Verinag

Verinag (/ˈveɪriːnɑːɡ/; Urdu: ويریناگ‎) is a tourist place and a notified area committee with tehsil status (Shahabad Bala Verinag) in Anantnag district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is about 26 kilometers away from Anantnag and approximately 78 kilometres south-east from Srinagar which is the summer capital of the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Verinag is also the first tourist spot of Kashmir Valley when travelling by road from Jammu, the winter capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir towards Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies at the entry point of Kashmir Valley right after crossing Jawahar Tunnel and is also known as Gateway of Kashmir.

A major tourist attraction of this place is Verinag Spring, for which this place is named. There is an octagonal stone basin at Verinag Spring and an arcade surrounding it which were built by Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1620 A.D. Later, a beautiful garden next to this spring, was laid out by his son Shah Jahan. This spring is known to never dry up or overflow. Verinag Spring is also the major source of river Jhelum.[2] Verinag Spring and Mughal Arcade surrounding it is officially recognized by Archaeological Survey of India as a Monument of National Importance.[3]

Verinag

Shahabad Bala Verinag

Virahnag[1]
town
View of Verinag town
View of Verinag town
Verinag is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Verinag
Verinag
Location in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Verinag is located in India
Verinag
Verinag
Verinag (India)
Coordinates: 33°33′N 75°15′E / 33.55°N 75.25°ECoordinates: 33°33′N 75°15′E / 33.55°N 75.25°E
Country India
StateJammu and Kashmir
DistrictAnantnag
Named forVerinag Spring
Elevation
1,851 m (6,073 ft)
Population
 (2001)
 • Total16,727
Languages
 • OfficialUrduEnglish
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
192212
Vehicle registrationJK03
Sex ratio1000/1000 /
Websiteverinag.com
tourist Place

Etymology

This place is so called after the name of a spring there called Verinág. The spring itself is named after the earlier name of a nearby town called Shahabad. Shahabad was earlier known by the name of Vér and also nag is local name for a spring. From this earlier name, this spring came to be known as Vernág which now has transformed to Verinag.[4] Both the names, Verinag and Vernag, are used interchangeably.

Vitasta at Verinag
Verinag Spring, major source of Jhelum River.

Verinag Spring and Mughal Garden

Verinag Garden
Verinag Garden in Autumn
Verinag Garden in Autumn
TypeMughal garden
LocationAnantnag, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Area50,600 square metres (12.5 acres)
Opened1620 A.D.
FounderJahangir
Owned byJammu and Kashmir Tourism Department
Operated byJammu and Kashmir Tourism Department
Websitewww.jktourism.org

Verinag spring which is in Verinag town, issues from a high scarp of a mountain spur, and is considered the source of the Jhelum river. It is situated at the bottom of a hill covered by pine trees and evergreen plants. Verinag spring was originally an irregular and shapeless pond, and water, oozing out from different places in it and spread about and formed a little marsh. Emperor Jahangir, whose artistic taste for polishing the beauty of nature is well known, saw this and at once determined to improve it. He built the octagonal tank of sculptured stones round it, so that all water was collected therein, for which carvers were brought from Iran. A garden was also built by Jahangir next to this natural spring which is of pre-Islamic religious significance. The construction date of the octagonal tank and the garden is 1029 Hijri or 1620 A.D, during the 15th year of the Jahangir's reign, which is duly inscribed on a stone slab built into the southern wall of the spring. Seven years later, Jahangir's son Shah Jahan, who was no less a lover of natural beauty, constructed cascades and aqueducts in straight lines through and around the fine garden which he, in order to enhance further the beauty of the place laid out in front of the spring. He also built hot and cold baths to the east of this garden, just outside it, of which little trace is now left. The water contained in an octagonal spring has crystal blue water in which a variety of big fishes live. History and the carvings on stones in Persian on the walls surrounding the spring tell about how this great source of underwater spring is contained without revealing its architecture. The water is collected in a pool surrounded by arched recesses, and then flows down a 300-yard canal to the Bihat river. Jahangir wished to be buried at Verinag gardens, but his wife, Nur Jahan, disobeyed his wishes. Today nothing remains of the pavilions which once decorated the area.[1][5]

According to a legend, goddess Vitasta(Jhelum) wanted to take rise from this spring, but it happened that when she came, Shiva was staying here, whereupon she had to go back and then she took her rise from Vithavatur(Vitastatra), a spring about a mile to the north-west of this place. Virah in Sanskrit means to 'go back' and 'nag' means a water spring and, as Vitasta had to go back from this place, it came to be called Virahnag or "Vernag".[1] This spring is also considered to be the residing place of Nilanaga, who is placed by ancient tradition, at the head of all Nagas or spring-deities of Kashmir. Thus this spring is also known as "Nilakunda" or spring of Nila.[6] According to Nilamata Purana, the valley of Kashmir was once a lake called "Satisara" or lake of Parvati. Near this spring, Lord Vishnu is said to have first placed the point of the plough with which Satisara was drained and here goddess Parvati was brought to light from the netherworld in the form of the river Vitasta by stroke of Lord Shiva's trident.[7]

The spring is at the exact centre almost 50 feet (as the locals tell about the depth) underwater from where the water continuously comes up and flows into the gardens facing the spring. It is also a sacred place for Hindus as there is a Lord Shiva shivling in one of the arcs (the very first on the left of the entry of the spring). The historical garden also has an old temple with some ancient idols of Hindu goddesses.
Some 2 km away is Vithavatur(Vitastatra), supposed to be the source of river Jhelum. The waters of the many nearby springs, called collectively, Sapta Rishi, have their confluence at Sangam, where people bathe on festival days. The birth of the river is celebrated annually with a fair on the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month Bhadrapada of the Hindu Calendar.[8]

Panorama of Verinag Spring
Panorama of Verinag Spring

Stone slabs

Stone Slab1 Verinag
Stone slab on southern wall

There are two stone slabs built into the western and southern walls of Verinag spring, on which prose in Persian language, in praise of the spring, and the dates of construction of the tank and aqueduct, are inscribed. The translation of prose in Persian language written on stone slab built into the southern wall of spring is as follows:-

The king of seven kingdoms, the administrator
of justice, the father of victory, Nur-ud-din, Jahangir
son of Akbar, the martyr king, halted at this spring
of God's grace in the 15th year of his reign. This
construction was made by order of His Majesty.
By Jahangir, son of King Akbar,
This construction was raised to the skies.
The architect of intelligence got its date---
'May the mansion last for ever together with the spring Vernag!' (1029 Hijri)[1]

Stone Slab2 Verinag
Stone slab on western wall

The translation of prose in Persian language written on stone slab built into the western wall of spring is as follows:-

   Haidar, by order of Shah Jahan, the paramount
lord of his age----
   God be praised---made the cascade and aqueduct
flow.
   This aqueduct reminds one of the aqueduct of
paradise.
   By this cascade Kashmir attained glory
   The unseen Angel declared the date of
aqueduct:-
'The aqueduct has issued from the heavenly
spring' (1037 Hijri.) [1]

Verinag Spring in historical texts

This spring has been mentioned in various historical texts. Various accounts of this spring are as follows:

In the Vér tract of country is the source of the Bihat. It is a pool measuring a jarib which tosses in foam with an astonishing roar, and its depth is unfathomable. It goes by the name of Vernág and is surrounded by a stone embankment and to its east are temples of stone.[4]

Bihat, as mentioned in the above-quoted text, is the name of a river in Verinag.

The source of the Bihaṭ is a spring in Kashmir called the Vīr-nāg; in the language of India a snake is vīr-nāg. Clearly, there had been a large snake at that place. I went twice to the spring in my father's lifetime; it is 20 kos from the city of Kashmir. It is an octagonal reservoir about 20 yards by 20. Near it are the remains of a place of worship for recluses; cells cut out of the rock and numerous caves. The water is exceedingly pure. Although I could not guess its depth, a grain of poppy-seed is visible until it touches the bottom. There were many fish to be seen in it. As I had heard that it was unfathomable, I ordered them to throw in a cord with a stone attached, and when this cord was measured in gaz it became evident that the depth was not more than once and a half the height of a man. After my accession I ordered them to build the sides of the spring round with stone, and they made a garden round it with a canal; and built halls and houses about it, and made a place such that travellers over the world can point out few like it.[9]

  • Rajatarangini: Rājatarangiṇī is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhaṇa in 12th century CE. Verinag Spring in this text is known by the name of Nilakunda. The account of Verinag Spring in this text is as follows:

That (land) is protected by Nīla, the lord of all Nāgas, whose regal parasol is formed by the circular pond (of the Nīlakunda) with the Vitastā's newly rising stream as its stick. There Gauri, though she has assumed the form of the Vitastā, still keeps her wonted inclination.[6]

The "land" referred to in above-quoted text is Kashmir. Vitastā is another name for river Jhelum.

Verinag Mughal Garden Design

Verinag Mughal Garden Plan
Verinag Mughal Garden Plan

The design of the Verinag garden is an adaptation of the traditional Persian Charbagh(four gardens). The Charbagh takes its inspiration from the Quranic description of heaven as having four rivers, of wine, honey, milk, and water. The traditional Charbagh is uniformly shaped, with a water source in its center and four (char) radiating streams which divide the garden (bagh) into four parts. As with other Kashmiri gardens, Vernag is located on a steep hillside, with its water source at the top. The traditional Charbagh design had to be altered to fit the site's topography, as the source of water shifted from the traditional center of the square garden to the highest point of the garden. Given the limited options for flowing water (which could only run in one direction, from top to bottom), the double symmetry of the Persian garden was reduced to a central water axis, and the other traditional streams were minimized, appearing only in the form of the east–west canal.

The garden is rectangular in shape, measuring 460 meters by 110 meters. It runs a few degrees off a south–north axis, moving down the side of a hill. The garden is bisected on its long axis by a water canal that transfers water from the water source at the southern (upper) end into the Jhelum river on its northern end. Another canal running east–west intersects the main water canal at its southern end. The entrances to the garden lie at both ends of this east–west canal.

From the entrances, a walkway takes the visitor towards the octagonal pool, which is approached through a colonnade. This colonnade, composed of 24 arches, surrounds the pool, whose water comes from the spring deep below. The pool's water is clear and filled with carp. The water exits from the pool into the main axial water canal, which measures 305 meters long by 3.65 meters wide.[10]

Verinag Spring Gallery

Verinag Water Spring

Verinag Spring

Verinag Mughal Garden in Autumn

Mughal garden next to Verinag Spring

Verinag (3)

View of Spring from inside the arcade

Water canal in mughal garden verinag

Water canal through Verinag Garden

Shivlingam in one of the arches aroung Verinag spring

Shivling in an arch around Verinag spring

Verinag The Colors

Verinag-The Colors

Verinag1

Water gushing out from Verinag Spring

Verinag

Verinag Spring

Spring at Verinag

Geography

Verinag is located at 33°33′N 75°15′E / 33.55°N 75.25°E.[11] It has an average elevation of 1,851 metres (6,076 feet). This town is located in the vicinity of Banihal pass of Pir Panjal mountain range. Major towns located near this place are Anantnag, Kokernag, Achabal and Qazigund.

Climate

In Verinag, the climate is warm and temperate. There is significant rainfall throughout the year in Verinag. Even the driest month still has a lot of rainfall. According to Köppen climate classification, climate of Verinag is classified as Humid subtropical climate(Cfa). The average annual temperature in Verinag is 13.4 °C (56.1 °F). About 1,043 mm (41.1 in) of precipitation falls annually. The driest month is November with 35 mm (1.4 in) precipitation. Most precipitation falls in March, with an average of 162 mm (6.4 in). The warmest month of the year is July with an average temperature of 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). In January, the average temperature is 1.4 °C (34.5 °F). It is the lowest average temperature of the whole year. The difference in precipitation between the driest month and the wettest month is 127 mm (5.0 in). The average temperatures vary during the year by 21.3 °C (70.3 °F).[12]

Transport

Airport

Verinag does not have an airport. Nearest airport is Srinagar International Airport with scheduled flights from Delhi and Jammu. Srinagar International Airport is 82 km away from Verinag.

Road

Verinag can be reached by road by taking National Highway 1A between Jammu and Srinagar. It lies at a distance of 6–8 km from National Highway 1A. Verinag Feeder Road Jawahar Tunnel Omoh Road and Lower Munda Verinag Road connect it to National Highway 1A. Verinag is also connected by road to Anantnag and Srinagar. Anantnag is 24 km and Srinagar is 78 km away from Verinag. It Also has a Link to Kokernag Through Batagund Village

Railway

Nearest railway station is Hillar Shahabad on the 119 km long Jammu–Baramulla line that runs from Baramulla to Banihal. It iies at a distance of 5 km from Verinag.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[14] Verinag had a population of 16,727. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Verinag has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70% and, female literacy is 46%. 11% of the population is under six years old.

Notable residents

  • Rasool Mir—poet
  • Template:Aasif Iqbal SHEIKH- poet

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Koul, Pandit Anand: Archaeological Remains in Kashmir page 98. Mercantile press, 1935.
  2. ^ http://www.jktourismonline.com/kashmir-verinag.aspx
  3. ^ "List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Jammu & Kashmir - Archaeological Survey of India". asi.nic.in. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  4. ^ a b Aín-i-Akbari by Abul Fazal Allámi translated by Colonel H.S. Jarrett, page 361, Vol. II, published by Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1891
  5. ^ Plumptre, George: The Water Garden, page 39. Thames & Hudson Limited, London, 1993.
  6. ^ a b Kalhana's Rajatarangini Vol. I by M.A. Stein, Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Pvt. Limited, 2009
  7. ^ The Nilamata Purana English Translation by Dr. Ved Kumari verses 247-261
  8. ^ http://www.verinag.com/
  9. ^ The Tūzuk-i-Jahangīrī Or Memoirs Of Jahāngīr translated by Alexander Rogers and Henry Beveridge, page 92, published by Royal Asiatic Society, London 1909–1914
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Vermag gardens retrieved 29 October 2013
  11. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc -Verinag
  12. ^ a b "Climate: Verinag - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  13. ^ "Verinag, India Weather Averages Monthly Average High and Low-Temperature Average Precipitation and Rainfall days World Weather Online". World Weather Online. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  14. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.

External links

External video
Assadulla Mir talks about Verinag Spring
1947 Mirpur massacre

The 1947 Mirpur Massacre was the killing of thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees in Mirpur of today's Azad Kashmir, by armed Pakistani tribesmen and soldiers during the First Kashmir War. It occurred on and after November 25.

Anantnag district

Anantnag is a district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of ten districts which make up the Kashmir Valley. The district headquarters is Anantnag city. As of 2011, it was the third most populous district of Jammu and Kashmir (out of 22), after Jammu and Srinagar.

Doru Shahabad

Doru Shahabad (also written as Dooru Shahabad or only Doru) is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district of the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. It is also known as historical township in South Kashmir's Anantnag district. Doru shahabad has been known as a place of intelligentia where great scholars like Mehmood shah Gami, Rasul Mir shahabadi, were borne who contributed to the literature and culture of kashmir. In present times shahabad has produced chief minister like syed mir qasim and many other politicians, beuracrates and some leading agricultural scientists.

Government Degree College, Doru

The Government Degree College, Doru Verinag Anantnag (Urdu;گورنمنٹ ڈگری کالج ڈوُرو) also known as Degree College Dooru,Verinag GDC Doru Verinag Anantnag is a University of Kashmir affiliated non-autonomous degree college located in Doru Shahabad, Verinag in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir. It is affiliated with University of Kashmir and is recognised by University Grants Commission India, under sections 2(f) and 12(b) of UGC, Act 1956.

Hill station

A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in colonial Asia, but also in Africa (albeit rarely), for towns founded by European colonial rulers as refuges from the summer heat, up where temperatures are cooler. In the Indian context, most hill stations are at an altitude of approximately 1,000 to 2,500 metres (3,300 to 8,200 ft); very few are outside this range.

Jhelum River

The Jhelum River (Urdu: جہلم‎, Punjabi: ਜਿਹਲਮ/جہلم, Kashmiri: Vyeth (ویتھ/व्यथा)) is a river in northern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, and passes through the Kashmir Valley. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 725 kilometres (450 mi).

Kashmir Valley

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is an intermontane valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India. The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range and on the northeast by the main Himalayas range. It is approximately 135 km long and 32 km wide, and drained by the Jhelum River.Kashmir division is one of the three administrative divisions of the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmir division borders Jammu Division to the south and Ladakh to the east while Line of Control forms its northern and the western border. The division consists of the following districts: Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian and Srinagar.

Kishtwar National Park

Kishtwar National Park is a national park located in the Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is bounded to the north by Rinnay river, south by Kibar Nala catchment, east by main divide of Great Himalaya and west by Marwa river.

Leh district

Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. With an area of 45,110 km2, it is the second largest district in the country (after Kutch, Gujarat) in terms of area. It is bounded on the north by Ghanche District (Gilgit-Baltistan), a small border with Xinjiang, China, via the Karakoram Pass which is part of the district. Aksai Chin and Tibet are to the east, Kargil district to the west, and Lahul and Spiti to the south. The district headquarters is in Leh. It lies between 32 to 36 degree north latitude and 75 to 80 degree east longitude.

The whole of Ladakh was under the administration of Leh until 1 July 1979, when the Kargil and Leh administrative districts were created. Religion has been a source of grievances between Buddhists and Muslims since the late 20th century and was a contributor to this division.As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Jammu and Kashmir (out of 22), after Kargil.In 2017, the district was declared a tobacco-free zone. The Directorate of Health Services Kashmir under the National Tobacco Control Programme began working towards the designation early in 2017 and the status was declared in August. Rehana Kousar (in-charge, NTCP, Kashmir) said that work was done with civil society, religious and women's groups and that a "major success was achieved by the involvement of women in the anti-tobacco campaign."

List of Monuments of National Importance in Jammu and Kashmir

This is a list of Monuments of National Importance (ASI) as officially recognized by and available through the website of the Archaeological Survey of India in the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir. The monument identifier is a combination of the abbreviation of the subdivision of the list (state, ASI circle) and the numbering as published on the website of the ASI. 69 Monuments of National Importance have been recognized by the ASI in Jammu and Kashmir.

There are monuments like Sheer bagh pattan baramulla

Pari mahal

Gardens like Nishat Shalimar

List of chief ministers of Jammu and Kashmir

The Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir is the chief executive of the north Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Before 30 March 1965, when an amendment to the state's constitution came into effect, the office was known Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequently, the ruling prime minister, Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq, was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

The office of Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir has been vacant since 20 June 2018. Until 19 December 2018 it was under Governor's rule, and has been under President's rule ever since.

List of hill stations in India

The hill stations are high-altitude towns used especially by European colonialists, as a place of refuge to escape the blistering summer heat and dust of plains during the British Raj. They are prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India.

The Indian subcontinent has seven principal mountain ranges and the largest of all is the Himalayas that lies in the northern part of India. The famous peaks and ranges include the Kangchenjunga range in the Eastern Himalayas which frames the hill stations of Darjeeling and Gangtok as well as the Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. The Shivalik range that also lies within the same region also has some famous hill stations that include Dalhousie, Kullu, Shimla, Nanital sahyadri and many more.Most of the hill stations in India were developed by the British around a central mall to get respite from the oppressive summer heat. Many have picturesque lakes as their focal point, making them excellent places for boating activities.

Most of the hill stations in India are located in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya in the Himalayas and in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Western ghats. Some are located in Eastern ghats Andhra Pradesh, Odisha. Some of the hill stations in India are listed below by state.

Since a number of these hill stations attract large number of tourists in summer as well as other times of the year,they are well connected by rail, road and air services to major Indian cities.

Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was an early-modern empire in South Asia. For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India.The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior chieftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid- and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar, This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurengzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently, especially during the East India Company rule in India, to the region in and around Old Delhi, the empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Although the Mughal empire was created and sustained by military warfare, it did not vigorously suppress the cultures and peoples it came to rule, but rather equalized and placated them through new administrative practices, and diverse ruling elites, leading to more efficient, centralised, and standarized rule. The base of the empire's collective wealth was agricultural taxes, instituted by the third Mughal emperor, Akbar. These taxes, which amounted to well over half the output of a peasant cultivator, were paid in the well-regulated silver currency, and caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion. Burgeoning European presence in the Indian ocean, and its increasing demand for Indian raw- and finished products, created still greater wealth in the Mughal courts. There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan. Among the Mughal UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Asia are: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Red Fort, Humayun's Tomb, Lahore Fort and the Taj Mahal, which is described as, "The jewel of Muslim art in India, and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."

Mughal architecture

Mughal Architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation. Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few have survived. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, and the Buland Darwaza. Akbar's son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.

Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. The end of his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture and the Empire itself.

Qazigund

Qazigund, is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Qazigund is located at 33.59°N 75.16°E / 33.59; 75.16. It has an average elevation of 1670 m (5478 feet) above mean sea level.

Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar

Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. Its other names are Shalimar Garden, Shalimar Bagh, Farah Baksh, and Faiz Baksh, and the other famous shoreline garden in the vicinity is Nishat Bagh. The Bagh was built by Mughal Emperor Jahangir for his wife Nur Jahan, in 1619. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture. It is now a public park. It is also called the "Crown of Srinagar".

Syed Hussain

Syed Hussain is an Indian politician. He is ex-Member of Parliament Rajya Sabha, Ex Chairman Legislative Council, Jammu and Kashmir.

Syed Hussain was born on 16 July 1919, in ancestral house in Mohalla Mir Maidan in Dooru—Near Verinag, District Anantnag. He holds a Bachelor of Arts [BA] (Kashmir University); Bachelor of Law [LLB] (Aligarh University); Mufti (Honours; in Persian and Arabic) Kashmir University

He is married to Mrs. Farkhundah Begum daughter of Syed Ghulam Mustafa and Mrs Raja Begum on 1 October 1940, having four daughters, Mumtaz Akhter, Farrukh Bashira Bashi, Qayoom Zahida and Farida Afridi.

Syed Hussain is an advocate; was associated with Jammu and Kashmir National Conference from early student days; was arrested after sustaining serious injuries while leading a demonstration against autocratic rule in the state in 1946; took leading part in organizing popular resistance against Pak-invaders and infiltrators in 1947 and 1965 respectively; one of the founders of Democratic National Conference;

He has been the member of:

Executive Committee J&K Pradesh Congress.

Congress Forum for Socialist action.

Executive Committee of J &K, Unit of I.S.C.U.S and

Central Citizen Committee;

Debt Conciliation Board, 1949, 1950 and 1951;

Legislative Assembly, Jammu and Kashmir, 1957 until 1962 and was elected to the J&K Legislative Council in 1962;

Public Accounts Committee and Committee on Subordinate Legislation in J & K, Legislature

Member Committee on Subordinate Legislation of the Rajya Sabha;

Rajya Sabha in during 16-April 1968 till 5-3-1974.In 1975, he resigned as the chairman of the Legislative Council after his party lost its majority in the Council following assumption of Chief Ministership by Sheikh Abdullah.

Uri, Jammu and Kashmir

Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Line of Control with Pakistan.

Vessu

Vessu (Urdu: ويسو) is a Block and Nayabat in Anantnag district in Indian administered part of Jammu and Kashmir. It is located on Srinagar Jammu National Highway, 10 km from Khanabal. The river "Saandrun", which originates from the famous Verinag Spring, lies to its East. National Highway 1A marks the boundary of this place towards its Western and Northern end.

Places adjacent to Verinag
Climate data for Verinag
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
21
(70)
26
(79)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
28
(82)
23
(73)
16
(61)
10
(50)
21
(69)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
3.5
(38.3)
8.4
(47.1)
13.8
(56.8)
18.8
(65.8)
21.8
(71.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.1
(71.8)
19.7
(67.5)
14.7
(58.5)
9.1
(48.4)
4.6
(40.3)
13.4
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F) −2
(28)
1
(34)
4
(39)
8
(46)
11
(52)
15
(59)
19
(66)
18
(64)
13
(55)
6
(43)
1
(34)
−1
(30)
8
(46)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 128
(5.0)
101
(4.0)
162
(6.4)
130
(5.1)
90
(3.5)
58
(2.3)
78
(3.1)
60
(2.4)
104
(4.1)
39
(1.5)
35
(1.4)
58
(2.3)
1,043
(41.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 11.8
(0.46)
28.5
(1.12)
39.6
(1.56)
23.3
(0.92)
21
(0.8)
27
(1.1)
29.8
(1.17)
30.7
(1.21)
2.5
(0.10)
10.7
(0.42)
9.4
(0.37)
13.4
(0.53)
247.7
(9.76)
Average rainy days 5 6 6 6 7 5 6 5 2 4 2 4 58
Source #1: Climate-Data.org for daily mean temperatures and precipitation[12]
Source #2: World Weather Online for monthly average high/low temperatures, rainfall and rainy days[13]
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