Vel' d'Hiv Roundup

The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (French: Rafle du Vélodrome d'Hiver, commonly called the Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv: "Vel' d'Hiv Police Roundup / Raid") was a Nazi-directed raid and mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police, code named Opération Vent printanier ("Operation Spring Breeze"), on 16 and 17 July 1942. The name "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup" is derived from the name of the Vélodrome d'Hiver ("Winter Velodrome"), a bicycle velodrome and stadium where a majority of the victims were temporarily confined. The roundup, assisted by French Police, was one of several aimed at eradicating the Jewish population in France, both in the occupied zone and in the free zone. According to records of the Préfecture de Police, 13,152 Jews were arrested,[1] including more than 4,000 children.[2] They were held at the Vélodrome d'Hiver in extremely crowded conditions, almost without food and water, and with no sanitary facilities, as well as at the Drancy, Pithiviers, and Beaune-la-Rolande internment camps,[2] then shipped in rail cattle cars to Auschwitz for their mass murder.

French President Jacques Chirac apologized in 1995 for the complicit role that French policemen and civil servants served in the raid. In 2017, President Emmanuel Macron more specifically admitted the responsibility of the French State in the roundup and hence, in the Holocaust.[3]

Rafle du Vel d'Hiv jardin du souvenir plaque
Commemorative plaque to the 8,160 victims held in the Vel' d'Hiv after the 16–17 July 1942 roundup of Jews in Paris. Inaugurated on 20 July 2008, the plaque is facing the Bir-Hakeim metro station, boulevard de Grenelle (Paris 15th arrondissement), a few meters from where the Vel d'Hiv used to be.

The Vélodrome d'Hiver

The Vélodrome d'Hiver was an indoor velodrome (cycle track) at the corner of boulevard de Grenelle and rue Nélaton in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, not far from the Eiffel Tower. It was built by Henri Desgrange, editor of L'Auto, who later organised the Tour de France, when his original track in the nearby Salle des Machines was listed for demolition in 1909 to improve the view of the Eiffel Tower.[4] As well as track cycling, the new building was used for ice hockey, wrestling, boxing, roller-skating, circuses, spectacles and demonstrations. In the 1924 Summer Olympics, several events were held there, including foil fencing, boxing, cycling (track), weightlifting, and wrestling.

Planning the roundup

The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, part of a continent-wide plan to intern and exterminate Europe's Jewish population, was a joint operation between the Germans and French administrators (see below for clarification).

Fichier Juif - Mémorial de la Shoah - Paris
The Fichier Juif registration file of Jews living in Occupied France. On 5 December 1997, Jacques Chirac, President of the French Republic, transferred this file to the Mémorial de la Shoah (Shoah Memorial) in Paris.

Until the German occupation of France in 1940, no roundup would have been possible because no census listing religions had been held in France since 1874. A German ordinance on 21 September 1940, however, forced Jewish people of the occupied zone to register at a police station or sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures). Nearly 150,000 registered in the department of the Seine, encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. Their names and addresses were kept by the French police in the fichier Tulard, a file named after its creator, André Tulard, of Commissariat général aux questions juives (CGQJ) "General Commission to Jewish Affairs", then headed by Xavier Vallat, and housed at Place des Petits-Pères, 2nd arrondissement of Paris, in the building of the former Banque Léopold Louis Dreyfus.

Theodor Dannecker, the SS captain head of the German police in France, said: "This filing system subdivided it into files alphabetically classed, Jews with French nationality and foreign Jews having files of different colors, and the files were also classed, according to profession, nationality and street." These files were then handed to section IV J of the Gestapo, in charge of the "Jewish problem."

The "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup" was not the first such roundup in World War II. In what is known as the Rafle du billet vert ("Roundup of the green ticket"), 3,747 Jewish men were arrested on 14 May 1941, as they had gone to a convocation (delivered on a green ticket to 6,694) for examen de situation ("check of situation") as foreign Jews living in France.[5] The convocation was a trap, and those who went were arrested and the same day taken by bus to the Gare d'Austerlitz, then shipped in four special trains to the two camps at Pithiviers and Beaune-La-Rolande in the Loiret department. Women, children, and more of the men followed in July 1942.

What became known as the "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup" was to be more important. To plan it, René Bousquet, secretary-general of the national police, and Louis Darquier de Pellepoix, who had replaced Xavier Vallat in May 1942 as head of the CGQJ, travelled on 4 July 1942 to Gestapo headquarters at 93 rue Lauriston (Paris, 16th arr) to meet Dannecker and Helmut Knochen of the SS. A further meeting took place in Dannecker's office in the avenue Foch on 7 July. Also present were Jean Leguay, Bousquet's deputy, Jean François[6] who was director of the general police, Émile Hennequin, head of Paris police, André Tulard, and others from the French police.

Dannecker met Adolf Eichmann on 10 July 1942, and another meeting took place the same day at the General Commission for Jewish Affairs (CGQJ) attended by Dannecker, Heinz Röthke, Ernst Heinrichsohn, Jean Leguay, Gallien, deputy to Darquier de Pellepoix, several police officials and representatives of the French railway service, the SNCF. The roundup was delayed because the French asked to avoid holding it a couple of days before Bastille Day on 14 July. The national holiday was not celebrated in the occupied zone, and there was a wish to avoid the risk of civil uprisings.

Dannecker declared: "The French police, despite a few considerations of pure form, have only to carry out orders!"[7]

The roundup was aimed at Jews from Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and the apatrides ("stateless"), whose origin couldn't be determined, all aged from 16 to 50. There were to be exceptions for women "in advanced state of pregnancy" or who were breast-feeding, but "to save time, the sorting will be made not at home but at the first assembly centre".[7]

The Germans planned for the French police to arrest 22,000 Jews in Greater Paris. The Jews would then be taken to internment camps at Drancy, Compiègne, Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande. André Tulard "will obtain from the head of the municipal police the files of Jews to be arrested... Children of less than 15 or 16 years will be sent to the Union Générale des Israélites de France, which will place them in foundations. The sorting of children will be done in the first assembly centres."[7]

Police complicity

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-N0619-506, Paris, Jüdische Frauen mit Stern
Two Jewish women in occupied Paris wearing the yellow Star of David badge in June 1942, a few weeks before the mass arrest

The position of the French police was complicated by the sovereignty of the Vichy government, which nominally administered France while accepting occupation of the north. Although in practice the Germans ran the north and had a strong and later total domination in the south, the formal position was that France and the Germans were separate. The position of Vichy and its leader, Philippe Pétain, was recognised throughout the war by many foreign governments.

The independence, however fictional, had to be preserved. German interference in internal policing, says the historian Julian T. Jackson, "would further erode that sovereignty which Vichy was so committed to preserving. This could only be avoided by reassuring Germany that the French would carry out the necessary measures."[8] Jackson adds that the decision to arrest Jews and Communists and Gaullists was "an autonomous policy, with its own indigenous roots." In other words the decision to do so was not forced on the Vichy regime by the Germans. Jackson also explains that the roundup of Jews must have been driven by the French since the Germans would not have had the necessary information or the manpower to find and arrest a full 13,000.[9]

On 2 July 1942, René Bousquet attended a planning meeting in which he raised no objection to the arrests and worried only about the "embarrassing [gênant]" fact that the French police would carry them out. Bousquet succeeded in a compromise that the police would round up only foreign Jews. Vichy ratified that agreement the following day.[8]

Although the police have been blamed for rounding up children of less than 16 – the age was set to preserve a fiction that workers were needed in the east – the order was given by Pétain's minister, Pierre Laval, supposedly as a "humanitarian" measure to keep families together. This too was a fiction, given that the parents of these children had already been deported, and documents of the period have revealed that the anti-semitic Laval's principal concern was what to do with Jewish children once their parents had been deported. The youngest child sent to Auschwitz under Laval's orders was 18 months old.

Three former SS officers testified in 1980 that Vichy officials had been enthusiastic about deportation of Jews from France. The investigator Serge Klarsfeld found minutes in German archives of meetings with senior Vichy officials and Bousquet's proposal that the roundup should cover non-French Jews throughout the country.[10] In 1990, charges of crimes against humanity were laid against Bousquet in relation to his role in the Vel' d'Hiv roundup of Jews based on complaints filed by Klarsfield.[11]

The historians Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper record:

Klarsfeld also revealed the telegrams Bousquet had sent to Prefects of départements in the occupied zone, ordering them to deport not only Jewish adults but children whose deportation had not even been requested by the Nazis.[10]

The roundup

Émile Hennequin, director of the city police, ordered on 12 July 1942 that "the operations must be effected with the maximum speed, without pointless speaking and without comment."

Beginning at 4:00 a.m. on 16 July 1942, 13,152 Jews were arrested.[1][12] According to records of the Préfecture de police, 5,802 (44%) of these were women and 4,051 (31%) were children. An unknown number of people, warned by the French Resistance or hidden by neighbors or benefiting from the lack of zeal or thoroughness of some policemen, escaped being rounded up. Conditions for the arrested were harsh: they could take only a blanket, a sweater, a pair of shoes and two shirts with them. Most families were split up and never reunited.[13]

After arrest, some Jews were taken by bus to an internment camp in an unfinished complex of apartments and apartment towers in the northern suburb of Drancy. Others were taken to the Vélodrome d'Hiver in the 15th arrondissement, which had already been used as a prison in a roundup in the summer of 1941.

The Vel' d'Hiv

The Vel' d'Hiv was available for hire to whoever wanted it. Among those who had booked it was Jacques Doriot, who led France's largest fascist party, the Parti Populaire Français. It was at the Vel' d'Hiv among other venues that Doriot, with his Hitler-like salute, roused crowds to join his cause. Among those who helped in the Rafle du Vel' d'hiv were 3,400 young members of Doriot's PPF.[14]

The Germans demanded the keys of the Vel' d'Hiv from its owner, Jacques Goddet, who had taken over from his father Victor and from Henri Desgrange. The circumstances in which Goddet surrendered the keys remain a mystery and the episode is given only a few lines in his autobiography.[15]

The Vel' d'Hiv had a glass roof, which had been painted dark blue to avoid attracting bomber navigators. The glass raised the heat when combined with windows screwed shut for security. The numbers held there vary according to accounts but one established figure is 7,500 of a final figure of 13,152.[12] They had no lavatories: of the 10 available, five were sealed because their windows offered a way out and the others were blocked.[16] The arrested Jews were kept there with only water and food brought by Quakers, the Red Cross and a few doctors and nurses allowed to enter. There was only one water tap. Those who tried to escape were shot on the spot. Some took their own lives.

After five days, the prisoners were taken to the internment camps of Drancy, Beaune-la-Rolande and Pithiviers, and later to extermination camps.

After the roundup

Roundups were conducted in both the northern and southern zones of France, but public outrage was greatest in Paris because of the numbers involved in a concentrated area. The Vel' d'Hiv was a landmark in the city centre. The Roman Catholic church was among the protesters. Public reaction obliged Laval to ask the Germans on 2 September not to demand more Jews. Handing them over, he said, was not like buying items in a discount store.[8] Laval managed to limit deportations mainly to foreign Jews and he and his defenders argued after the war that allowing the French police to conduct the roundup had been a bargain to ensure the life of Jews of French nationality.

In reality, "Vichy shed no tears over the fate of the foreign Jews in France, who were seen as a nuisance, 'dregs (déchets)' in Laval's words.[8][17] Laval told an American diplomat that he was "happy" to get rid of them.[8][18]

When a Protestant leader accused Laval of murdering Jews, Laval insisted they had been sent to build an agricultural colony in the East. "I talked to him about murder, he answered me with gardening."[8]

Drancy camp and deportation

WW2-Holocaust-Europe
The deportation route from Paris to Auschwitz

The internment camp at Drancy was easily defended because it was built of tower blocks in the shape of a horseshoe. It was guarded by French gendarmes. The camp's operation was under the Gestapo's section of Jewish affairs. Theodor Dannecker, a key figure both in the roundup and in the operation of Drancy, was described by Maurice Rajsfus in his history of the camp as "a violent psychopath... It was he who ordered the internees to starve, who banned them from moving about within the camp, to smoke, to play cards etc."[19]

In December 1941, forty prisoners from Drancy were murdered in retaliation for a French attack on German police officers.

Immediate control of the camp was by Heinz Röthke. It was under his direction from August 1942 to June 1943 that almost two-thirds of those deported in SNCF box car transports requisitioned by the Nazis from Drancy were sent to Auschwitz. Drancy is also the location where Klaus Barbie transported Jewish children that he captured in a raid of a children's home, before shipping them to Auschwitz where they were killed. Most of the initial victims, including those of the Vel' d'Hiv, were crammed in sealed wagons and died en route due to lack of food and water. Those who survived the passage died in the gas chambers.

At the Liberation of Paris in August 1944, the camp was run by the Resistance – "to the frustration of the authorities; the Prefect of Police had no control at all and visitors were not welcome."[10] – which used it to house not Jews but those it considered had collaborated with the Germans. When a pastor was allowed in on 15 September, he discovered cells 3.5m by 1.75m that had held six Jewish internees with two mattresses between them.[10] The prison returned to the conventional prison service on 20 September.

Aftermath

Pierre Laval and Carl Oberg in Paris
Pierre Laval with the head of German police units in France, Carl Oberg

The roundup accounted for more than a quarter of the 42,000 Jews sent from France to Auschwitz in 1942, of whom only 811 returned to France at the end of the war.

Pierre Laval's trial opened on 3 October 1945, his first defence being that he had been obliged to sacrifice foreign Jews to save the French. Uproar broke out in the court, with supposedly neutral jurors shouting abuse at Laval, threatening "a dozen bullets in his hide".[10] It was, said the historians Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper, "a cross between an auto-de-fé and a tribunal during the Paris Terror.[10] From 6 October, Laval refused to take part in the proceedings, hoping that the jurors' interventions would lead to a new trial. Laval was sentenced to death, and tried to commit suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule. Revived by doctors, he was executed by firing squad[10] at Fresnes Prison on 15 October.[8]

Jean Leguay survived the war and its aftermath and became president of Warner Lambert, Inc. from London (now merged with Pfizer), and later president of Substantia Laboratories in Paris. In 1979, he was charged for his role in the roundup.[20]

Louis Darquier was sentenced to death in absentia in 1947 for collaboration.[21] However, he had fled to Spain, where the Francisco Franco regime protected him.[22] In 1978, after he gave an interview stating the gas chambers of Auschwitz were used to kill lice, the French government requested his extradition. This request was refused by Spain.[23] He died on 29 August 1980, near Málaga, Spain.

Helmut Knochen was sentenced to death by a British Military Tribunal in 1946 for the murder of British pilots. The sentence was never carried out. He was extradited to France in 1954 and again sentenced to death. The sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. In 1962, the president, Charles de Gaulle, pardoned him and he was sent back to Germany, where he retired to Baden-Baden and died in 2003.

Émile Hennequin, head of Paris police, was condemned to eight years' penal labour in June 1947.

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-027-1475-37, Marseille, deutsch-französische Besprechung
23 January 1943: German-Vichy French meeting in Marseille. SS-Sturmbannführer Bernhard Griese, Marcel Lemoine (regional préfet), Rolf Mühler, (Commander of Marseille's Sicherheitspolizei), -laughing- René Bousquet (General Secretary of the French National Police created in 1941) creator of the GMRs, -behind- Louis Darquier de Pellepoix (Commissioner for Jewish Affairs).

René Bousquet was last to be tried, in 1949. He was acquitted of "compromising the interests of the national defence", but declared guilty of Indignité nationale for involvement in the Vichy government. He was given five years of Dégradation nationale, a measure immediately lifted for "having actively and sustainably participated in the resistance against the occupier". Bousquet's position was always ambiguous; there were times he worked with the Germans and others when he worked against them. After the war he worked at the Banque d'Indochine and in newspapers. In 1957, the Conseil d'État gave back his Legion of Honour, and he was given an amnesty on 17 January 1958, after which he stood for election that same year as a candidate for the Marne. He was supported by the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance; his second was Hector Bouilly, a radical-socialist general councillor. In 1974, Bousquet helped finance François Mitterrand's presidential campaign against Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1986, as accusations cast on Bousquet grew more credible, particularly after he was named by Louis Darquier,[24] he and Mitterrand stopped seeing each other. The parquet général de Paris closed the case by sending it to a court that no longer existed. Lawyers for the International Federation of Human Rights spoke of a "political decision at the highest levels to prevent the Bousquet affair from developing". In 1989, Serge Klarsfeld and his association des Fils et Filles des déportés juifs de France, the National Federation of deportees and internees, Resistants and Patriots and the Ligue des droits de l'homme filed a complaint against Bousquet for Crime against humanity, for the deportation of 194 children. Bousquet was committed to trial but on 8 June 1993 a 55-year-old mental patient named Christian Didier entered his flat and shot him dead.[8]

Theodor Dannecker was interned by the United States Army in December 1945 and a few days later committed suicide.

Jacques Doriot, whose French right-wing followers helped in the round-up, fled to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, and became a member of the exile Vichy government there. He died in February 1945 when his car was strafed by Allied fighters while he was travelling from Mainau to Sigmaringen. He was buried in Mengen.[25]

Action against the police

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B10919, Frankreich, Internierungslager Drancy
A French gendarme guarding Jews held at the Drancy internment camp

After the Liberation, survivors of the internment camp at Drancy began legal proceedings against gendarmes accused of being accomplices of the Nazis. An investigation began into 15 gendarmes, of whom 10 were accused at the Cour de justice de la Seine of conduct threatening the safety of the state. Three fled before the trial could start. The other seven said they were only obeying orders, despite numerous witnesses and accounts by survivors of brutality.

The court ruled on 22 March 1947, that the seven were found guilty but that most had rehabilitated themselves "by active participation, useful and sustained, offered to the Resistance against the enemy." Two others were jailed for two years and condemned to Dégradation nationale for five years. A year later they were reprieved.

Government admission

For decades the French government declined to apologize for the role of French policemen in the roundup or for any other state complicity. It was argued (by de Gaulle and others) that the French Republic had been dismantled when Philippe Pétain instituted a new French State during the war and that the Republic had been re-established when the war was over.[26] It was not for the Republic, therefore, to apologise for events caused by a state which France did not recognise. President François Mitterrand reiterated this position in a September 1994 speech. "I will not apologize in the name of France. The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible."[27]

On 16 July 1995, the next President, Jacques Chirac, reversed that position, stating that it was time that France faced up to its past. He acknowledged the role that "the French State" played in the persecution of Jews and others during the War.[27][28][3][29]

These black hours will stain our history for ever and are an injury to our past and our traditions. Yes, the criminal madness of the occupant was assisted ('secondée') by the French, by the French state. Fifty-three years ago, on 16 July 1942, 4500 policemen and gendarmes, French, under the authority of their leaders, obeyed the demands of the Nazis. That day, in the capital and the Paris region, nearly 10,000 Jewish men, women and children were arrested at home, in the early hours of the morning, and assembled at police stations... France, home of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, land of welcome and asylum, France committed that day the irreparable. Breaking its word, it delivered those it protected to their executioners.

To mark the 70th anniversary of the Vél d'Hiv roundup, President François Hollande gave a speech at the monument on 22 July 2012. The president recognized that this event was a crime committed "in France, by France," and emphasized that the deportations in which French police participated were offenses committed against French values, principles, and ideals.[30]

The earlier claim that the Government of France during World War II was some illegitimate group was again advanced by Marine Le Pen, leader of the National Front Party, during the 2017 election campaign. In speeches, she claimed that the Vichy government was "not France".[31][27][32]

On 16 July 2017, also in commemoration of the victims of the roundup, President Emmanuel Macron denounced his country's role in the Holocaust and the historical revisionism that denied France's responsibility for 1942 roundup and subsequent deportation of 13,000 Jews. "It was indeed France that organised this [roundup]", he said, French police collaborating with the Nazis. "Not a single German took part," he added. Chirac had already stated that the Government during the War represented the French State.[33] Macron was even more specific in this respect: "It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. Yes, it's convenient, but it is false. We cannot build pride upon a lie."[34][3]

Macron made a subtle reference to Chirac's 1995 apology when he added, "I say it again here. It was indeed France that organized the roundup, the deportation, and thus, for almost all, death."[35][36]

Memorials and monuments

Paris

Rafle du Vel d'Hiv jardin du souvenir plaque
Commemorative plaque to the victims held in the Vel' d'Hiv after the 16–17 July 1942 roundup of Jews in Paris.

A fire destroyed part of the Vélodrome d'Hiver in 1959 and the rest of the structure was demolished. A block of flats and a building belonging to the Ministry of the Interior now stand on the site. A plaque marking the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup was placed on the track building after the War and moved to 8 boulevard de Grenelle in 1959.

Vel' d'Hiv Roundup
Vel' d'Hiv Monument (Quai de Grenelle)

On 3 February 1993, President François Mitterrand, commissioned a monument to be erected on the site.[37] It stands now on a curved base, to represent the cycle track, on the edge of the quai de Grenelle. It is the work of the Polish sculptor Walter Spitzer and the architect Mario Azagury. Spitzer's family were survivors of deportation to Auschwitz. The statue represents all deportees but especially those of the Vel' d'Hiv. The sculptures include children, a pregnant woman and a sick man. The words on the Mitterrand-era monument still differentiate between the French Republic and the Vichy Government that ruled during WW II, so they do not accept State responsibility for the roundup of the Jews. The words are in French but are translated as follows: "The French Republic pays homage to the victims of racist and anti-Semitic persecutions and crimes against humanity committed under the so-called 'Government of the State of France' 1940-1944. Let us never forget."[38][33] The monument was inaugurated on 17 July 1994. A commemorative ceremony is held here every year in July.

A memorial plaque in memory of victims of the Vel' d'Hiv raid was placed at the Bir-Hakeim station of the Paris Métro on 20 July 2008. The ceremony was led by Jean-Marie Bockel, Secretary of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and was attended by Simone Veil, a deportee and former minister, anti-Nazi activist Beate Klarsfeld, and numerous dignitaries.

A new Shoah memorial museum was opened in 2012 just opposite the sculpture memorial and railway wagon by President François Hollande. It provides details of the persecution of the Jews in France and many personal mementos of inmates before their deportation to Auschwitz and their death. They include messages written on the walls, graffiti, drinking mugs and other personal belongings left by the prisoners, some of which are inscribed with the names of the owners. The ground floor also shows a changing exhibit of prisoner faces and names, as a memorial to their imprisonment and then murder by the Germans, assisted by the French gendarmerie.[39]

Drancy

Drancy Wagon-Témoin
A railway wagon used to carry internees to Auschwitz and now displayed at Drancy

A memorial was also constructed in 1976 at Drancy internment camp, after a design competition won by Shelomo Selinger. It stands beside a rail wagon of the sort used to take prisoners to the death camps. It is three blocks forming the Hebrew letter Shin, traditionally written on the Mezuzah at the door of houses occupied by Jews. Two other blocks represent the gates of death. Shelomo Selinger said of his work: "The central block is composed of 10 figures, the number needed for collective prayer (Minyan). The two Hebrew letters Lamed and Vav are formed by the hair, the arm and the beard of two people at the top of the sculpture. These letters have the numeric 36, the number of Righteous[40] thanks to whom the world exists according to Jewish tradition."

On 25 May 2001, the cité de la Muette – formal name of the Drancy apartment blocks – was declared a national monument by the culture minister, Catherine Tasca.

The Holocaust researcher Serge Klarsfeld said in 2004: "Drancy is the best known place for everyone of the memory of the Shoah in France; in the crypt of Yad Vashem (Jérusalem), where stones are engraved with the names of the most notorious Jewish concentration and extermination camps, Drancy is the only place of memory in France to feature."[41]

Bibliography

  • Jean-Luc Einaudi and Maurice Rajsfus, Les silences de la police – 16 juillet 1942, 17 octobre 1961, 2001, L'Esprit frappeur, ISBN 2-84405-173-1 (Rajsfus is an historian of the French police, the second date refers to the 1961 Paris massacre under the orders of Maurice Papon, who would later be judged for his role during Vichy in Bordeaux)
  • Serge Klarsfeld, "Vichy-Auschwitz: Le rôle de Vichy dans la Solution Finale de la question Juive en France- 1942," Paris: Fayard, 1983.
  • Claude Lévy and Paul Tillard, "La grande rafle du Vėl d'Hiv," Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1992.
  • Maurice Rajsfus, Jeudi noir, Éditions L'Harmattan. Paris, 1988. ISBN 2-7384-0039-6
  • Maurice Rajsfus, La Rafle du Vél' d'Hiv', Que sais-je ?, éditions PUF
  • André Girod, " Flammes du père inconnu" Publibook

Primary sources

  • Instructions given by chief of police Hennequin for the raid. (in French)
  • Serge Klarsfeld, "Vichy-Auschwitz: Le rôle de Vichy dans la Solution Finale de la question Juive en France- 1942," Paris: Fayard, 1983.

Klarsfeld's work contains nearly 300 pages of primary sources on French roundups in 1942.

Film documentaries and books

  • André Bossuroy, 2011. ICH BIN, with the support from the Fondation Hippocrène and from the EACEA Agency of the European Commission (Programme Europe for citizens – An active European remembrance), RTBF, VRT.
  • William Karel, 1992. La Rafle du Vel-d'Hiv, La Marche du siècle, France 3.
  • Annette Muller, La petite fille du Vel' d'Hiv, Publisher Denoël, Paris, 1991. New edition by Annette et Manek Muller, La petite fille du Vel' d'Hiv, Publisher Cercil, Orléans, 2009, preface by Serge Klarsfeld, prize Lutèce (Témoignage).
  • Tatiana de Rosnay, Sarah's Key (novel), book: St. Martin's Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-312-37083-1 (also 2010 film)

The events form the framework of:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Pourquoi le rafle n'a pas ateint son objectif" (PDF). AIDH.org. p. 52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2009-12-31.
  2. ^ a b "The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup". The Holocaust in France. Yad Vashem. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Goldman, Russell (17 July 2017). "Macron Denounces Anti-Zionism as 'Reinvented Form of Anti-Semitism'". Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
  4. ^ Vives, Marie; Chevallier, Fabienne. "Architecture et sport en France 1918–1945: une histoire politique et culturelle". Archived from the original on 2007-09-22. Retrieved November 2007. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ "Premières rafles et camps d'internement en zone occupée en 1941". www.cercleshoah.org. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  6. ^ Laffitte, Michel (1 April 2008). "Case Study: The Vel' d'Hiv round-up". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. ISSN 1961-9898. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  7. ^ a b c CDJC-CCCLXIV 2. Document produced in court Oberg-Knochen in September 1954, cited by Maurice Rajsfus in La Police de Vichy – Les forces de l'ordre au service de la Gestapo, 1940/1944, Le Cherche Midi, 1995, p. 118
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Jackson, Julian (2001). France: The Dark Years. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820706-9.
  9. ^ Weber, Eugen. "France's Downfall". Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Beevor, Antony; Artemis Cooper (1995). Paris After the Liberation: 1944–1949. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023059-9.
  11. ^ Levy, Richard S. (27 March 2018). "Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ a b Le Figaro, 22 July 2002
  13. ^ For more information on a reliable and well known case of deportation, see the article on Bereck Kofman, father of the famous French philosopher Sarah Kofman.
  14. ^ Grumwald, Liliane; Cattaert, Claude (1979). Le Vel' d'Hiv. France: Ramsay Image.
  15. ^ Goddet, Jacques (1991). L'Équipée Belle. France: Robert Laffont.
  16. ^ "The track that died of shame", Procycling, UK, 2002
  17. ^ Klarsfeld, Serge (2001). La Shoah en France: Vichy-Auschwitz la solution finale de la question juive en France. Fayard. ISBN 978-2213601830.
  18. ^ Kupferman, Fred (1987). Pierre Laval. Balland., Tallandier, 2006.
  19. ^ Rajsfus, Maurice (1995). La Police de Vichy – Les forces de l'ordre au service de la Gestapo, 1940/1944. France: Le Cherche Midi.
  20. ^ "Jean Leguay, 79, Accused of War Crimes". The New York Times. New York: NYTC. 5 July 1989. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  21. ^ Callil, Carmen (2006). Bad Faith: A Forgotten History of Family And Fatherland. UK: Cape. ISBN 0-375-41131-3.
  22. ^ Fraser, Nicholas (October 2006). "Toujours Vichy: a reckoning with disgrace". Harper's: 86–94.
  23. ^ English translation of the 1978 interview in L'Express, accessed online, 7 August 2009.
  24. ^ Intervies, L'Express, 1978
  25. ^ "Jacques Doriot, French Pro-Nazi, is Killed by Allied Fliers, Germans Report". New York Times. February 24, 1945.
  26. ^ Wolf, Joan Beth (27 March 2018). "Harnessing the Holocaust: The Politics of Memory in France". Stanford University Press. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ a b c Simons, Marlise. "Chirac Affirms France's Guilt In Fate of Jews". Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  28. ^ "France opens WW2 Vichy regime files". 28 December 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  29. ^ "Allocution de M. Jacques CHIRAC Président de la République prononcée lors des cérémonies commémorant la grande rafle des 16 et 17 juillet 1942 (Paris)" (PDF). www.jacqueschirac-asso (in French). 16 July 1995. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  30. ^ Willsher, Kim (22 July 2012). "François Hollande sorry for wartime deportation of Jews". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  31. ^ Paris, Agence-France Presse in (9 April 2017). "Marine Le Pen denies French role in wartime roundup of Paris Jews". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  32. ^ McAuley, James (10 April 2017). "Marine Le Pen: France 'not responsible' for deporting Jews during Holocaust". Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  33. ^ a b Carrier, Peter (27 March 2018). "Holocaust Monuments and National Memory Cultures in France and Germany Since 1989: The Origins and Political Function of the Vél' D'Hiv' in Paris and the Holocaust Monument in Berlin". Berghahn Books. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  34. ^ Press, Associated (17 July 2017). "'France organised this': Macron denounces state role in Holocaust atrocity". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  35. ^ McAuley, James (16 July 2017). "Macron hosts Netanyahu, condemns anti-Zionism as anti-Semitism". Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  36. ^ "Israel PM mourns France's deported Jews". 16 July 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  37. ^ Presidential decree, 3 February 1993
  38. ^ "Musée de la résistance en ligne". museedelaresistanceenligne.org. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  39. ^ Fisher, Robert I. C.; Klein, Rachel (4 November 2008). "Fodor's France 2009". Fodor's Travel Publications. Retrieved 27 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  40. ^ See Righteous among the nations
  41. ^ Le camp de Drancy et ses gares de déportation: Bourget-Drancy et Bobigny, 20 août 1941 – 20 août 1944, FFDJF, January 2004.

/*"Flammes du père inconnu" d'André Girod avec la Rafle du Vel d'Hiv*/

External links

1942 in France

Events from the year 1942 in France.

Drancy internment camp

The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II. It was located in Drancy, a northeastern suburb of Paris, France. Between 22 June 1942, and 31 July 1944, during its use as an internment camp, 67,400 French, Polish, and German Jews were deported from the camp in 64 rail transports, which included 6,000 children. Only 1,542 remained alive at the camp when Allied forces liberated it on 17 August 1944.Drancy was under the control of the French police until 1943 when administration was taken over by the SS, who placed officer Alois Brunner in charge of the camp. In 2001, Brunner's case was brought before a French court by Nazi hunter Serge Klarsfeld, which sentenced Brunner in absentia to a life sentence for crimes against humanity.

Escapees' Medal

The Escapees' Medal (French: Médaille des Évadés) is a military award bestowed by the government of France to individuals who were prisoners of war and who successfully escaped internment or died as a result of their escape attempt. The "Escapees' Medal" was established by a 1926 law, intended to honour combatants not only of the First World War, but also of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Its statute was later amended to include combatants of the Second World War and later conflicts.

Index of World War II articles (V)

V-1 flying bomb

V-2 rocket

V-3 cannon

V-42 Stiletto

V-mail

V Amphibious Corps

V and W-class destroyer

V Bomber Command

V Corps (United Kingdom)

V Corps (United States)

V for Victory

V Force

Věra Kohnová

Vaad Hatzalah

Vahid Halilhodžić

Vaihingen an der Enz concentration camp

Vaivara concentration camp

Val-de-Grâce

Val de Fontenay (Paris RER)

Val de Seine

Valaam Monastery

Valdemar Langlet

Valdo Filho

Valentin Conrart

Valentin Feurstein

Valentin le désossé

Valentin Poénaru

Valentin submarine pens

Valentin Varennikov

Valentina Grizodubova

Valentine tank

Valentine Vivian

Valençay SOE Memorial

Valerian Tevzadze

Valerian Trifa

Valery Tarakanov

Valiant (2005 film)

Valiant tank

Valkenburg resistance

Valkyrie (film)

Valley International Airport

Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)

Valston Hancock

Valter Palm

Valter Perić

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

Vampeta

Van T. Barfoot

Vaneau

Vanessa Vadim

Vannevar Bush

Vapniarka

Varenne (Paris Métro)

Varian Fry

Varig Flight 820

Vasile Luca

Vasilije Šijaković

Vasiliy Kononov

Vasily Chuikov

Vasily Dzhugashvili

Vasily Fesenkov

Vasily Osipov

Vasily Volsky

Vasily Zaytsev

Vasko Popa

Vasyl Kuk

Vaughan L. Baird

Vaugirard (Paris Métro)

Vauquelin-class destroyer

Vavin (Paris Métro)

VB-6 Felix

VBF-1

VDP cloche

Većeslav Holjevac

Vedad Ibišević

Vedem

Veit Harlan

Vel' d'Hiv Roundup

Veli Nieminen

Velibor Jonić

Velibor Vasović

Velimir Škorpik

Veljko Vlahović

Velvalee Dickinson

Venezia Giulia Police Force

Veniamin Fleishman

Venice Municipal Airport

Venise, La Piazetta

Venlo Incident

Venona project

Venus and Cupid with a Satyr

Venus and Mars (sculpture)

Venus de Milo

Venus Genetrix (sculpture)

Venus of Arles

Vera Atkins

Vera Bjelik

Vera Laughton Mathews

Vera Leigh

Vera Lynn

Vera Salvequart

Verdeja (tank)

Vereen Bell

Vergangenheitsbewältigung

Vergeltungswaffe

Verity Lambert

Vernard Eugene Bivin

Verne Orr

Vernon Baker

Vernon Crompton Woodward

Vernon E. Megee

Vernon McGarity

Vernon Schillinger

Veronica Bulshefski

Veronica Foster

Very Important Person (film)

Veselin Masleša

Vessels of Polish Riverine Flotilla

VFL/AFL players who died in active service

VI Corps (Germany)

VI Corps (United States)

Via della Vittoria

Viaduc d'Austerlitz

Vice and Virtue

Vicente Lim

Vichy France

Vichy French Air Force

Vickers .50 machine gun

Vickers 6-Ton

Vickers K machine gun

Vickers machine gun

Vickers Type 40 mm AT/AA Gun

Vickers Type 432

Victims of the Night of the Long Knives

Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy

Victor-Marie d'Estrées

Victor Abens

Victor Anfuso

Victor Bodson

Victor Buller Turner

Victor Bussie

Victor Canning

Victor Cherbuliez

Victor Clarence Secombe

Victor Cousin

Victor Crutchley

Victor de Laprade

Victor Duruy

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Fortune

Victor Frederick Weisskopf

Victor Gotbaum

Victor H. Krulak

Victor Henri Rochefort, Marquis de Rochefort-Luçay

Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow

Victor Hubert Tait

Victor Hugo (Paris Métro)

Victor Hugo

Victor Klemperer

Victor Kugler

Victor L. Kandle

Victor Nehlig

Victor Noir

Victor Odlum

Victor Perez

Victor Strydonck de Burkel

Victor Thibaud

Victor Windeyer

Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie

Victoria Cross

Victoria Regional Airport

Victorien Sardou

Victory at Sea

Victory Day (Eastern Europe)

Victory in Europe Day

Victory in the Pacific

Victory over Japan Day

Victory ship

Victory Through Air Power

Vidkun Quisling

Vienna Awards —see First Vienna Award and Second Vienna Award

Vienna Offensive

Việt Minh

Vietnam during World War II

Vietnamese Famine of 1945

Viggo Hansteen

VII Corps (United Kingdom)

VII Corps (United States)

VIII Corps (United Kingdom)

VIII Corps (United States)

VIII Fighter Command

Vikash Dhorasoo

Viktor Bauer

Viktor Brack

Viktor Frankl

Viktor Line

Vittorio Gliubich

Viktor Lutze

Viktor Schütze

Viktor Talalikhin

Viktor Ullmann

Vilfredo Pareto

Vilhelm Andersson

Vilhelm Buhl

Vilhelm Carlberg

Vilhelm Vett

Vilho Niittymaa

Vilho Pekkala

Vilho Tuulos

Villa Bouchina

Villa Jeanneret

Villard-de-Lans

Ville Pörhölä

Ville Ritola

Villejuif – Léo Lagrange (Paris Métro)

Villejuif – Paul Vaillant-Couturier (Paris Métro)

Villejuif – Louis Aragon (Paris Métro)

Villeneuve-Loubet mass grave

Villiers (Paris Métro)

Vilmos Apor

Vilna Ghetto

Vilnius Offensive Operation

Vincennes (Paris RER)

Vincennes Racecourse

Vincent Briant

Vincent Clerc

Vincent Cronin

Vincent Estève

Vincent Fernandez

Vincent Fourcade

Vincent Guérin

Vincent Laban

Vincent Martin Dantzer

Vincent Richards

Vincent Voiture

Vincenz Müller

Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Fagiolo

Vincenzo Pappalettera

Vinkt Massacre

Viola Liuzzo

Violet Kazue de Cristoforo

Violette Szabo

Viorel Moldovan

Viorica Agarici

Vir-e-Hind

Virgil R. Miller

Virgilio Levratto

Virgin and Child from the Sainte-Chapelle

Virgin of the Rocks

Virginia Hall

Virginia Holocaust Museum

Virginia Martinez (Louisiana politician)

Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione

Virginio Rosetta

Virtuti Militari

Vis (weapon)

Visalia Municipal Airport

Visas and Virtue

Visitor attractions in Paris

Vitebsk-Orsha Offensive Operation

Vito R. Bertoldo

Vitomil Zupan

Vitsyebsk gate

Vittorio Ambrosio

Vittorio Lucchetti

Vitéz Szügyi Zoltán

Vivian Bullwinkel

Vivian Hollowday

Vjekoslav Luburić

Vjekoslav Vrančić

VKT-line

Vlaams Blok

Vladas Zajanckauskas

Vladek Spiegelman

Vladica Kovačević

Vladimir Arnold

Vladimir Bakarić

Vladimir Belussov

Vladimir Boyarsky

Vladimir Dedijer

Vladimir Šipčić

Vladimir Gelfand

Vladimir Kokkinaki

Vladimir Kolpakchi

Vladimir Kren

Vladimir Laxa

Vladimir Metikoš

Vladimir Nazor

Vladimir Peniakoff

Vladimir Petrov (author)

Vladimir Posner

Vladimir Pozner

Vladimir Sabich

Vladimir Stojković

Vladimir Velebit

Vladimir Veličković

Vladimir Voronkov

Vladko Maček

Vlado Bagat

Võ Nguyên Giáp

Voitto Kolho

Vojta Beneš

Vojtech Tuka

Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign

Volcker Commission

Voldemars Veiss

Volga Tatar Legion

Volkhov Front

Volksartilleriekorps

Volksdeutsche Bewegung

Volksempfänger

Volksfront

Volksgemeinschaft

Volksgesetzbuch

Volksgrenadier

Volkshalle

Volksliste

Volkspartei der Schweiz

Volkssturm

Volkssturmgewehr 1-5

Volkssturmmann

Volkswagen Kübelwagen

Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

Volkswagen

Vollan prison

Volmar Wikström

Volodymyr Bahaziy

Volodymyr Kubiyovych

Volontaires (Paris Métro)

Voltaire (Paris Métro)

Voltaire

Volturno Line

Volunteer Air Observers Corps (Australia)

Volunteer Defence Corps (Australia)

Volunteer Fighting Corps

Volunteer Regiment of Buda

Von Blücher Brothers at Crete

Von Ryan's Express

Voronezh Front

Vorpostenboot

Vrba-Wetzler report

Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov

Václav Morávek

Václav Nedomanský

Václav Nový

VT-line

V–J day in Times Square

Vultee A-19

Vyacheslav Dryagin

Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Vedenin

Vz. 24

Vz. 27

Vz. 33

Vz. 50

Vz. 52 machine gun

Vz. 52 rifle

Vélib'

Vélodrome Buffalo

Vélodrome d'hiver

Vélodrome de Vincennes

Véronique Le Flaguais

Jean Babilée

Jean Babilée (real name Jean Gutman(n); 3 February 1923 – 30 January 2014) was a prominent French dancer and choreographer of the latter half of the 20th century. He is considered to have been one of modern ballet's greatest performers, and the first French dancer to gain international acclaim. Babilée has been called the "enfant terrible of dance."Born in Paris in 1923, the son of a doctor, Babilée studied at the Paris Opéra Ballet School from 1936 to 1940. His dance career was interrupted during World War II because he was Jewish on his father's side. He left Paris in 1940 when the Wehrmacht was approaching the city, but returned to dance with the Paris Opera Ballet in early 1942. He narrowly escaped being sent to Auschwitz during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup in Paris on 16 July 1942. In early 1943 he left the city to avoid compulsory deportation to Germany as a forced laborer. He spent the rest of the war with the French Resistance, fighting with the Maquis in Touraine.After the war, Babilée returned to dance, joining the Soirées de la Danse, which later became Les Ballet des Champs Elysées. His birth name was Jean Gutmann, but he adopted his mother's maiden name for professional use. Babilée enjoyed some of his greatest successes as a member of Les Ballets des Champs-Elysées and Les Ballets de Paris. From 1945 to 1950 he was principal dancer of the Ballets des Champs-Élysées, for which he created roles in ballets including Jeu de cartes, Jean Cocteau's Le Jeune Homme et la Mort, L'Amour et son amour, and Till Eulenspiegel. In several of these ballets he performed opposite his wife, featured ballerina Nathalie Philippart. In the 1940s Babilée quickly developed a reputation for his physical prowess. It was said that he could leap better than any dancer since Nijinsky, and in the 1946 premiere of Le Jeune Homme et la Mort he hung by his neck on a gallows for one minute, supported only by wrapping one arm around a pillar.In the 1950s he danced as a guest of Le Ballet de l'Opéra de Paris and the American Ballet Theatre, before forming his own company, Les Ballets Jean Babilée. In 1972 and 1973 he served as director of the Ballet du Rhin in Strasbourg. In the early 1980s, Maurice Béjart created the solo Life for him. In 1984, at the age of 61, he performed Le Jeune Homme et la Mort with the Ballet de Marseille.He also appeared as a stage actor and in several films.The 2000 documentary film Le Mystère Babilée, directed by Patrick Bensard, reconstructs Babilée's career through interviews with the dancer, excerpts from his choreographic work, and recollections by observers and collaborators including Béjart, Christian Lacroix, Jean-Paul Goude and Yvette Chauviré.

Jean Leguay

Jean Leguay (29 November 1909 – 2 July 1989) was second in command in the French National Police during the Nazi Occupation of France. He was complicit in the 1942 roundup of Jews in Paris and their deportation from France to Nazi extermination camps, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people, both adults and children.

L'Esprit frappeur

L'Esprit frappeur (French for "ghost" or "poltergeist"), is a French publishing house, specialized in low-cost books. Before the change to euros, it used to sell its books for 10 or 20 Francs; they now cost between 2,5 euros and 5 euros. L'Esprit frappeur edits many texts more or less censored for economic or political reasons by larger companies.

L'Heure Bretonne

L'Heure Bretonne ("The Breton Times") was a Breton nationalist weekly newspaper which was published from June 1940 to June 1944. It was the organ of the Breton National Party and was strongly associated with collaborationist politics during World War II.

List of roles and awards of Mélanie Laurent

Mélanie Laurent is a French actress, singer, screenwriter and director. She initially rose to prominence for her performance in the 2006 French drama film Don't Worry, I'm Fine for which she later won the César Award for Most Promising Actress and the Prix Romy Schneider. Laurent further became known to international audiences for her starring role as Shosanna Dreyfus in Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds (2009), for which she won the Online Film Critics Society and the Austin Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress. She went on star in commercially successful Hollywood films including, the comedy drama Beginners (2011), and the caper film Now You See Me (2013), with the former earning her a nomination at the San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress.

Laurent's notable works include Dikkenek (2006), a Franco-Belgian comedy film for which she won Étoiles d'Or for Best Female Newcomer, French war film Days of Glory (2006), Cédric Klapisch's Paris (2008) with an ensemble cast, The Round Up (2010), a French movie depicting the true story of a Jewish boy amidst the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, comedy drama Et soudain, tout le monde me manque (2011) which won her the Best Actress Award at the Newport Beach Film Festival , French-American nature documentary Wings of Life (2011) serving as narrator, Night Train to Lisbon (2013), Canadian-Spanish psycho thriller Enemy (2013; an adaptation of José Saramago's novel The Double), and drama film Aloft (2014). In addition she has acted in numerous other French movies receiving accolades including the Étoiles d'or du cinéma français (Gold Star of French Cinema).

In her first theater appearance Laurent teamed up with French theatre director Nicolas Bedos and shared the stage with actor Jérôme Kircher in 2010 for Promenade de santé. Apart from her acting career, she has also directed several French movies including short-films for X Femmes, a television series, and Respire, an adaptation of Anne-Sophie Brasme's novel of the same name that screened in the International Critics' Week section at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival. The latter won the Stockholm International Film Festival - Bronze Horse for Best Film. Laurent also directed the documentary film Demain, which won the César Award for Best Documentary Film and was also nominated for the Lumières Award for Best Documentary.

Main-d'œuvre immigrée

The Main-d'œuvre immigrée was a French trade unionist organisation, composed of immigrant workers of the Confédération générale du travail unitaire (CGTU) in the 1920s. The MOI was affiliated to the Profintern. The MOI was initially named Main d'œuvre étrangère, but the French Communist Party, who in practice were in charge, changed the name from étrangère (foreign) to immigrée (immigrant) due to perceived xenophobia during the 1930s.

During the Second World War, Louis Grojnowski (called "Brunot") and Simon Cukier aka Alfred Grant took charge, and the organisation gave rise to an armed squad, the FTP-MOI, directed by Joseph Epstein.

After the mass arrest of more than 13,000 Jews in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup in July 1942, the groups became somewhat more active. Pursued relentlessly by the Special Brigades of the Renseignements généraux, almost all the MOI fighters had been identified by the end of summer 1943. In the autumn the French police arrested them all, and nothing remained of the FTP-MOI.

The most famous of the FTP-MOI's members was Missak Manouchian, and the FTP-MOI is widely known from the Affiche rouge, a German propaganda poster displaying the members of the FTP-MOI after their arrest at the end of 1943, whose aim was to stigmatise the presence of foreigners and Jews among the French Resistance; a poem by Louis Aragon, set to music and sung by Léo Ferré, deals with this story.

In Belgium too there was a Main-d'œuvre immigrée organization, which took part in the Belgian Resistance in the ranks of the Front de l'Indépendance under the leadership of the Bulgarian Todor Angelov and the Italian-Belgian Jacques Grippa, while others were also active in Solidarité juive or in the Comité de Défense des Juifs, led by Hertz Jospa and Have Groisman.

Monsieur Klein

Monsieur Klein (Mr. Klein) is a 1976 French film directed by Joseph Losey, with Alain Delon starring in the title role.

Mélusine Mayance

Mélusine Mayance (born 21 March 1999 in Paris) is a French actress.

She is best known for her role in the 2010 French-Language film "Sarah's Key", in which she portrayed the childhood version of the story's main character "Sarah Starzynski" (whose life story is uncovered and told by Kristin Scott Thomas's character many decades after the end of the second world war). Known in French as Elle s'appelait Sarah, the historical fiction film is set in 1942 France, in the midst of the second world war. Mélusine's character is a young Jewish child whose family is rounded up and arrested in downtown Paris during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup before being sent to Auschwitz for extermination. Mayance rose to success while starring in films such as Vive Les Vacances! and Ricky in which she plays the half-sister of an infant boy who grows a pair of wings.

Public apology

A public apology is a component of reparation as stipulated in the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights resolution proclaiming the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. It is also defined as a restorative process intended to heal and to generate forgiveness on the part of the offended party, for the improper behavior or action of the offender. The process consists in three components: acknowledgment of wrongdoing, admission of responsibility and the action of the wrongdoer to compensate damages produced.

Besides the role of healing and bringing forgiveness on the part of the offended party, public apologies have the function of restoring the health of the social interaction and “publicly acknowledging a shared commitment to some moral values”. According to Cohen(2016)"In order to restore or create moral relations among transgressors and their victims, transgressors …. need to admit their wrongdoing, commemorate or memorialize history, and, most notably, provide an apology."

René Bousquet

René Bousquet (French: [ʁəne buske]; 11 May 1909 – 8 June 1993) was a high-ranking French political appointee who served as secretary general to the Vichy regime police from May 1942 to 31 December 1943. For personal heroism, he had become a protégé of prominent officials before the war and rose rapidly in the government.

In 1949, he was automatically convicted as a Vichy official and sentenced to five years of Indignité nationale, but his sentence was reduced due to beliefs that he also aided the Resistance and attempted to preserve some autonomy for French police during the Nazi Occupation. Excluded from the government, he went into business. After receiving amnesty in 1959, Bousquet became active again in politics, supporting left-wing politicians through the 1970s, and becoming a regular visitor of François Mitterrand after his election as president in the 1980s.

In 1989, after years of increasing accusations about his activities during the war, Bousquet was accused by three groups of crimes against humanity. He was ultimately indicted by the French Ministry of Justice in 1991 for his decisions during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup in 1942, which led to Jewish children being deported and killed in eastern Europe Nazi extermination camps. Bousquet was assassinated in 1993 by Christian Didier shortly before his trial was to begin.

Sarah's Key

Sarah's Key (French: Elle s'appelait Sarah) is a 2010 French drama directed and co-written by Gilles Paquet-Brenner and an adaptation of the novel with the same title by Tatiana de Rosnay.Sarah's Key follows a journalist's present-day investigation into the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of Jews in German-occupied Paris in 1942. It tells the story of a young girl's experiences during and after these events, illustrating the participation of the French bureaucracy as well as French citizens hiding and protecting Sarah from the French authorities.The film alternates between Sarah's life in 1942 and the journalist researching the story in 2002.

Sarah's Key (novel)

Sarah's Key is a novel by Tatiana de Rosnay, first published in its French translation as Elle s'appelait Sarah in September 2006. Two main parallel plots are followed through the book. The first is that of ten-year-old Sarah Starzynski, a Jewish girl born in Paris, who is arrested with her parents during the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Before they go, she locks her four-year-old brother in a cupboard, thinking the family should be back in a few hours. The second plot follows Julia Jarmond, an American journalist living in Paris, who is asked to write an article in honour of the 60th anniversary of the roundup.

The Round Up (2010 film)

The Round Up (French: La Rafle) is a 2010 French film directed by Roselyne Bosch and produced by Alain Goldman. The film stars Mélanie Laurent, Jean Reno, Sylvie Testud and Gad Elmaleh. Based on the true story of a young Jewish boy, the film depicts the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv), the mass arrest of Jews by French police who were accomplices of Nazi Germans in Paris in July 1942.

Vélodrome d'Hiver

The Vélodrome d'Hiver (French pronunciation: ​[velɔdʁɔm divɛʁ], Winter Velodrome), colloquially Vel' d'Hiv, was an indoor bicycle racing cycle track and stadium (velodrome) on rue Nélaton, not far from the Eiffel Tower in Paris. As well as a cycling track, it was used for ice hockey, wrestling, boxing, roller-skating, circuses, bullfighting, spectaculars, and demonstrations. It was the first permanent indoor track in France and the name persisted for other indoor tracks built subsequently.

In July 1942, French police, acting under orders from the German authorities in Occupied Paris, used the velodrome to hold thousands of Jews and others who were victims in a mass arrest. The Jews were held at the velodrome before they were moved to a concentration camp in the Parisian suburbs at Drancy and then to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. The incident became known as the "Vel' d'Hiv Roundup" (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv).

Wolf Wajsbrot

Wolf Wajsbrot (3 March 1925 – 21 February 1944) was a member of the French Resistance under the Nazi occupation. He was born in the Polish town of Kraśnik, and his parents moved to France, eventually settling in Paris, shortly after his birth due to increasing anti-semitism and a worsening economic climate.In 1939, the year Germany invaded Poland and war was declared, Wajsbrot gained his school leaving certificate and began training to be a mechanic. Following the Nazi occupation of Paris, Wajsbrot's parents were arrested in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv) on 16 July 1942 and deported. Wajsbrot joined the Communist resistance group Francs-tireurs et partisans - Main-d'œuvre immigrée shortly afterwards and proved to be a key member in the violent actions they brought against the occupiers. Six days after his eighteenth birthday, Wajsbrot threw a grenade into a train carriage reserved for German soldiers, causing "undescribable damage" according to an eye-witness.Wajsbrot's photograph was one of ten featuring on the Affiche Rouge, the iconic Nazi propaganda poster describing the FTP as an "army of crime".

By mid-1943, however, the Germans had begun to close in on the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans. Following the capture of one of the group's leaders and the subsequent information gained from his torture, the remaining of the members of his cell (Wajsbrot among them) were captured in November 1943. Between his capture and subsequent trial in February of the following year, Wajsbrot was interrogated and tortured. After a one-day trial, he was condemned to death. On the afternoon of 21 February 1944, at the age of eighteen, Wajsbrot was executed at Mont Valérien, in a suburb of Paris.

He is buried in the Parisian cemetery of Ivry under the words Mort pour la France (died for France).

Roundups
Camps
Documentation
Perpetrators
Nazi occupation and organizations
Vichy France
Collaborators
Victims
Survivors
Witness testimony
Righteous Among the Nations
Memorials

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