Velvet

"Panne" redirects here. For the wetland feature, see Salt pannes and pools.
Bitcoin cufflinks (cropped)
Weave details visible on a purple-colored velvet fabric

Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers.

Construction and composition

Velvet warp
Illustration depicting the manufacture of velvet fabric

Velvet is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart to create the pile effect, and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. This complicated process meant that velvet was expensive to make before industrial power looms became available, and well-made velvet remains a fairly costly fabric. Velvet is difficult to clean because of its pile, but modern dry cleaning methods make cleaning more feasible. Velvet pile is created by warp or vertical yarns and velveteen pile is created by weft or fill yarns.

Velvet can be made from several different kinds of fibers, traditionally, the most expensive of which is silk. Much of the velvet sold today as "silk velvet" is actually a mix of rayon and silk.[1] Velvet made entirely from silk is rare and usually has market prices of several hundred US dollars per yard. Cotton is also used to make velvet, though this often results in a less luxurious fabric. Velvet can also be made from fibers such as linen, mohair, and wool. A cloth made by the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of Congo from raffia is often referred to as "Kuba velvet". More recently, synthetic velvets have been developed, mostly from polyester, nylon, viscose, acetate, and from either mixtures of different synthetics or from combined synthetics and natural fibers (for example viscose mixed with silk produces a very soft, reflective fabric). A small percentage of spandex is sometimes added to give the final material a certain amount of stretch (hence "stretch velvet").

History

Medici velvet
Velvet with Medici Arms, Florence or Venice, 1440–1500

Because of its unusual softness and appearance as well as its high cost of production, velvet has often been associated with nobility. Velvet was introduced to Baghdad during the rule of Harun al-Rashid by Kashmiri merchants and to Al-Andalus by Ziryab. In the Mamluk era, Cairo was the world's largest producer of velvet. Much of it was exported to Venice (whence it spread to most of Europe), Iberia and the Mali Empire. Musa I of Mali, the ruler of the Mali Empire, visited Cairo on his pilgrimage to Mecca. Many Arab velvet makers accompanied him back to Timbuktu. Later Ibn Battuta mentions how Suleyman (mansa), the ruler of Mali, wore a locally produced complete crimson velvet caftan on Eid. During the reign of Mehmed II, assistant cooks wore blue-coloured dresses (câme-i kebûd), conical hats (külâh) and baggy trousers (çaksir) made from Bursa velvet.

King Richard II of England directed in his will that his body should be clothed in velveto in 1399.[2]

Chasuble abondance
A cope in pile-on-pile velvet.

The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition described velvet and its history thus:

VELVET, a silken textile fabric having a short dense piled surface. In all probability the art of velvet-weaving originated in the Far East; and it is not till about the beginning of the 14th century that we find any mention of the textile. The peculiar properties of velvet, the splendid yet softened depth of dye-colour it exhibited, at once marked it out as a fit material for ecclesiastical vestments, royal and state robes, and sumptuous hangings; and the most magnificent textures of medieval times were Italian velvets. These were in many ways most effectively treated for ornamentation, such as by varying the colour of the pile, by producing pile of different lengths (pile upon pile, or double pile), and by brocading with plain silk, with uncut pile or with a ground of gold tissue, &c. The earliest sources of European artistic velvets were Lucca, Genoa, Florence and Venice, which continued to send out rich velvet textures. Somewhat later the art was taken up by Flemish weavers, and in the sixteenth century, Bruges attained a reputation for velvets that were not inferior to those of the great Italian cities.[3]

Types

  • Chiffon (or transparent) velvet: Very lightweight velvet on a sheer silk or rayon chiffon base.[4]
  • Ciselé: Velvet where the pile uses cut and uncut loops to create a pattern.[4]
  • Crushed: Lustrous velvet with patterned appearance that is produced by either pressing the fabric down in different directions, or alternatively by mechanically twisting the fabric while wet.[5]
  • Devoré or burnout. A velvet treated with a caustic solution to dissolve areas of the pile, creating a velvet pattern upon a sheer or lightweight base fabric.[5]
  • Embossed: A metal roller is used to heat-stamp the fabric, producing a pattern.[5]
  • Hammered: This type is extremely lustrous, appears dappled, and somewhat crushed.[5]
  • Lyons: A densely woven, stiff, heavier-weight pile velvet used for hats, coat collars and garments.[4][6]
  • Mirror: A type of exceptionally soft and light crushed velvet.[6]
  • Nacré: Velvet with an effect similar to shot silk, where the pile is woven in one or more colours and the base fabric in another, creating a changeable, iridescent effect.[4][6]
  • Panne: Also a type of crushed velvet, panne is produced by forcing the pile in a single direction by applying heavy pressure.[7] Sometimes, less frequently, called paon velvet.[8] However, since the 1970s, "panne velvet," as used in ordinary fabric stores, has referred to a pile knit, perhaps better called a velour, with a short pile that falls in many directions, usually of polyester.
  • Pile-on-pile: A particularly luxurious type of velvet woven with piles of differing heights to create a pattern.[9][10]
  • Plain: Commonly made of cotton, this type of velvet has a firm hand and can be used for many purposes.[5]
  • Utrecht: A pressed and crimped velvet associated with Utrecht, the Netherlands.[4]
  • Velveteen is a type of imitation velvet.[7] It is normally made of cotton or a combination of cotton and silk. It has a pile that is short (never more than 3mm deep), and is closely set. It has a firm hand and a slightly sloping pile. Unlike true velvet, this type has greater body, does not drape as easily, and has less sheen.[5]
  • Voided is deliberately woven with areas of pile-free ground (usually satin) forming the pattern.[11]
  • Wedding ring or ring velvet: Another term for devoré and/or chiffon velvets which are allegedly fine enough to be drawn through a ring.[12]

Gallery

Man's Coat and Waistcoat LACMA M.57.35a-b (2 of 3)

Ciselé

Devoré velvet (also known as burnout technique)

Devoré

Morris and Co Acorn embossed velvet 1912

Embossed

Textile LACMA M.55.12.27

Pile-on-pile

Textile LACMA M.55.12.48

Voided

Fibres

  • Silk: More expensive than plain velvet, this type is usually shinier and softer than the cotton variety.[5]
  • Viscose: In terms of quality, this type is more similar to silk velvet than cotton velvet.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jeanne Stauffer (1 January 2004). Sewing Smart with Fabric. DRG Wholesale. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-59217-018-0.
  2. ^ L W Cowrie Dictionary of British Social History Wordsworth Reference p.304 ISBN 1-85326-378-8
  3. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Velvet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 979–980.
  4. ^ a b c d e Maitra, K.K. (2007). Encyclopaedic dictionary of clothing and textiles. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 479. ISBN 9788183242059.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Free patterns - Velvet". sewingtechnology.net. Archived from the original on 2011-02-23.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. ^ a b c Schaeffer, Claire (2003). Sew Any Fabric: A Quick Reference to Fabrics from A to Z. Krause Publications. p. 129. ISBN 9781440220333.
  7. ^ a b "Fabric Properties and Distinctions - Velvet". fabrics.net. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Denny, Grace Goldena (1947). Fabrics. J. B. Lippincott Company. p. 77. Panne or paon velvet. Finish on lightweight velvet. Pile laid flat in one direction.
  9. ^ Phipps, Elena (2012). Looking at textiles : a guide to technical terms. Los Angeles, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Museum. p. 81. ISBN 9781606060803.
  10. ^ Crowfoot, Elisabeth; Pritchard, Frances; Unwin, Kay Staniland; photography by Edwin Baker; illustrations by Christina (2006). Textiles and clothing, c.1150-c.1450 (New ed.). Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell. p. 127. ISBN 9781843832393.
  11. ^ Landl, Sheila (2012). Textile Conservator's Manual (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 9781135145200.
  12. ^ Strong Hillhouse, Marian (1963). Dress selection and design. Macmillan. p. 156. Chiffon velvet is also called "wedding ring velvet," because it is supposedly so light _and soft it can be pulled through a wedding ring.
Adam Lambert

Adam Mitchel Lambert (born January 29, 1982) is an American singer, songwriter and actor. Since 2009, he has sold over 3 million albums and 5 million singles worldwide.Lambert rose to fame in 2009 after finishing as runner-up on the eighth season of American Idol. Later that year, he released his debut album, For Your Entertainment, which debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200. The album spawned several singles, including "Whataya Want from Me", for which he received a Grammy nomination for "Best Male Pop Vocal Performance".In 2012, Lambert released his second studio album, Trespassing. The album premiered at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200, making him the first openly gay artist to top the album charts. In 2015, Lambert released his third album, The Original High, which debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200 and produced "Ghost Town".Alongside his solo career, Lambert has collaborated with rock band Queen as lead vocalist for Queen + Adam Lambert since 2011, including several worldwide tours from 2014 to 2019.

Blue Velvet (film)

Blue Velvet is a 1986 American neo-noir mystery film written and directed by David Lynch. Blending psychological horror with film noir, the film stars Kyle MacLachlan, Isabella Rossellini, Dennis Hopper, and Laura Dern, and is named after Tony Bennett's 1951 song of the same name. The film concerns a young college student who, returning home to visit his ill father, discovers a severed human ear in a field that leads to his uncovering a vast criminal conspiracy and entering a romantic relationship with a troubled lounge singer.

The screenplay of Blue Velvet had been passed around multiple times in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with several major studios declining it due to its strong sexual and violent content. After the failure of his 1984 film Dune, Lynch made attempts at developing a more "personal story", somewhat characteristic of the surrealist style displayed in his first film Eraserhead (1977). The independent studio De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, owned at the time by Italian film producer Dino De Laurentiis, agreed to finance and produce the film.

Blue Velvet initially received a divided critical response, with many stating that its objectionable content served little artistic purpose. Nevertheless, the film earned Lynch his second Academy Award nomination for Best Director, and came to achieve cult status. As an example of a director casting against the norm, it was credited for re-launching Hopper's career and for providing Rossellini with a dramatic outlet beyond her previous work as a fashion model and a cosmetics spokeswoman. In the years since, the film has generated significant attention for its thematic symbolism, and is now widely regarded as one of Lynch's major works and one of the greatest films of the 1980s. Publications including Sight & Sound, Time, Entertainment Weekly and BBC Magazine have ranked it among the greatest American films of all time. In 2008, it was chosen by the American Film Institute as one of the greatest American mystery films ever made.

Lou Reed

Lewis Allan Reed (March 2, 1942 – October 27, 2013) was an American musician, singer, songwriter and poet. He was the lead guitarist, singer and principal songwriter for the rock band the Velvet Underground and had a solo career that spanned five decades. The Velvet Underground was not a commercial success during its existence, but are now regarded as one of the most influential bands in the history of underground and alternative rock music.

After leaving the band in 1970, Reed released twenty solo studio albums. His second, Transformer (1972), was produced by David Bowie and arranged by Mick Ronson, and brought mainstream recognition. After Transformer, the less commercial Berlin reached No. 7 on the UK Albums Chart. Rock 'n' Roll Animal (a live album released in 1974) sold strongly, and Sally Can't Dance (1974) peaked at No. 10 on the Billboard 200; but for a long period after, Reed's work did not translate into sales, leading him deeper into drug addiction and alcoholism. Reed cleaned up in the early 1980s, and gradually returned to prominence with New Sensations (1984), reaching a critical and commercial career peak with his 1989 album New York.

Reed participated in the reformation of the Velvet Underground in the 1990s, and made several more albums, including a collaboration album with John Cale titled Songs for Drella which was a tribute to their former mentor Andy Warhol. Magic and Loss (1992) would become Reed's highest-charting album on the UK Albums Chart, peaking at No. 6.

He contributed music to two theatrical interpretations of 19th century writers, one of which he developed into an album titled The Raven. He married his third wife Laurie Anderson in 2008, and recorded the collaboration album Lulu with Metallica. He died in 2013 of liver disease. Reed's distinctive deadpan voice, poetic lyrics and experimental guitar playing were trademarks throughout his long career.

Red Velvet (group)

Red Velvet (Hangul: 레드벨벳) is a South Korean girl group formed by SM Entertainment. The group debuted on August 1, 2014, with the digital single "Happiness" and four group members: Irene, Seulgi, Wendy, and Joy. In March 2015, Yeri was added into the group.

Since their debut, Red Velvet has released two studio albums, one reissue album, and eight extended plays in Korean, with nine of them topping South Korea's Gaon Album Chart. Their singles "Happiness", "Ice Cream Cake", "Dumb Dumb", "Russian Roulette", "Rookie", "Peek-a-Boo", and "Bad Boy" have all charted in the top five on Gaon Digital Chart, while their singles "Red Flavor" and "Power Up" topped the chart upon their releases. Additionally, they made their Japanese debut in July 2018 with the extended play #Cookie Jar. Red Velvet is regarded as one of the most popular K-pop groups worldwide by Time and Billboard and have received several awards for music, choreography, and popularity, including the Golden Disc New Artist Award in 2015 and the Mnet Asian Music Award for Best Female Group in 2017. The director of the Korea Foundation for International Cultural Exchange cited Red Velvet as a major contributor and one of the country's most talented idol groups who have "largely promoted K-pop" while discussing the Korean Wave in 2018.

Red Velvet is known for their 'dual concept' dubbed as their "red" and "velvet" sides which influences their styling and the music they release. The group's "red" half produces singles predominantly of the pop genre due to its bright and more youthful nature. Their singles "Ice Cream Cake", "Dumb Dumb" and "Red Flavor" are such examples. Their more mature "velvet" concept has spawned tracks primarily in the R&B genre. Their singles "Automatic" and "Bad Boy" are considered to be part of the "velvet" concept. They often incorporate other genres for the two sides, mixing them with genres such as electronic pop, hip-hop and disco. This dual concept has earned the group international praise for their versatility and diverse music.

The Velvet Underground

The Velvet Underground was an American rock band formed in 1964 in New York City by singer/guitarist Lou Reed, multi-instrumentalist John Cale, guitarist Sterling Morrison, and drummer Angus MacLise (replaced by Moe Tucker in 1965). The band was initially active between 1965 and 1973, and was briefly managed by the pop artist Andy Warhol, serving as the house band at the Factory and Warhol's Exploding Plastic Inevitable events from 1966 to 1967. Their debut album, The Velvet Underground & Nico (with German-born singer and model Nico), was released in 1967 to critical indifference and poor sales but has become critically acclaimed; in 2003, Rolling Stone called it the "most prophetic rock album ever made."The band's integration of rock and the avant-garde achieved little commercial success during its existence, but it is now recognized as one of the most influential bands in rock, underground, experimental, and alternative music. The provocative subject matter, musical experiments, and often nihilistic attitudes explored in the band's work proved influential in the development of punk rock and new wave music. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the band No. 19 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In 2017, a study of AllMusic's catalog indicated the Velvet Underground as the fifth most frequently cited artist influence in its database. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 by Patti Smith.

Velvet Revolution

The Velvet Revolution (Czech: sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (Slovak: nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia included students and older dissidents. The result was the end of 41 years of one-party rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the command economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.On 17 November 1989 (International Students' Day), riot police suppressed a student demonstration in Prague. The event marked the 50th anniversary of a violently suppressed demonstration against the Nazi storming of Prague University in 1939 where 1,200 students were arrested and 9 killed. (See Origin of International Students' Day for more information.) The 1989 event sparked a series of demonstrations from 17 November to late December and turned into an anti-communist demonstration. On 20 November, the number of protesters assembled in Prague grew from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated 500,000. The entire top leadership of the Communist Party, including General Secretary Miloš Jakeš, resigned on 24 November. On 27 November, a two-hour general strike involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia was held.

In response to the collapse of other Warsaw Pact governments and the increasing street protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on 28 November that it would relinquish power and end the one-party state. Two days later, the federal parliament formally deleted the sections of the Constitution giving the Communist Party a monopoly of power. Barbed wire and other obstructions were removed from the border with West Germany and Austria in early December. On 10 December, President Gustáv Husák appointed the first largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned. Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.

In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Velvet Revolver

Velvet Revolver was an American hard rock supergroup consisting of Guns N' Roses members Slash (lead guitar), Duff McKagan (bass, backing vocals), and former member Matt Sorum (drums, backing vocals), alongside Dave Kushner (rhythm guitar) formerly of punk band Wasted Youth, and Scott Weiland formerly of Stone Temple Pilots (STP). Weiland left the band to rejoin STP in 2008.

In 2004, the band achieved commercial success with their debut album, Contraband. Despite positive reviews, some critics initially described Velvet Revolver as a mere combination of Stone Temple Pilots and Guns N' Roses, and criticizing them for a "disconnection" between Weiland and the rest of the band. With their single "Slither", they won the 2005 Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance. The band released Libertad in 2007, driven by the release of the single "She Builds Quick Machines", and embarked on a tour with Alice in Chains.

In April 2008, Weiland abruptly left Velvet Revolver and reunited with Stone Temple Pilots. Velvet Revolver was put on indefinite hiatus and in November of that year, requested to be released by their record label RCA Records to allow themselves "complete freedom to go through whatever process it would take to accomplish" replacing Weiland.

Although Velvet Revolver worked on new material and auditioned new singers following Scott Weiland's departure, the band has not released any new material and only performed publicly once since 2008, when they reunited with Weiland for a one-off reunion show on January 12, 2012 at a benefit concert. This proved to be their last performance together before Weiland's death on December 3, 2015. Slash and McKagan have since rejoined Guns N' Roses.

Woven
Figured woven
Pile woven
Nonwoven
Knitted
Netted
Technical
Patterns
Textile fibers
Fabric mills
Related

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.