277B. doi:10.1126/science.3898363. PMID 3898363.
  52. ^ Pusey, A.; Wolf, M. (1996). "Inbreeding avoidance in animals". Trends Ecol. Evol. 11 (5): 201–6. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(96)10028-8. PMID 21237809.
  53. ^ Szulkin, M.; Sheldon, B.C. (2008). "Dispersal as a means of inbreeding avoidance in a wild bird population". Proc. Biol. Sci. 275 (1635): 703–11. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0989. PMC 2596843. PMID 18211876.
  54. ^ Nelson-Flower, M.J.; Hockey, P.A.; O'Ryan, C.; Ridley, A.R. (2012). "Inbreeding avoidance mechanisms: dispersal dynamics in cooperatively breeding southern pied babblers". J Anim Ecol. 81 (4): 876–83. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2012.01983.x. PMID 22471769.
  55. ^ Riehl, C.; Stern, C.A. (2015). "How cooperatively breeding birds identify relatives and avoid incest: New insights into dispersal and kin recognition". BioEssays. 37 (12): 1303–8. doi:10.1002/bies.201500120. PMID 26577076.
  56. ^ Booth, W.; Smith, C.F.; Eskridge, P.H.; Hoss, S.K.; Mendelson, J.R.; Schuett, G.W. (2012). "Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates". Biol. Lett. 8 (6): 983–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0666. PMC 3497136. PMID 22977071.
  57. ^ Booth, W.; Million, L.; Reynolds, R.G.; Burghardt, G.M.; Vargo, E.L.; Schal, C.; Tzika, A.C.; Schuett, G.W. (2011). "Consecutive virgin births in the new world boid snake, the Colombian rainbow Boa, Epicrates maurus". J. Hered. 102 (6): 759–63. doi:10.1093/jhered/esr080. PMID 21868391.
  58. ^ Bogart, J.P.; Bi, K.; Fu, J.; Noble, D.W.; Niedzwiecki, J. (February 2007). "Unisexual salamanders (genus Ambystoma) present a new reproductive mode for eukaryotes". Genome. 50 (2): 119–36. doi:10.1139/g06-152. PMID 17546077.
  59. ^ Bi, K; Bogart, J.P. (April 2010). "Probing the meiotic mechanism of intergenomic exchanges by genomic in situ hybridization on lampbrush chromosomes of unisexual Ambystoma (Amphibia: Caudata)". Chromosome Res. 18 (3): 371–82. doi:10.1007/s10577-010-9121-3. PMID 20358399.
  60. ^ Bernstein, H.; Bernstein, C.; Michod, R.W. (2011). Meiosis as an Evolutionary Adaptation for DNA Repair. Chapter 19 pages 357-382 in "DNA Repair" (Inna Kruman editor). InTech Open Publisher. DOI: 10.5772/25117 ISBN 978-953-307-697-3 http://www.intechopen.com/books/dna-repair/meiosis-as-an-evolutionary-adaptation-for-dna-repair
  61. ^ Tatarenkov, A.; Lima, S.M.; Taylor, D.S.; Avise, J.C. (25 August 2009). "Long-term retention of self-fertilization in a fish clade". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (34): 14456–9. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10614456T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907852106. PMC 2732792. PMID 19706532.
  62. ^ Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Noakes, David L.G.; Hagiwara, Atsushi (2006). "Gonadal morphology in the self-fertilizing mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus". Ichthyological Research. 53 (4): 427–430. doi:10.1007/s10228-006-0362-2. hdl:10069/35713.
  63. ^ a b Avise, J.C.; Tatarenkov, A. (13 November 2012). "Allard's argument versus Baker's contention for the adaptive significance of selfing in a hermaphroditic fish". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (46): 18862–7. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10918862A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1217202109. PMC 3503157. PMID 23112206.
  64. ^ Earley, R.L.; Hanninen, A.F.; Fuller, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Lee, E.A. (2012). "Phenotypic plasticity and integration in the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus): a prospectus". Integr. Comp. Biol. 52 (6): 814–27. doi:10.1093/icb/ics118. PMC 3501102. PMID 22990587.

Bibliography

External links

Amniote

Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, and are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the evolutionary great chain of being.

Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes (including frogs) typically do. Amniotes include synapsids (mammals along with their extinct kin) and sauropsids (reptiles and birds), as well as their ancestors, back to amphibians. Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In eutherian mammals (such as humans), these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. These embryonic membranes and the lack of a larval stage distinguish amniotes from tetrapod amphibians.The first amniotes, referred to as "basal amniotes", resembled small lizards and evolved from the amphibian reptiliomorphs about 312 million years ago, in the Carboniferous geologic period. Their eggs could survive out of the water, allowing amniotes to branch out into drier environments. The eggs could also "breathe" and cope with wastes, allowing the eggs and the amniotes themselves to evolve into larger forms.

The amniotic egg represents a critical divergence within the vertebrates, one enabling amniotes to reproduce on dry land—free of the need to return to water for reproduction as required of the amphibians. From this point the amniotes spread around the globe, eventually to become the dominant land vertebrates. Very early in their evolutionary history, basal amniotes diverged into two main lines, the synapsids and the sauropsids, both of which persist into the modern era. The oldest known fossil synapsid is Protoclepsydrops from about 312 million years ago, while the oldest known sauropsid is probably Paleothyris, in the order Captorhinida, from the Middle Pennsylvanian epoch (c. 306–312 million years ago).

Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine.The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells.

The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

Chordate

A chordate () is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are also bilaterally symmetric; and have a coelom, metameric segmentation, and a circulatory system.

The Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals); Tunicata (salps and sea squirts); and Cephalochordata (which includes lancelets). There are also extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata (which includes the acorn worms) has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes.

Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically (phylogenetically), vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull. The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. (See diagram under Phylogeny.)

Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny (the evolution of species).

The science began in the classical era, continuing in Early Modern times with work by Pierre Belon who noted the similarities of the skeletons of birds and humans.

Comparative anatomy has provided evidence of common descent, and has assisted in the classification of animals.

Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur. Most species have only one dorsal fin, but some have two or three.

Wildlife biologists often use the distinctive nicks and wear patterns which develop on the dorsal fins of large cetaceans to identify individuals in the field.

The bony or cartilaginous bones that support the base of the dorsal fin in fish are called pterygiophores.

Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that secrete those hormones directly into the circulatory system to regulate the function of distant target organs, and the feedback loops which modulate hormone release so that homeostasis is maintained. In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands. In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. The study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology. Endocrinology is a branch of internal medicine.Special features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and commonly the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones. In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. A number of glands that signal each other in sequence are usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

In addition to the specialized endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, such as bone, kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions. For example, the kidney secretes endocrine hormones such as erythropoietin and renin. Hormones can consist of either amino acid complexes, steroids, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, or prostaglandins.The endocrine system is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes its hormones to the outside of the body using ducts. As opposed to endocrine factors that travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system, other signaling molecules, such as paracrine factors involved in paracrine signalling diffuse over a relatively short distance.

The word endocrine derives via New Latin from the Greek words ἔνδον, endon, "inside, within," and "crine" from the κρίνω, krīnō, "to separate, distinguish".

Euteleostomi

Euteleostomi is a successful clade that includes more than 90% of the living species of vertebrates. Euteleostomes are also known as "bony vertebrates". Both its major subgroups are successful today: Actinopterygii includes the majority of extant fish species, and Sarcopterygii includes the tetrapods.

"Osteichthyes" in the paleontological sense (i.e., "bony vertebrates"), is synonymous with Euteleostomi. However, in ichthyology and Linnaean taxonomy Osteichthyes, literally "bony fish," refers to the paraphyletic group that differs by excluding tetrapods. The name Euteleostomi, coined as a monophyletic alternative that unambiguously includes the living tetrapods, is more widely used in bioinformatics and related fields. The term Euteleostomi comes from Eu-teleostomi, where "Eu-" comes from the Greek εὖ meaning well or good, so the clade can be defined as the living teleostomes.

Euteleostomes originally all had endochondral bone, fins with lepidotrichs (fin rays), jaws lined by maxillary, premaxillary, and dentary bones composed of dermal bone, and lungs. Many of these characters have since been lost by descendant groups, however, such as lepidotrichs lost in tetrapods, and bone lost among the chondrostean fishes. Lungs have been retained in dipnoi (lungfish), and many tetrapods (birds, mammals, reptiles, and some amphibians). In many ray-finned fishes lungs have evolved into swim bladders for regulating buoyancy, while in others they continue to be used as respiratory gas bladders.

Eye

Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons. In higher organisms, the eye is a complex optical system which collects light from the surrounding environment, regulates its intensity through a diaphragm, focuses it through an adjustable assembly of lenses to form an image, converts this image into a set of electrical signals, and transmits these signals to the brain through complex neural pathways that connect the eye via the optic nerve to the visual cortex and other areas of the brain. Eyes with resolving power have come in ten fundamentally different forms, and 96% of animal species possess a complex optical system. Image-resolving eyes are present in molluscs, chordates and arthropods.The simplest "eyes", such as those in microorganisms, do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark, which is sufficient for the entrainment of circadian rhythms. From more complex eyes, retinal photosensitive ganglion cells send signals along the retinohypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei to effect circadian adjustment and to the pretectal area to control the pupillary light reflex.

Gnathostomata

Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates. The term derives from Greek: γνάθος (gnathos) "jaw" + στόμα (stoma) "mouth". Gnathostome diversity comprises roughly 60,000 species, which accounts for 99% of all living vertebrates. In addition to opposing jaws, living gnathostomes have teeth, paired appendages, and a horizontal semicircular canal of the inner ear, along with physiological and cellular anatomical characters such as the myelin sheathes of neurons. Another is an adaptive immune system that uses V(D)J recombination to create antigen recognition sites, rather than using genetic recombination in the variable lymphocyte receptor gene.It is now assumed that Gnathostomata evolved from ancestors that already possessed a pair of both pectoral and pelvic fins. These ancestors, known as antiarchs, were previously thought to not possess pectoral or pelvic fins until recently. In addition to this, some placoderms were shown to have a third pair of paired appendages, that had been modified to claspers in males and basal plates in females--a pattern not seen in any other vertebrate group.The Osteostraci are generally considered the sister taxon of Gnathostomata.It is believed that the jaws evolved from anterior gill support arches that had acquired a new role, being modified to pump water over the gills by opening and closing the mouth more effectively – the buccal pump mechanism. The mouth could then grow bigger and wider, making it possible to capture larger prey. This close and open mechanism would, with time, become stronger and tougher, being transformed into real jaws.

Newer research suggests that a branch of Placoderms was most likely the ancestor of present-day gnathostomes. A 419-million-year-old fossil of a placoderm named Entelognathus had a bony skeleton and anatomical details associated with cartilaginous and bony fish, demonstrating that the absence of a bony skeleton in Chondrichthyes is a derived trait. The fossil findings of primitive bony fishes such as Guiyu oneiros and Psarolepis, which lived contemporaneously with Entelognathus and had pelvic girdles more in common with placoderms than with other bony fish, show that it was a relative rather than a direct ancestor of the extant gnathostomes. It also indicates that spiny sharks and Chondrichthyes represent a single sister group to the bony fishes. Fossils findings of juvenile placoderms, which had true teeth that grew on the surface of the jawbone and had no roots, making it impossible to replace or regrow as they broke or wore down as they grew older, proves the common ancestor of all gnathostomes had teeth and place the origin of teeth along with, or soon after, the evolution of jaws.Late Ordovician-aged microfossils of what have been identified as scales of either acanthodians or "shark-like fishes", may mark Gnathostomata's first appearance in the fossil record. Undeniably unambiguous gnathostome fossils, mostly of primitive acanthodians, begin appearing by the early Silurian, and become abundant by the start of the Devonian.

Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods (insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and myriapods), mollusks (chitons, snails, bivalves, squids, and octopuses), annelids (earthworms and leeches), and cnidarians (hydras, jellyfishes, sea anemones, and corals).

The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata.Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy.

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1980 by Jiri Zidek (University of Oklahoma). It covers all aspects of vertebrate paleontology, including vertebrate origins, evolution, functional morphology, taxonomy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology, paleobiogeography, and paleoanthropology. The journal is published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 2.190.

Paleornithology

Paleornithology also known as Avian Paleontology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. It is a mix of ornithology and paleontology. Paleornithology began with the discovery of Archaeopteryx. The reptilian relationship of birds and their ancestors, the theropod dinosaurs, are important aspects of paleornithological research. Other areas of interest to paleornithologists are the early sea-birds Ichthyornis, Hesperornis, and others. Notable paleornithologists are Storrs L. Olson, Alexander Wetmore, Alan Feduccia, Cécile Mourer-Chauviré, Philip Ashmole, Pierce Brodkorb, Trevor H. Worthy, Zhou Zhonghe, Yevgeny Kurochkin, Bradley C. Livezey, Gareth J. Dyke, Luis M. Chiappe, Gerald Mayr and David Steadman.

Percomorpha

The Percomorpha is a large clade of bony fish that includes the tuna, seahorses, gobies, cichlids, flatfish, wrasse, perches, anglerfish, and pufferfish.

Pineal gland

The pineal gland, conarium, or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin-derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. The shape of the gland resembles a pine cone from which it derived its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland is one of the neuroendocrine secretory circumventricular organs that are not part of the blood-brain-barrier.Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The most important exception is a primitive vertebrate, the hagfish. Even in the hagfish, however, there may be a "pineal equivalent" structure in the dorsal diencephalon. The lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum, the nearest existing relative to vertebrates, also lacks a recognizable pineal gland. The lamprey (another primitive vertebrate), however, does possess one. A few more developed vertebrates lost pineal glands over the course of their evolution.The results of various scientific research in evolutionary biology, comparative neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, have explained the phylogeny of the pineal gland in different vertebrate species. From the point of view of biological evolution, the pineal gland represents a kind of atrophied photoreceptor. In the epithalamus of some species of amphibians and reptiles, it is linked to a light-sensing organ, known as the parietal eye, which is also called the pineal eye or third eye.René Descartes believed the human pineal gland to be the "principal seat of the soul". Academic philosophy among his contemporaries considered the pineal gland as a neuroanatomical structure without special metaphysical qualities; science studied it as one endocrine gland among many.

Rhipidistia

Sea

The Rhipidistia, also known as dipnotetrapodomorphs (formally Dipnotetrapodomorpha) are a clade of lobe-finned fishes which include the tetrapods and lungfishes. Rhipidistia formerly referred to a subgroup of Sarcopterygii consisting of the Porolepiformes and Osteolepiformes, a definition that is now obsolete. However as cladistic understanding of the vertebrates has improved over the last few decades a monophyletic Rhipidistia is now understood to include the whole of Tetrapoda and the lungfishes.

Rhipidistia includes porolepiformes and dipnoi. Extensive fossilization of lungfishes has contributed to many evolutionary studies of this group. Evolution of autostylic jaw suspension, in which the palatoquadrate bone fuses to the cranium, is unique to this group.

The precise time at which the choana evolved is debated, with some considering early rhipidistians as the first choanates.

Teleostomi

Teleostomi is an obsolete clade of jawed vertebrates that supposedly includes the tetrapods, bony fish, and the wholly extinct acanthodian fish. Key characters of this group include an operculum and a single pair of respiratory openings, features which were lost or modified in some later representatives. The teleostomes include all jawed vertebrates except the chondrichthyans and the extinct class Placodermi.

Recent studies indicate that Osteichthyes evolved from placoderms like Entelognathus, while acanthodians are more closely related to modern chondrichthyes. Teleostomi, therefore, is not a valid, natural clade, but a polyphyletic group of species.The clade Teleostomi should not be confused with the similar-sounding fish clade Teleostei.

Trachea

The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. This is the only complete tracheal ring, the others being incomplete rings of reinforcing cartilage. The trachealis muscle joins the ends of the rings and these are joined vertically by bands of fibrous connective tissue – the annular ligaments of trachea. The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing.

The trachea develops in the second month of development. It is lined with an epithelium that has goblet cells which produce protective mucins (see Respiratory epithelium). An inflammatory condition, also involving the larynx and bronchi, called croup can result in a barking cough. A tracheotomy is often performed for ventilation in surgical operations where needed. Intubation is also carried out for the same reason by the inserting of a tube into the trachea. From 2008, operations have experimentally transplanted a windpipe grown by stem cells, and synthetic windpipes; however, a successful method for this method of transplant does not currently exist and development of such a method remains theoretically daunting.The word "trachea" is used to define a very different organ in invertebrates than in vertebrates. Insects have an open respiratory system made up of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gases to and from tissues.

Vertebra

In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

The basic configuration of a vertebra varies; the large part is the body, and the central part is the centrum. The upper and lower surfaces of the vertebra body give attachment to the intervertebral discs. The posterior part of a vertebra forms a vertebral arch, in eleven parts, consisting of two pedicles, two laminae, and seven processes. The laminae give attachment to the ligamenta flava (ligaments of the spine). There are vertebral notches formed from the shape of the pedicles, which form the intervertebral foramina when the vertebrae articulate. These foramina are the entry and exit conducts for the spinal nerves. The body of the vertebra and the vertebral arch form the vertebral foramen, the larger, central opening that accommodates the spinal canal, which encloses and protects the spinal cord.

Vertebrae articulate with each other to give strength and flexibility to the spinal column, and the shape at their back and front aspects determines the range of movement. Structurally, vertebrae are essentially alike across the vertebrate species, with the greatest difference seen between an aquatic animal and other vertebrate animals. As such, vertebrates take their name from the vertebrae that compose the vertebral column.

Extant Animal phyla
Extant chordate classes
Olfactores

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.